Skip to main content

Full text of "An introduction to ancient and modern geography :"

See other formats












Seventh Edition. 



Cftrabridge......ffilliard & Metcalf. 



District Clerk's office, 
BE it remembered, thaf on the seventh day of May, A. D. 1813, and in the 
thirty seventh yeai* of the independence of the United States of America, J. A. 
Cummiugs ot the said district, has deposited in this office the title of a book, the 
right whereof he claims as HUthor, in the words following, viz. 

*' An introduction to ancient and modern Geography, on the plan of CJoldsmith 
and Guy ; comprising ruies for projecting maps. With an atlas- Ry J. A. 

III contbrmity to the act of the conE^«^» oi- tin; uuiied states, entitled " An act 
for the encouragement ot learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and 
books, to ihe authors and propiietors of such copies during the times therein 
mentioned :" and also to an act, entitled ' An act supplementary to an act, enti- 
tled An act for the encouragement of iearuing, by securing tiie copies of maps, 
charts, and » ooks, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times 
therein mentioned, and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, 
engraving, aiid etobiiig historical and other prints " 

J. W» DAYIbj Cleik of the district of IMassachusetti. 


This Introduction to Geography is addressed to 
teachers of schools and academies, and to those par- 
ents, who have not had the benefit of regular and 
methodical instruction in this important branch of ed- 

The plan of Guy and Goldsmith has been a- 
dopted, because it is excellent ; and had those writers 
been as full in their descriptions of the western conti- 
nent, especially of the United States, as they have 
been of the eastern ; or had there been no material 
objections to the American editions of Goldsmith, 
and especially to the maps which accompany them, 
this treatise would not have been added to the num- 
ber of Geographies, already so great as to obstruct, 
rather than promote improvement. 

That the following work has no errors nor defects, 
is not presumed. The nature of the subject does not 
admit perfection ;' but it is hoped, the errors are not 
material, nor the deficiencies more numerous, than are 
common to epitomes. 

In estimating the merits of this work, that part 
which treats of ancient geography, and the rules and 
directions for projecting maps, deserves particular no- 
tice ; and these, together with the following observa- 
tions on the manner of teaching geography, will, it is 
presumed, give it some claim to attention. 

It may be proper to notice several peculiarities in 
this compilation, the reasons of which may not be per- 
fectly obvious. 

In the first place, the many words printed in italics 
are designed to direct inexperienced teachers to the 
names of the most important places, and to such as are 


generally to be found on the maps. And though the 
names of counties, towns. Sec. in the woik, greatly ex- 
ceed those fouud on the maps, yet those which should 
be studied, till their situation be perfectly known, are 
by this means easily distinguished from others of less 

^ It may perhaps be thought, that the names of towns, 
rivers, kc. are many more than are necessary, when so 
small a part of them only are designated by Italics, 
as sufficient in a common course of study. But al- 
though enough are in Italics to give a good knowl- 
edge of Geography, yet it is sometimes desirable to be- 
come better acquainted with some one state or king- 
dom; or a child may have access to some large map, 
to which the parent may wish it should pay particular 
attention. This geography v/ill be found a convenient 
directory for the purpose. So that, although the long 
catalogues of hard names, excepting those in Italics, 
be wholly omitted in a common course of lessons, they 
may still be useful for obtaining a more minute knowl- 
edge of any purilcular part of the world. 

Figures in most instances have been preferred to let- 
ters, in expressing numbers. This has been done with 
a design to assist the memory. It is well known to 
experienced teachers, that a number expressed by fig- 
■li cs is more easily remembered, than when written at 
iull length. 

The length and breadth of countries are for the most 
i^art omitted. This may be thought a defect. But 
it is of more importance that a child know the compar- 
ative extent of states and countries, than to learn their 
exact length and breadth in miles. A child cannot, 
from the book, as is usual, learn the length and breadth 
cf many places, without confounding one with another. 
But by studying the maps he will soon easily recollect 
whether any one state is larger or smaller than another, 
und form some good conjecture what proportion they 
';ear to one another. 


The same may be said with respect to the latitude 
and longitude, and the boundaries of places Should 
the boundaries of all the countries and kingdoms in . 
the world be learned from the book* which the pupil 
will always prefer to learnnig them from the map, 
they would not long be recollected, nor would there 
be any distinct idea of their extent and situation ; but 
if taken from the map, they cannot but be recollect- 
ed, and if faithfully studied two or three times over, 
a picture of the earth's surface will always be distinct 
and fi^miiiar to the mind. 

The maps, which accompany this geographj'', are 
engraved from Wilkinson's, whose authority was, by 
the late Rev. Mr. Buckminster, pronounced as good 
as could be followed; and although some of them 
may appear too full of names for the use of learners, 
the inconvenience, should it be thought one, may ea- 
sily be remedied by drawing a black mark with a pen 
under those words, to which particular attention is 
required. Tliis sufficiently distinguishes the most 
important words, and for use, the maps will be rathei* 
benefited, than injured or defaced. 

Besides Goldsmith and Guy, the authors, who 
h /jve been consulted in making this compilation, are 
Pinkerton, Walker, Adams, Reeves, Evans, &c. In 
the part relating to the projection of maps, mu>^h as- 
sistance lias been received from a learned and much 
respect friend. 

The following observations are desip^ned to assist teach' 
ers^ who have had but imfierjcct^ or no geografihkal 
instruction^ and who may wish to adopt a mclhod^ 
which has been attended with ^reat success. 

In teaching geography, let the pupils always sit 
with their faces toward the north. Trifling as thi^» 


may appear, it is of great importance. Place the map 
ol the world before ihem, and let them put their right 
hand on the letter E, the east side, and their left hand 
on the letter W, the west side. Show them the let- 
ter N, or the word North Pole, on the top of the map, 
for north ; and the letter S, or Houth Pole, at the bot- 
tom, fir the south. Then ask the following questions : 
What part of the map is north .^ The answer will 
be — the top. What part is south ? — The bottom On 
which hand is east?— The right. On which hand is 
west ?— .TiiC left; varying and repeating the questions 
till the answeis can be readily given. 

Show them the equator, and ask whether it appears 
to divide the map into equal oi unequal parts ; their 
answer will in some measure serve to explain the word 
equator^ and at the same time to fix the meaning of it in 
their minds. 

When two or three particulars have been shown 
or cx])lained, the learners should be inimediatcly 
required to give them; and the questions and an- 
swers should be repeated so often and in so quick suc- 
cession, that it will appear almost like trifling ; and not 
more than two, three, or four new questions should be 
asked before they be put with previous ones, always 
observing to ask those most frequently, which appear 
most difficult to be remembered. 

Learners should always be required, for a considera- 
ble time at least, to point out the place asked either 
•with their finger, or something they may hold in their 
iiand for the purpose. In this way the pupils must al- 
ways see the place, and the teacher will know it is seen. 
And nothing valuable in geography can be learnt till 
it be conveyed to the inind by the sense of seeing, and 
there fixed by frequent repetition. 

After teaching the points of compass, E. W. N. 
and S. on the map, and which line the equator is, re- 
quire each one to point to Europe, Asia, Africa, 


N. America, S. America, the Atlantic, the Pacific, 
the Indian, the Northern, and the Southern oceans; 
and let the finger be kept on the last named place, till 
another be asked. These questions should be repeat- 
ed till each scholar can move his hand fiom one to an- 
other, in every direction, without hesitation. When 
these become familiar, as they will in a few minutes, 
if asked in haste and with proper variation, add a few 
more questions, by naming some of the largest islands 
or seas. Then proceed to ask the principal divisions 
in Africa, and in N« and S. America ; first pointing 
out the names of the places, and then requiring the 
pufiils to do It, as last as the questions are asked ; al- 
ways obliging them to name in what part the place is 
situated, according to the following examples. 

Where is Lapland ? — In the north of Europe. 
Where is Patagonia ? — At the southern extremity of 

S. America. 
Where is China ? — The east part of Asia. 
Where is cape Verd ? — The west part of Africa. 
Where is Kamtschatka v — Mortheast part of Asia. 
Where are the Russian settlements ? — Northwest of 

N* America. 
Where is Arabia ? — In the southwest part of Asia. 
Where is Spain ? — In the southwest part of Europe. 
Where is Ethiopia t — Near the centre of Africa, 

These answers include nearly all the variety, neces- 
sary to be given, unless the place or towa be situa- 
ted on a river, island, gulf, &c. when the situation 
will readily suggest the answer. 

After treely exercising the pupils in this manner, 
the boundaries should be commenced on the map of the 

In the first place, make a dotted line with a pen 
Irom Cape Horn to the tdgt of the map. where write 
56, for the degree of latitude, in which the cape h 

viii PREFACE. 

south ; and then, as expressed in Italics on page 4th 
in the geography, require the learners to give the ex- 
tent, and at the same time to move their hand from the 
cape to the north pole, as they repeat the words taken 
from the mouth of the teacher, and not by any means 
reading them in the book; and then say ; America is 

bounded east by the ocean, and west by the 

ocean. When this can be correctly read by looking on 
the map, the pupils should study by themselves, till 
they can nearly or quite repeat it without looking oil 
the map. 

Then make a dotted line from the Cape of Good 
Hope to the edge of the map, and write 35. and re- 
quiring the scholars to point every thing they name, 
teach them to say ; Afiica is bounded N. by the Medi- 
termnean sea. which separates it fiom Europe ; S. it ter- 
minates in the Cape of Good Hope, 35 degrees S. lati- 
tude ; it is bounded E by the Indian ocean, and VV. 
by the Atlantic ocean. This should be studied till it 
can be nearly repeated. When evf r a sea, river* or 
mountain separates any two places, it should always be 
mentioned in giving the boundary, as the Mediterranean 
sea, in giving the boundary of Africa ; because it not 
only gives the boundary of a particular place, but at the 
same time it gives three places in their relative situa- 
tion. It may be observed, that for the sake cf order, it 
will be convenient to give the opposite sides in con- 
nexion, as N. and S. E and W. 

After the extent and boundaries of America and 
Africa can easily be given, proceed to Europe and 
Asia, which are easier. Then teach the boundaries of 
the United States from the same map. where it will be 
seen from the situation of the words, that the United 
Stat:s are bounded N, by Canada, S. by the Floridas, 
W. by the river Mississippi, which separates them 
from I^onisi<ina. and E. by the Atlantic ocean. This 
was the old boundary, and it will be convenient for the 


learner to retain it on account of the opposite position 
of the words Canada and Florida, Atlantic and Mis- 
sissipi ; and it may be observed, that the position of the 
names of the places is in general sufficient, without 
perplexing children with tracing the obscure winding 
lines, which are the real boundaries. 

The pupils should be exercised considerably in read- 
ing and reciting these boundaries, and in giving the 
situation of the large islands, seas, countries, Sec. in 
difTerent parts of the map, before they proceed to other 

Questions should be asked relating to parts of the 
-world very distant, and in various directions; as, 
Where is Russia? — Where is Egypt? — Where is 
Hindostan ? — Where is Mexico ? &.c. This sudden 
transition from one part to another, will the sooner 
make them familiar. 

The questions on the map of the world, found in the 
latter part of the book, may now be studied. When 
ihe above bounflavles, an^ the most conspicuous places 
on the map of the world, can be readily given, the map 
of the United States should be commenced ; first by 
giving the boundary of the whole, as before directed ; 
then showing the several New England states, so that 
each pupil can read them on the map ; and let them be 
studied till they be committed to memory. Proceed 
in the same manner with the Middle, Western, and 
Southern States, and Louisiana. When the divisions 
are learned from the maps, so that they can readily be 
given, begin v/ith the individual states, requiring the 
boundaries, towns, rivers, and mountains of one or two 
states at a lesson, as may best suit tlfe age and capaci- 
ty of the learner, remembering that shoit lessons and 
often reciting', are much better in the first, even if it be 
not in the second course. It will not be forgotten, 
that the towns, rivers, mountains, islands, &c. thus to be 
gotten on the maps, are, for the aid of teachers not 
familiar with this subject, found in the geography 


printed in it alios ^ except the cafiitals of each state and 
country, which are printed in small capitals. In 
giving the towns, it may be useful to begin with the 
capital, \vhich will be easily recollected, if the design of 
this order be previously made known. There are a 
few places in italics^ not to be found on the maps. 
The teacher need not trouble the pupils to commit 
these to memory, unles there be access to some larger 
map, where their situation can be seen ; for without 
maps, committing them to memory will be of little 

Most of the United States are so regular, that no 
one by inspecting them can mistake their boundaries. 
So far as any are irregular, it may be proper to state 
them, after observing, that the object of giving the 
boundaries is not that the young student should know 
precisely every curvature and angle in the boundary 
lines, but that a picture of all the important objects in 
their relative position may, by keeping the eye long fix- 
ed on them, be so impressed upon the mind, that it ^hall 
never be effaced. 

Though the District of Maine is not exactly square, 
it will be sufficiently correct to say, it is bounded N. by 
Canada, S, by the Atlantic ocean, W. by New Hamp- 
shire, and E. by the river St. Croix, which separates it 
from New Brunswick. 

N. B. Whenever a river, mountain, gulf, &c. is 
between two countries, in giving the boundaries it 
should always be mentioned, that it separates one from 
the other. 

Rhode Island is bounded N. and E. by Massachu- 
setts, S. by, &c, 

Delaware is bounded N. by Pennsylvania, S. and W. 
by Maryland, and E. by Delaware bay and river, which 
separates it from New Jersey, 

Maryland is bounded N. by , S. and W. by the 

Potowraac river, which separates it from Virginia, and 
E, by Delaware and the Atlantic ocean. 


Virginia is bounded N. by Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
and the Ohio river, which separates it from Ohio, S. by 
N. Carolina. W. by Kentucky, and E. by the Chesapeak 
and the Atlantic ocean. 

S. Carolina is bounded N. by , S. E. by the At- 
lantic ocean, and S W. by the Savannah river, which 
separates it from Georgia. 

The boundaries of the other states, east of the Missis- 
sippi, are so plain, they need not here be given ; and 
no boundaries in the whole American continent, 
but those of the United States, need ever be requir- 

When the large towns are situated on rivers, as they 
sometimes are, especially in Virginia, it will be best to 
have them recited thus — Alexandria, on the Potow- 
mac ; Fredericksburg and Leeds, on the Rappahan- 
noc, £cc. 

It will not be profitable to confine the young 
mind long to any one part of the earth after having 
taken a general survey of it ; for although the first 
impressions may in a measure soun be losi, auU tsvo 
benefits will be realized. The child will be encourag- 
ed by his progress, that he may soon be able to say, 
he has been through his geography, which is by no 
means unimportant ; strange and hard names will in 
some measure become familiar and easy. The n xt 
course wiil be easier, and less discouraging, and vhe 
learner may be required to be more thorough. No 
small injury is frequently done to young persons, by 
attempting to make them perfect in what they the first 
time commit to m mory, especially if it be .somewhat 
difficult. This by soma will be censured as erroneous; 
but it has been proved true by long and successful ex- 

In preparing the map of Europe, let the instruct- 
er (lot a line from the Strait of Gilialtar to the 
margin, and there write 36-, they make a mark on 

liii PREFACE. 

each side of the map, against 45° and 55*^, and consid- 
er Europe as divided into three parts j the southern, 
contained between 36° and 45°. the middle, between 
45° and 55°, and the northeni, between 5a° and about 
7i>° of north latitude ; anU it will be seen that Portu- 
gal, Spi^in. Italy, and Turkty are in the southern di- 
vision ; Scotland, Denmark, Norway, Lapland, Swe* 
den, and the northern part of Rubsia, in the northern ; 
and that the middle division contains the other coun- 
tries By studying Europe in these three divisions, 
the latitude and climate of each will more distinctly be 

In giving the towns, where there are many in a coun- 
try, it is best to give those which are northern, southern, 
eastern, western, or central, separate from each other, 
as thus ; the towns in the northern part of Spain, are 
Bilboa, P'^mpalona, and Burgos ; in the southern part, 
Cadiz, Seville, Malaga, Grenada. &c. 

To assist in giving the boundaries of places in Eu- 
rope, some of the least obvious may be stated. 

Poruigal is buuiicied IN. and £• by Spain, S. and 
W. by the Atlantic ocean, 

Spain is bounded N. by the Bay of Biscay and the 
Pyrenean mountains, which separate it from France, 
S. by the Strait of Gibraltar, which separates it from 
Africa, E. by — — sea, and W. by Portugal and the 

Italy is bounded N. by the Alps^ or Switzerland, 
which separates it from Germany ; S. and W. by the 

sea, and E. by gulf, which separates it from 


Turkey is bounded N by Hungary and Poland, S. 

by ■, E. by the Ar hipelaeo, the sea of Marmoia, 

and the Black Sea. which separates it from Asia, and 
\y. by , which separates it from Italy. 

Denmark is boiir-ded N and W. by the North Sea, 
S. by Germany, and E. by the Baltic, 

PREFACE. xiii 

Norway is bounded N. by Lapland, S. and W. by 
the North sea, and K. by Sweden. 

Sweden is bounded N. by Lapland, S. by the 

Baltic, which separates it from •, W. by , and 

E. by Russia. 

Russia is bounded N. by , S. by the Black 

sea, E. by , and VV. by Sweden, the Baltic, and 


France is bounded N, by Holland and the Eng- 
lish Channel, which separates it from , S. by 

the gulf of and the Pyrenean mountains, which 

separate it from Spain, E. by Italy, Switzerland, and 
Germany, and W. by 

Germany is bounded N. by Denmark and the 
Baltic, S. by Italy and Switzerland, E. by Poland 
and Hungary, and W. by Holland and France. 

Poland is bounded N. by Prussia and the Baltic, 

S. by Hungary and Turkey, E. by , and W. by 


Hungary is bounded N. by Poland, S. and E. by 
Turkey, and W. by 

The situation of the other divisions will be suiTi- 
cient, without the boundaries, thus: Switzerland is 
situated between Germany on the N. and Italy on 
the S. Prussia is situated between the Baltic on the 
N. and Poland on the S. Holland is situated N. of 
France and W of Germany. Britain and Ireland are 
W. of Europe. 

With these boundaries and situations, the towns, 
rivers, &c. of each country should at the same time be 
learned, giving one or two countries, as may be found 
convenient, for a lesson. The countries and kingdoms 
in the three divisions of Europe should frequently 
be called for, by asking — what docs the southern— 
what does the northern — what does the middle di- 
vision of Europe contain ? If these be only read on 
the map, once or twice in a day, in a few days they 
will be remembered without any other study. 


The questions on the map of Europe, in the latter 
part of the book, may here be ii.tro^uced. The situ- 
ation of the islands with their principal towns, and of 
the seas, gulfs, capes, and mountuins, should be at- 
tended to, and some of the principal towns should be 
promiscuously asked. 

After giving the boundary of Asia, begin with 
Turkey, which is bounded N by the Black sea, S. by 
Arabia, E. by Persia, and W by the Mtdherranean. 

Arabia is bounded N. b> , S. by the Arabian 

sea, and the strait of Babelmandel, W, by the 

sea, which separates it from Egypt in Africa, and E. 
by the Pert^ian gulf, which separates it from Persia. 

Persia is bounded N. by the sea, S. by the 

sea, W. by Turkey, and E. by the liver Indus, 

which separates it from Hindostan. 

Hindostan is bounded N. by Tartary, S. it ter- 
minates in cape about 8 degrees north latitude ; 

it is bounded E. by the bay of Bengal and Birma, or 
the Birman empire, and W. by the Arabian sea and 
the river Indus, which separates it from Persia. 

The Birman empire is bounded N. by China and 
Thibet, S by the strait of Mai? oca. which separates 
it from the island of Sumatra, E. by the Chinese sea, 
and W. by the sea of Bengal and Hindostan. 

China is bounded N. by the great wall^ which 
separates it from Chinese Tartary, S by the Birman 
empire, and the Chinese sea, W. by Thibet, and E. by 
the Pacific ocean. 

The same attention should be paid to the islands, 
gulfs, straits, and rivers, as was required respecting 

Africa is so little known, and the extent of the 
several divisions so uncertain, that no boundaries 
Deed be given. It may be well for the purpose of 
assisting the memory, to point out several countries 
together and connect them in one question ; as. What 


and where are the ^iahometan states I What sepa* 
rates them from the Great Desert I What countries 
between the Great Desert and the gulf of Guinea ? 
How is the coast of Guinea divided ? What coun- 
tries between Benin and the Cape of Good Hope ? 
What countries on the southeast coast of Africa, be- 
tween the Cape of Good Hope and the lake Maravi ? 
What countries in the eastern part, between the lake 
Maravi and the -strait of Babelmandel ? What coun- 
tries in the northeast of Africa along the coast of 
the Red sea ? The towns in Egypt and in Abyssi- 
nia should be required ; and the rivers, the moun- 
tains, the N. S. E, ar»d W. capes, and the several 
clusters of islands and their situation. The teachers 
will* by the book and the map, be able to point out the 
answers to all the above questions, without any diffi- 

In South America, the boundaries may be omit- 
ted ; but in most of the divisioHs, two, three, or more 
towns should be given ; and those most important 
are found in the book, printed in Italics. The moun- 
tains, the large rivers, the islands, and especially the 
West Indies, and their situation, and the N. S, E. 
and W. capes, should be carefully studied; likewise, 
the British and Spanish Dominions in North America, 
with their principal towns, rivers, lakes, &c. and 
some of the largest islands in the several clusters in 
the Pacific ocean; but it will not be necessaty tp 
oblige the learner to commit them all to memory. 

The course may be completed with the map of 
Great Britain. This country is so important in its 
relation to almost every part of the world, that it 
should be studied wi.h particular attention. 

After becoming acquainted with the maps, lati- 
tude and longitude will easily be learned. It will be 
best not to teach them both at once, or on the same 
day, lest, as the words are somewhat similar, the mean- 
ing of them be confounded. 


First explain ihe word latitude, which perhaps for 
use in geography, cannot be done more intelligibly 
than to say it means side. This a child will under- 
stand ; and he will at once perceive, after being shown 
the equator, that a part of the map is on the north side, 
and a part on the south side of it ; and when he is told 
that all places on the north side of the equator are in 
north latitude^ and all on the south side are mnoiLth hit* 
itude^ he will easily answer the following questions, and 
give the reasons. What latitude is the Cape of Good 
Hope ? The answer is, south latitude. Why is it 
south latitude ? Because it is south of the equator. 
—■What latitude is the island of Newfoundland ? North 
latitude. Hovf many degrees is Newfoundland north 
latitude ? By looking on the extremities of the line, 
which passes through the island from the right hand 
to the left, it will be seen to be about 50 degrees nortli 
latitude What latitude is New Zealand ? South lati- 
tude. Why is it south latitude ? Because it is south of 
the equator. How many degrees south is it ? About 40. 
Many questions of this kind should occasionally, for 
several days, be put to the learners ; and when they 
understand latitude, so as to give any place by look- 
ing on the map ; teach them longitude, the meaning of 
which word, they may be informed, is lengthwise^ 
And they should be taught, that the curve or bent line, 
or the meridian passing from the north pole through 
England or London, and the western part of Africa, 
to the south pole, is the one whioh divides the map, 
as it respects longitude ; and that all places on the 
right hand, or east of this line, are in east longitude, 
and that all on the left hand, or west side, as far as the 
180th degree, are in west longitude. Then ask, What 
longitude is Madagascar? East longitude. Why is 
it east longitude ? Because it is cast of the meridian 
of London.' — How many degrees is it east longhude ? 
Look on the equator, where the two lines each 
side of Madaqiascar cross it. and it will be found that 


it is between 40^ and 50°. What longitude are Cape 
Verd islands ? West longitude. Why are they west 
longitude ? Because they are west of the meridian of 
London. How many degrees are they west? Be- 
tween 20° and 30°, 

After longitude is well undi^rstood, both latitude 
and longitude may be asked of the same place. It 
will be s'ufficient, that lat. and long, be easily found on 
the map, and read, without committing them to mem- 

Whilst studying the maps, as above directed, the 
definitions, at the beginning of the geography, and 
the different governments and religions, towards the 
end of the volume, should be committed to memory 
in morning lessons. If the maps be hastily run over 
the first time, a second course is recommended, before 
much attention be given to the geography itself. In 
reading and studying the geography, the catalogues of 
names may be read only, or wholly omitted, as the 
teacher may choose ; but what relates to the descrip- 
tion of countries, to the climate, soil, productions, cu- 
riosities, manners, customs, &c. should be studied for 
recitation. These need not be wholly committed to 
memory, but they should be studied, so as to be re- 
cited nearly in the words, in which they are express- 
ed in the book. The mind is more strengthened and 
imfiroved by reciting with some latitude, than by being 
confined to the words themselves. 

In studying the geography, reference should be 
constantly made to the maps for every word, that can 
be found on them, especially to those that are designa- 
ted by Italics, as most important. 

Whenever words occur in reading, whose signifi- 
cation is not perfectly well known, they should be 
marked with a lead pencil, or with a pen, carefully 
looked in a dictionary, and prepared to be given at 
recitation. This is one of the best exercises, that can 

xviii PREFACE. 

be given. It combines several advantages. It is the 
best iTieiliod of learning to spell; for without spelliiyg 
tlie word correctly, it cannot be found in the dictiona- 
ry. It tends to make the hardest words familiar and 
more easy in the pionunciation. It Btrengthens the 
liiemory, it enriches the mind with the signification of 
vords. without which nothhig can be understood, and 
it is one of the most effectual methods to induce a 
habit of study and attention. 

In studying that part, which treats of ancient ge- 
ography, it is \ery important that scholars be furnish- 
ed with an ancitnt mafi. The pul^l shers of this ge- 
ography have engraved one for the purpose, but its 
size does not admit of its being bound in the atlas ac- 
companying this volume ; but for the use of schools, 
it may be purchased separate, at a moderate price. 
Aftei becoming acquainted with the modem riiaps, it 
will not be necessary to learn the boundaries of an- 
cient places, for although the modern divisions of the 
earth vary in many instances from the ancient, yet 
they so nearly correspond, that it will in general be 
sufficiently correct for young persons, to learn the an- 
cient names of places, livers, &c. which answer to the 

Ancient geography is of more importance, than is 
perhaps generally imagined. In reading ancient his- 
tory it IS almost indispensable. It gives a view of 
tlie places recorded in the Bible, excites additional int- 
terest in studying the Scriptuies, connects events, and 
greatly facilitates the recollection of them. The 
history of any country without a knowledge of its ge- 
oraphy, loses its reality, and to youth appears almost 

Questions relating to ancient geography, the curi- 
osities of nature, the view of the universe, and the 
globes, are omitted ; not that they are unimportant, 
but they would have enlarged the volume too much. 


And after teaching the maps, and the first part of the 
geography, as above directed, and examining the pu- 
pils by the questions in the latter part of the book, 
questions relating to any other part may easily be 
supplied by ihe teacher. 

The definitions of the parts of the globe should 
mostly be committed to memory, if there be a globe 
for the purpose of showing and explaining them. 
But without a globe, little or no correct idea can be 
formed of them, and there is no benefit in learning what 
cannot be understood- 

VV .enever the pupils are required to learn these 
definitions, first show on the globe the circles, poles, 
Sec so that on naming them they can instantly lay 
their finger on each. When they can do ths. the la- 
bour of committing them tou^memory is greatly du 

Few problems are given for solution on the globe. 
The reason is, th^y are almost useless Tney who do 
not understand astronomy, are tuight to believe 
they acquire a knowledge of it bv solving these prob- 
lems ; but without some knowledge of that 
science, most of the problems are unintelligible ; and 
although they may be performed, they convey no dis- 
tinct idea. However, a few of the most e^sy and use- 
ful, and such as deserve attention, are inserted ; but 
the best use the learner can make of the globe, is to 
find the natural and civil divisions of the earth so oft- 
en, as to render the whole surface perfectly familiar. 
For this purpose, write the names of all the oceans, 
continents, the largest seas and islands, for the first ex- 
ercise ; then those divisions of Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and N and S. America, which are most conspicuous, 
and most eadly found on the globe, for five other ex- 
ercises. A child, finding these a few times, will ob- 
tain more valuable knowledge of the globe, than he 
would by spending months in solving the problems. 


The projection of maps is a pleasing and useful ex- 
ercie«e, aiid ought not to be neglected in u.q education 
of youth. 

'I be method of teaching geography here recom- 
mended, may by m:xny be thought tedious, but a pa- 
tient study of the maps is the only way in which 
valuole and Ubciul knowledge of this subject can be 
acquired. By studying in this manner, the relative 
situation of pbcc s viust be known. The recollection 
of herd names will be greatly facilitated by tlie sense 
of seeing ; the impression on the mind will be more 
deep and permanent, and the time requisite for a fa- 
iTiiliar acquaintance with all parts of the earth needs 
not exceed six or eight weeks ; especially after the 
teacher hc-.s acquired some experience. 

These observations on the manner of teaching ge- 
ograpiiy are, with difroence. submitted to the public. 
It is apprehen: ed they may have the appearance of 
too great simplicity ; but they are the result of long 
practice The method has been attended with suc- 
cess in the long course of instruction, in which the au- 
thor ha«^ been engaged ; and it is hoped these hints 
may be nsetul to those teachers, who have not had the 
advantage of much study or experience. 


Geography is a description of the earth. 

The earth is a large globe, the diameter of which is 
nearly eight thousand miles, and its circumference near- 
ly twenty five thousand. 

It is ascertained that the earth is round, from its hav- 
ing been circumnavigated. 

The earth is 95 millions of miles, from the sun, from 
which it receives its light and heat. It moves round 
that luminary once in a year, and every day turns on its 
own axis. 

The first natural division of the earth is into land and 

The surface of the earth is diversified with hills, 
plains,. mountains, and vallies. It is inhabited by an in- 
finite variety of animals ; at the head of which man is 
placed ; and over all which he presides. 

More than two thirds of the earth's surface is cover- 
ed with water ; which is stored with fish for the conven- 
ience and support of man 

The land is divided into continents, islands, peninsu- 
las, isthmuses, capes, promontories, mountains, and 
shores or coasts. 

The water is divided into oceans., seas, lakes, gulfs or 
bays, channels, straits, creeks, roads, havens or harbours, 
friths or estuaries, sounds and rivers. 


L \ND. 

A continent is a vast extent of l?nd. and is no whei'e 
entirely separated by water. There are three continents ; 
the eastern, containing Eur c fie ^ Asia^ and Africa ; ihe 
westeni, containing .Vcrth and South America ; and the 
continent of J^^ew Holland. 

An island is a portion of land, surrounded by water; 
as j^'e%v'foundland'^ Cuba^ England^ Ireland. 

' A fienin'sula is a portion of land, almost surrounded 
by water: as the More'a in Greece. 

An :5r/2/;2!/5 is a neck of land, which connects a pen- 
insula to the main land ; as the isthmus of Da'rien^ the 
isthmus of Su'ez^ the isthmus of Cor^inth. 

Kfirorn'ontory is a high land extending into the sea; 
as the southern extremities of South America^ Ireland^ 

A cafie is the extremity of a promontory, or of a pen- 
insula; as Cape Horn^ Cape Clcar^ Cafie St. Fincent, 

A mountain is a vast elevation of land ; as the iFhite 
mountains^ the Green mountains, the Andes, 

A coast is the edge of the land bordering upon the 

A shore is the coast of the sea, or the bank of a river. 


An ocean is a vast extent of water, not entirely sepa- 
rated by land ; as the Pacific^ the Indian^ the Atlantic ; 
the Northern and Southern oceans. 

A sea is a less extent of water, mostly surrounded by 
land; as the Alediterraneaji and the Baltic seas. 

A lake is a collection of water surrounded by land ; 
as lakes Onta'rio^ E'rie^ Huron , Mich'igan'^ Superior , 
Champ lain', 

A gu for bay is a part of the sea, extending into the 
land ; as the gulf of Mexico^ the gulf of St. Lawrence ; 
Baffirt^^^ Hudson^s<i and James^ bays. 

A strait is a narrow passage of water, con^^cting 
two seas, or a sea w ith an ocean ; as the strait ofOibraf- 
tar, the strait oi Magel'lav, 


A channel is a passage of water from one sea to an- 
other, wider than a strait ; as the English channel^ St. 
George's channel 

A creek is a narrow-part of the sea extending into the 

A haven or harbour is a small part of the sea, almost 
surroianded by land, where ships may lie in safety ; as 
Boston harbour, Milford haven 

A road is a place of anchorage at some distance from 
shore, where vessels lie, when waiting for v/ind or tide 
to put out to sea. or to carry them into harbour ; as Nan- 
tasket road, below Boston harbour, and Hampton road, 
at the mouth of James' river. 

An estuary or a frith is the widening of a river to- 
wards its mouth into an arm of the sea ; as the frith of 
Forth^ the frith of Clyde. 

A Bound is a strait so shallow, that it may be sounded 
or measured with a lead and line ; as Long Island sound, 
the sound of Mull. 

A river is a large land-stream of water ; as the Con- 
necticut, the Merrimack, the Hudson* 


There are five grand divisions of the earth, Eur of a- . 
Asia^ Africa^ America^ and the continent of -Veii; Hol- 
land ; besides several clusters of islands, which are des'- 
ignated by particular names, as the East and West lu" 
dies^ Australa'sia, Polyne^sia. 

Europe is the smallest grand division of the earth, 
but it is distinguished for its government and laws ; for 
the cultivation of its soil, the intelligence, learning, ac- 
tivityr and enterprise of its inhabitants. 

In Asia the human race was first planted, and there 
occurred the most remarkable transactions, recorded ii:. 
the Bible. 

Alpca has always been in a state of barbarism, if wc 
except Egypt, where were the ancient fathers of leafnini'; 


and Carthage, once the formidable rival of the Roman 

America is remarkable for its size, and for the gran- 
deur of its mountains, lakes, and rivers Except the 
United States, and the European possessions, it is un- 
cultivated, and inhabited only by savages and wild beasts. 
Many pans of it are yet URkno>yi:i. It is often called the 
New World. 


The ."American con tin en: is the largest grand division 
nf the globe It extends Jrom Cajie Horny in 56° south 
latitude^ to the Aorthern ocean^ or to the north /ioIe,2Jid 
:s bounded east by the Atlantic ocean, and west by th« 
Pacific. It was unknown to the civilized world, till, in 
1492, about 300 years ago, Christopher Columbus, a na- 
tive of Gen'oa, under the patronage of Isabella, queen of 
Spain, made the first voyage across th.e Atlantic, and 
discovered San Salvador, one of the Bahama islands. 

In the same voyage he discovered Cuba, Hispanio'la, 
or St. Domin'gOj and soon after, other West India isl- 
ands, and visited the continent at the northern part of 
South America. 

The vnst quantities of gold and silver fourd here, in- 
vited the Spaniaixls to conquer and colonize the country, 
which they did with more than savage cruelty to the in- 
nocent natives. 

This continent is divided into Xoith and South A- 
laerica. by a line, crossing the isthmus of Da'ricn, be- 
iween Verag'ua and Pana'ma, about 7 or 8 degrees north 

; titucc 


Length. ^ Breadth, 

The whole continent is about 9000 ^ 

North America 4500 ^ 4500 

South America 4600 vT 3000 


Mountains. Stony mountains and Mount Eliasy to- 
wards the northwest coast ; the Apala'chian, in the Unit- 
ed States ; and the Cordilleras of Mexico, 

Lakes, Slave lake ^ Athapes'cow or Arabaa'ca^ Win'ni- 
jieg^ Mistas'sinsj lakes Superior ^ Mich'igan'^ Huron^ 
E'rie^ OntoJrio^ and Champlain'. 

Rivers. Mackenzie*s, Saskashawan, JSTelson^ St. 
Lawrence^ Hudson or North river, Delaware, Susque- 
hannah, Potow'mac, Ohio^ Illinois^ Missouri^ Mississip'- 
fii^ Rio Bravo^ Columbia or Or'egon, Colora'do. 

Bays, Gulfs, l^c. Baffin's, Hudson^s, and James* 
bays ; gulf of St. Lawrence, Massachusetts bay, Long 
Island sound, Delaware and Ches'afieak bays, gulf of 
Mexico, gulf of California, bay of Campeachy, and bay 
of Ho7idura8, 

Straits. Baffin's or Davis' straits, Hudson^s strait, 
strait of Belle Isle, Bhei^ing's strait. 

Peninsulas. JVova Scotia,California,2iud Yucatan'* 

Isthmuses. The isthmus of Da'rien or Pana'ma. 

Islands^ J^ewfoundland', Cafie Breton, St. John's, 
Sable, Rhode Island, Long Island, Bermudas, and th& 
West Indies. 

Capes. Cape Farewell^ C. Chidley, C. Charles or 
St. Louis, C. Ann and C Cod, C. May and C. Hen'lo- 
pen, C. Charles and C. Henry, C. Hai'teras, C. Look- 
out, C. Fear, C. Blan'co, C. St. Lucas, 


North America includes Danish, Russian, and Brit- 
ish America, the United States^ Spanish America, and 
the independent Indian nations. 


Danish America consists only of Greenland, unless 
it include Iceland, a large island not far from its coast, 
which by some is considered an American island. 


This country is cold, rough, and barren ; it is thinly 
inhabited by a people almost savage, and is valuable 
principally for its whale fishery. 


Russian America includes the JSTorthwest coast^ from 
Pvrtlock harbour, near J^ew-J^orfolk to Bher^ing^s strait 
and the adjacent islands ; as the Aleu'tian or Fox Isl- 
ands, Oumnak Ounalaska, Ooneman, Kodiac, Kishtac. 

Mountains. Mount Elias is one of the highest 
mountains in North America. 

Rivers, ^ays, ^c. Cook's river or inlet, Prince 
JVilliam's sound, Bristol bay, Admiralty bay. 

The Mrt/iwest coast, extending from the Russian 
settlements southward to cape Mendoci'no, the northern 
limit of California, called also Vancouver's Survey, or 
•V<?w AVbion, is claimed both by England and Spain. 

Rivers. The Gr'egon or Columbia is the principal. 

Islands. Cross^ Queen Charlotte's, Nootka. 

Both this country and the Russian territory are but 
imperfectly known. They have been visited principal- 
ly for their fur trade. The natives, from ill treatment, 
are become hostile to those, who frequent the coast, and 
often inhumanly massacre them. 


The Independent Indian nations inhabit the interior 
parts of North America, extending from the Spanish do- 
minions to unknown regions in the north. 

The Indians however are not confined to this coun- 
try. There are various tribes. of them in different parts 
ef the United States; they are indeed dispersed over al- 
most the whole continent. 

There is among the various tribes a general resem- 
blance, though not a perfect similarity. They are of 
common stature, straight, erect in their gait, and of 
an olive, or copper complexion. Their hair is long, 


straight, and black. Their motion is generally slow, 
thougli they are capable of great speed ; their counte- 
nance is sedate and thoughtful. They are averse to la- 
bour and study, and much addicted to intoxication. They 
are faithful to their friends, but cruel and implacable to 
their enemies ; are patient of suffering, and seem almost 
tp exult under the tortures inflicted by their conquerors. 
They will never forgive an injury, nor rest satisfied till 
they have requited a favour. 

The men are mostly engaged in war, hunting, and 
fishing ; the women in more servile employments, impos* 
ed on them by the men. They are frequently, especially 
in warm climates, almost destitute of clothing ; and such 
as they have is mostly made of skins of beasts. 

They live in low, miserable huts, constructed of logs, 
bark, and the boughs of trees, called nvigwams^ They 
are fond of ornaments, such as pendants, rings, and jew- 
els, which are profusely attached to their nose, ears, and 
arms. Many attempts have been made to civilize and 
instruct those within the territory of the United States ; 
but to little purpose. They retire from the cultivated 
field and the abode of industry, and delight to range their 
native woods. 


British America is divided into JSfcw Brit'ain^ Ufi» 
fier and Lovjer Canada^ JVenv Brunswick^ Nova Scotia^ 
and the island of Aew'foundland^ Cafie Breton^ Prince 
Edward's Island or St, John^s^ and the Bermu'da or 
Summer Islands, 


New Britain comprises Labradory J^ew South Walea^ 
and JSfeiv J^'^orth Wales. 

Towns ^ Forts, or > Fort York^ Churchill^ Severn, 
Trading Houses, ^ Albany ^ Moose, Nain, Hope'dale, 
and many others. 

Rivera. Churchill, Nelson, Severn, Albany, Moose. 


Kev) Brit' a ill is cold and barren, generally rocky, ab- 
rupt and mountainous ; and abounds with lakes and riv- 
ers. It is valuable only for its fishery, and its fur trade 
with the natives, many of whom are known by the name 
of Es'guimaux Lidians. They are free and indepen- 
dent, though the country, in which they live, is called 
British America. 


Towns, Yorky Kingston^ JSfew'arky Queenstown^ 
Chip'pawa, Elizabethtown. 

Lakes. The lakes Ontario^ Erie^ St. Clair, Huron^ 
Sufierior^ Rainy Lake, Lake of the IVoods, and IVin'^ 
nifiegy are in the southern borders of this country. 

Nipissing, Simcoe, St. Anne, Sturgeon, and St. Jo- 
seph are considerable collections of water. 

Rivers. The St, Lawrence^ihe Ot^tawas, Moose, and 
Albany rivers have their source in this country. There 
are also the Trent, the Thames the Chip'pawa. 


Towns, Quebec'^ Montreal^, Trois Rivieres, La 
Pra'irfe, SorelIe\ 

Mountains. The mountains in Canada are not high. 
Several branches of the Stony Mountains^ which per- 
vade this country, are the most remarkable. 

Lakes, Temiscamming, Abitibbe, and Mistissinny. 

Rivers, St. Lawrence, Ot'tawas, or U'tawas, Sorelle^^ 
St. Francis, Saguenai, Black, 


Towns. St. Johns, Frederickto^vn, St. Andrews. 

Rivers, St. Johns is the only river of any conse- 

Bays. Chaleur, Merrami'chi, and Verte bays. 
Chi^necto bay, the Bay ofFundy^ and Pas'samaquod'dy, 
border on this province. 

Islands. Grand Menan^, Deer, Moose, and Campo 



Towns. Halifax^ Pictou, Liverpool, Lunenburgy 
Barringlon, Argyle, Yarmouth, Digby, Annapolis, 

Rivers, The rivers are small and inconsiderable. 
The largest are Annapolis, St. Croi^c, and Kennetcook. 

Bays, The bays are numerous, especially on the 
eastern coast. The Baij of Fundy is the largest It is 
remarkable for its tides, which rise with great rapidity 
to the height of thirty, and sometimes even to sixty feet, 
in the narrower parts, as in Chi^ncc'to channel. The 
other principal bays are Canceau, Torbay, St. Cathe- 
rine's, Country, Siscomb*s, Beaver, Sheet and Ship har- 
bours, Jeddore, Tangiers, Chebucto, St. Margaret's 
and Mahone bay. 

Cajies, Cape Sable, Canceau, d'Or, Split, Chi^nec'- 
to, St. Mary, Negro, Sambro's head, Pope's head> and 
Lewis or St. George. 


Towns, Placen'tia, St. Johns^ and Bonavis'ta- 

Harbours ^ Bays, Fortunate, Placen'tia, St. Mary*s, 
Conception, Tiinity, Bonavis'ta, Notre Dame, White 
bay, and Bay of Islands. 

Ca/ies. Cape Bay, Cape Race, Cape St. Francis, 
Cape Bonavis'ta, Cape F reels, Cape St. Johns, Cape de 

Banks. Great BaJik^ Green Bank> False Bank, Ban- 
quas, Sand Island Shoals, Whale Bank, Bank of St. Pe- 

These banks are celebrated for their cod fishery, in 
which have been annually employed, by the United 
States and Great Britain, more than tliree thousand ves- 
sels and a hundred thousand men. 



Towns. Sydney, Arichat. and Lou'isburg, 
Harbours, Arichat, Lou'iaburg^ Main, St. Ann's, 
Port Hood, Margaret, Chetican, and St. Peters. 


ToiDu. Cliar'iottetown. 

There are many other bays, capes, and islands, in and 
around the gulf of St, Lawrence^ and the .island of 
.Yew found land'. Some of the other principal islands 
are jljiticosti^ Magdalen Isles, Percee, Belle isle. 

British America is extensive, mountainous, awd bar- 
ren ; abounding with lakes, rivers, and bays, which af- 
ford plenty offish. It is excessively cold in winter, and 
the snow falls to a great depth, and covers the earth, es- 
pecially in the north, a great part of the year. 

The summer is short, but warm, and vegetation is rap- 
ed. The fur trade and fisheries render the British do** 
minions exceedingly valuable. 


The Bermu'das are a cluster of about four hundred 
islands, situated in the Atlantic ocean, east of the south- 
ern part of the United States. The islands are small, 
and most of them separated by narrow channels. The 
land is poor, and of no great value to Great Britain, but 
as a station for ships, or for a place of recruit in the West 
India trade. 


The United States may be considered under five gen- 
eral divisions ; the northern or eastern, the middle, the 
western, the southern states, and Louisiana. 

,, fDistrict of Maine, Massachusetts,, 

iiastern states, \ ^^^^ Hampshire, Rhode Island, 

^^^•^"'^^^"^1 Vermont/ Connecticut. 



..-,,. » * C New York, 
Middle states. J ^.^^j^^3^y^ 

West'n states T ff/i^^k Ten^'" 

South'n states, 


r Maryland, 

3 District of Colum 

i bia. 



These states and territories are 
ties and towns. 





N. Carolina, 
S. Carolina, 
5 Louisiana 
l territory, 
subdivided into coun* 


The district of Maine belonging to Massachusetts, 
is divided into 9 counties. 


Princifial Towns* 

("York, Welh^ Berwick, Kittery, Sdco^ 
(^ Buxton. 

{PoR'TLAND^ Falmouth, North Yar- 
mouth, Brunswick^ Scarborough, Gor- 
ham, New Gloucester. 







C Hallonvell, Augusta, Vassalborough? 
X Farmington. 

Norridgewock, Canaan, Fairfield. 

{Wiscasset^ Bath, Georgetown, Tops- 
ham, Waldoboroughy Camden, Thom- 
astown, Bristol. 

5 Castine. Hampden, Frankfort, Belfast j 
\ Buckstown, Penobscot. 

Machfasj Eastport. 

Paris, Buckfield, Fryburg. 



Mountains. The District of Maine, though broken 
and rough, is not remarkable for its mountains. 

Lakes. Moose Lake, the source of Kennebeck' riv- 
er, Umba'gog., the source of Androscog'gin rirver^ and 
lake Seba'cook. 

Rivers. St. Croix, Schoo'dic, Machi'as. East and 
West rivers, Union, Penobscot^ Sheepscot, Kennebeck^ 
Jndroscog'gin^ Sdco. 

Bays. Passamaquod'dy, Machi'as, Englishman's, 
Pleasant river bay, Narragua'gus. Pigeon, Dyers, Golds- 
borough harbour, Frenchman's bay, Flanders, Bluehill, 
Penobscot, Belfast, New Meadow, Cascoy Wells. 

Islands. Beals, Pe^titmenan'. Mount Deserf , Sutton, 
Cranberry, Bartlett's, Long, Black, Swans, Isle of Haut ; 
Vinal Haven, Isleborough, Matin'icus, Man'hegin, 
Muscon'gus, Seguin',Isle of Shoals. 

Cafies, Small Point, Elizabeth, Por'poise. 

Learning. Bowdoin College, in Brunsvjick^ is fast 
increasing in reputation. There are several academies, 
which are valuable sources of instruction. 


Newhampshire is divided into 6 counties. 

Counties. Princifial Towns, 

Co-os'. Lancaster, Bartlett, Stratford. 

Grafton. Haverhill, Hanover, Lebanon, Lyme. 

^, , . 5 C/iarlestown. Keene, Claremont, JVal- 

^.hesmre. ^^^^^^ Westmoreland. 

Hillsborough. Amherst. Goffstown, Hopkinton, Weare. 

„ ,• 1 ^ Ports MouT'H, Exeter. Concord.Ches* 

Rockingham, s ^ x i j 

^ C ter, Londonderry. 

Strafford. Dover, Durham, Gilmautown, Barrington. 


Mountains. The White mountains^ in the northern 
part of this state, are a grand and lofty pile. They are 
the highest in New England, and are seen at the distance 
of 80 or I CO miles. Their summit is about 7000* feet 
above the sea, and is covered with snow, alnM)st the 
whole year. Snow has been known to lie as late as the 
26th of July, and to fall and cap the mountains again in 

The Grand Monad'nock, in the southern part of the 
state, the Moosehil'lock, Su'napee, and Os'sapee, are 
high mountains, and are seen at a great distance. The 
northern parts of this stale are broken and mountainous. 

Lakes, Win'nipiseog'ee, Umba'gog, Su'napecj and 
great Os'sapee, are the principaU 

Rivers, ConnectHcuty Mer'rimack^ Piscat'aqua^ Sdco^ 
and Androscog'gin, 

Learning, Dartmouth College in Handover is a re- 
spectable institution. Phillips Exeter Academy is one 
of the best in the *ynited States. There are academies 
in Amherst, Atkinson, New Ipswich^ Charlestown, and 
in other places. 


Vermont' is divided into 13 counties. 

Counties. Principal towns. 

Windham. \ N'^wfane, Brat'tleborough, Westminster? 
\ Guildford, Putney. 

Windsor. 5 .^^if *"'•' VVoodstock, Chester, Si»>ing- 
^ held, Kartland, Royalton, Norwich. 

Orange. Chel'sea, Randolph, New'bury. 

Washington* Montpe'lier, Wa'terbury, Bar're. 

Caledo'nia. Danville', Peapl/am. 

Essex. Guildhall, Lunenburg, Concord. 

Orleans. Craftsbury, Brownington. 

* 7152 feet. 


Counties. Princi/ial towns. 

Franklin. SU Albans, Swanton, Fairfax. 

Grand Isle. Middle Hero, South Hero, Alburg. 

Chittenden. Burlington^ Char'lotte, Williston. 

Addison. \ Mi^'dlebury Vergenn.s' (/zro. Vergens'), 
I Shoreham, New Haven. 

Rutland. Rutland^ Pawlet, Clar'endon, Castleton. 

Bennington. Bennington, Manchester, Shaftsbury. 

Mountains. The Green Mountains^ so called from 
their perpetual verdure, divide this state from north to 
south, and give rise to a vast number of streams, which 
abundantly water the country. Their summits are known 
by different names ; the highest is Killington Peak. 

Lakes* Lake Chamfilain' ^ Memphi^pma'gog. 

Rivers. Otter Creek, Onion^ Lamoille', ^^Missisque, 
west of the mountains ; on the east are Connecticut, 
West, White, and Poousoom'suck rivers ; these, except- 
ing Connecticut, are small. 

Learning. There are two colleges in this state ; the 
University of Vermont in Burlington, which possesses 
all the funds given by the state for the promotion of lit- 
erature ; and Middlebuiy College in the town of Middle- 
bury, which is a recent, but flourishing institution, and, 
thoup^^i supported entirely by private benefactions, is the 
principal college in the state. Academies and schools 
are numerous, and attention to learning is greatly in- 



Massachusetts is divided into 14 counties. 

Counties, Princifial towns* 

\\ V \\ J Stockbridge, Lenox, Pittsfield, Williams^ 

^ * \town, 

Hampshire. JsTorthajnfiton^ Hadley. 

Franklin, Deerfield^ Greenfield, Northfield. 

Hampden. Sfiringjield^ West Springfield, Westfield. 

Worces'ter \ Worcester, Brookfield, Leic^s'ter, Lan- 
* i caster. 

^. 1 ,, 5 Charlestown, Cambridge, Concord, Med- 

iviiacuesex. ^ ^^^^^ Watertown, Groton. 

y ^ JVewbury/iort, Saletrij Ips'wich, Beverly, 

ssex. ^ Haverhill, Marblehead, Andover, Lynn. 

Suffolk. BosT'oN, CheFsea. 

^ r „ ^ Roxburv, Dedham, Dor'chester, Quincy, 

i^ortoiR. ^wrentham. 

PI m nth 5 ^^S'^^"^^) Pembroke, Scit'uate, Bridge- 
^ ' ^ water, Duxbury, Hingham. 

T^ • t 1 5 Taunton, J^ew Bedford^ Dartmouth, 

iirisiol. ^ Westport, Reho'both. 

Barnstable 5 Barn'stable^ Sandwich, Yarmouth, Fal- 
^ mouth. 

Dukcb. Ed'garton, 

Nantucket. Nantucket. 

Mountains, The mountains in this state are not 


liigh ; the principal elevations are Wachu'sett, in Prince- 
ron, Blue Hills near Boston, and Mount Term near 

Rivers. Connecticut^ Mer'rimack^ Charles, Housa- 
ton'ick, Chickabee', Nash'ua, Concord, Mystick or Med- 
ford and Taunton. 

Bays. Massachusetts is the principal ; Ips'wichbay, 
Boston harbour, Plymouth, Cape Cod or Barnstable, and 
Buzzard's bay. 

Islands, Nantncket^ Martha^a Vineyard^ Plum Isl- 
and, and Elizabeth Island. Castle Island, on which is 
Fort Independence, is ki Boston harbour. 

Banks, St. George's bank, east of Cape Cod. 

Cafiea, Cape Ann^ Cctfie Cod^ Cape Malabar, Sandy 
Point, Cape Poge, Gay Head. 

Bearning. The University in Cambridge vSii\\zr^o%\ 
ancient, venerable, and richly endowed institution in the 
United States. The medical school in Boston is suppli- 
ed with learned and skilful professors in every branch 
of the profession, and is one of the best in the country. 
Williams College i« in WiUiamsttxvn. In And over is a 
Theological Institution^ liberally endowed and supplied 
with professors for the purpose of qualifying young men 
for the ministry. The number of students is at present 
about 100. PhHliJis Academy^ the first in the state, is 
likewise in Andover. There are academies io the par- 
ish of By field in Newbury, in Bradford, Lezc^s'ter, 
TauntoH; and in many other places. 


Rhode Is 'land is divided into 4 counties. 
Counties^ Princijial towns. 

. ^Providence, Smithfield, Gloz/res'ter, 

Providence. ^ Cumberland, Cranston, Foster, Scituate. 
Newport. A^cwport. Portsmouth, Tiv'erton. 

Washington. South Kingston, North Kingston, Exeter. 
y Warwick, Coventry, West Greenwich, 
Kent. I East Greenwich. 

Bristol. Bristol, Warren, Barrington. 



Rivers. Providence, Taautoa, Pawtuck'et, Patux'et 
or Blackstone river. 

Bays. Narragan'set b^y, Mount Hope bay. 

Islands, Rhode Is'iand, Canon'icut, Prudence, Block 
Islandy Dyer's, and Hog Island. 

Leariiing. There is a literary institution in Provi- 
dencej called Brown Universiiy. 


Connecticut is divided into 8 counties. 
Counties. Princiflal towns. 

{HARfFORDy East Bartford^ East Wind- 
sor, Farmington, Suffield, Weathers- 
field, Windsor, Berlin. 

f JK'ew Haven, Cheshire, Gwildford, Mil- 
New Haven. < ford, Wal'lingford, Wa'terbury, Wood- 
L bridge. 

C jYew London, Norwich, Col'chester, 
New London. < Groton, Lyme, Preston, Stonington, 
(^ Waterford. 

{Fairfield, Dan'bury, Greenwich, Hunt- 
ington, Newtown, Norwalk, Stamford, 





C Windham, Ashford, Killingly,Leb'anonj 
l Mansfield, Thompson, Woodstock. 

5 Litchfield, Ca'iiaan, N. Milford, SahV- 
l bury, Sharon. 

C Middletown, Chatham, Haddam, East- 
'l Haddam, Saybrook, Killing worth. 

Tolland, Coventry, Hebron, Stafford. 

Connecticut^ Pequod or Thames, also call- 


ed Mohe'gan, aud HoMsaton'ick. The smaller rivers 
are Qiiinebaug, Shetucket, Williman'tick, Tunxis or 
Windsor, Wallini^ford, Nau'gatuck, Stratford, and Sa'- 

Bays^ Harbours^ 'Cfc. Long Island Sounds New Ha- 
vqn and New London harbours. 

Island, Fisher's Island. 

Learning, Yale College in New Haven is one of the 
first and best regulated in the United States. 


Cilies isf Towns, JsTew York^ jll'bany^ Hudson^TvoYj 
and Schenec'tady^ incorporated cities ; Brookhm, Philips- 
burg, Pdugh/cee/isie, Newburg, Kingstoji or Eso'pus, 
Lunenburg, Livingston, Lan'smgburg, and Waterford, 
all situated on North or Htulson river. In the western 
part are many pleasant towns rapidly increasing in 
population. U'tica^ Rome, Cayu'ga, Gene'va, Canan- 
dai'gua, Bata'via^ Buffalo^ Auburn, and Waterloo. 

Mountains. The Catskill and the Highlands. Tlie 
passage of the North or Hudson river through these 
Highlands, about sixty miles north of the City of New 
York, is grand and sublime. The mountains, which 
rise abruptly on each side, are only far enough from other to allow the river to pass between them. 

Lakes l^ Rivers, Lakes Onta'rio and FJrie^ con- 
Kected by Niag'ara river. Cone'sus, Hemlock, and Ho- 
neo'yc, which are united in Genesee' river. Crooked 
lake, Sen'eca, Cayu'ga, Owas'co, Skaneat'eles, Cross^ 
Ostis'co, Ononda'ga, and Onei'da lakes, unite their wa- 
ters in Osnve'go river^ which conveys them into lake On- 
ta'rio. Lake G^^orge runs into lake Champlain' at Ti'- 
condero'ga. Hudson^ and the Mo' hawk ^ which is a 
princip d branch of it, are the most noted rivers in New 
York Battenkill, another branch of the Hudson, is re- 
markable for iiaving its source in Peru' in Vermont, 


within twelve or fifteen rods of tiie source of Otter 
Cre^/^, which runs a noriherly direction into Lake Cham^ 
filain'. Black river, Oswegatch'ie, Grass river, Racket, 
Saranack', and Sable rivers, water the northern part of 
this state. The head waters of the Delaware^ the Sus^ 
quchan'nahy the principal branch of which is the Tio'^ 
ga ; the Al'legany and its branches water the southern 

Bays i^ Harbours. Sacket's harbour on lake Onta'- 
rio ; and the bay, which forms the harbour of NewYork 
at the mouth of the river Hudson. 

Strait. Hurl (vulgarly Hell) Gate, which separates 
the city of New York from Long Island, and unites the 
sound with New York harbour. 

Islands. York Island, at the southern extremity of 
which is the city of New York, Long Island^ andStaten 

Learning, Columbia college is in the city of New 
York, and Union college in Schenec'tady. There are 
academies in various parts of the state. 

Medicinal Springs, Ballstown and Sarato'ga springs 
are much celebrated for their medicinal qualities, and for 
their being, in the summer months, places of resort for 
invalids and people of fashion from all parts of the Unit- 
ed States There are also medicinal springs in New 
Leb'anon and Renssella^ r' ; but they are less frequented. 


Towns. J\Pew* ARK^ Elizabethtown, Am'boy^ Bruns' 
wick^ Princeton, Trenton^ and Burlington ; Bor'den- 
town, Mor'ristown, Sec. 

Mountains. The Allegany pass through the north- 
ern and western parts of this state, under various names ; 
as the South mountain. Kittatin'ny, Sec. These are not 
very high. Nave'sink and Center hills are considerable 

Rivers. JVorth or Hudson^ Delaware., Hack'insack, 
Passa'ick, Rarltan, Cesa'rea or Cohan'sey, Mu^'licus, 


Bays, Arthur Ku!l or Nevv'ark, Raritan,and Ban'e- 
gat ; Great and Little Egg harbours, and several othe/s. 

Cafies* Sandy Hook, east of Rar'itan bay ; Cape May 
at the southern extremity of the state. 

Learning. Princetqn college, called also Nassau 
Hall, is in Princeton j where, also, is a flourishing The- 
ological Seminary. 


To'vns. JVilMiSG-ros, Xc^vcastie. Dover^ Milford, 
SlUs'bury, Lezifisj and Newport. The other towns are 

I^h-ers, The Delaware is the only river of any mag- 
nitude. Creeks and small streams are numerous. 

Bays. Bclazvarej and Reho'both. 

Cafies. Ca/ie Hen'lo/ien^ opposite to Cafie May^ 
which is on the Jersey side of Delaware bay. 


Towels, Philadelphia^ Layicastcr^ Carlisle^ Pitts* 
burg^^Yori'^tfarrii^bur^^ Reading. Bethlehem. Nazareth, 
Brownville, Kensington, Germantown, and Frankfort. 

MountaiJis, The various ridges, which, under difier- 
cnt names, compose the Al'legariy, pervade this state. 

Rivers. The Deiarjare^ Schuyl kill^ iSust^n^ehan'iiah^ 
Yohiog'eny, Mo^nongahe'la^ Al'leganvj and their numer- 
ous branches* 

In this state is some of the best land in the country. 
The farms are large and valuable, and the productions 

The western part of this state, especially the vicinity 
of Pittsburg, abounds with excellent coal. One pit, 
which took fire nearly fifty years ago, continues still 
to burn. Another pi% at no great distance, has been 
burning more than iiiteen years, but it has spread only 
a few yards. 


Learning, There are colleges in Philadelphia, Lan- 
caster, and Carlisle ; and academies in various places ; 
but their reputation is not great* There is. however, at 
Philadelphia, one of the best medical establishments in 
the country ; and students from all parts of the United 
States resort thither to complete their medical studies, 



Towns» Be'TRoi'T' is the capital; besides which 
there are forts or villages, as Michllimack'inack, Meigs, 
Huron., E'rie, &c. 

Lakes. Lakes Superior y Michigariy Huron, and St. 

Rivers. St, Mary's^ Huron or St. Clair, Detroii\ 
Sagaiiau'j Rouge, Raisin, and many other small streams. 

Straits Mich^ilimack'inack^ which connects lake 
Michigan with lake Huron. 

Michigan Territory is a large peninsula, situated be. 
tween the lakes Huron and Mictiigan. It is an exlen. 
sive, rich, and level country, mostly in possession of the 


Towns, Kaskas' kias^ Goshen, and Kaho'kia. 

Lakes. Rainy, Bear, Red, Pepin, Winneba'go, Illi- 
nois', &c. 

Rivers, The Mississifi'fiij Illinois', Wabash, Ouis- 
con'sin, Chippeway, St. Croix, St. Louis, Fox, Crocodile, 
Chickago, &c. 

Illinois' Territory is a part of what was formerly call* 

22 OHIO. 

cd the Northwestern Territory. It is, like Michigan, 
mostly in possession of the Indians, and is an extensive, 
fertile country, agreeably variegated with hills and mead- 
ows, and watered by large rivers. 

In this Territory several rivers, which run in opposite 
directions into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, take 
their rise so near each other, that the portage from one 
to the other is only a few miles. 


Towns, yiN'CENNEs\ Washington, Harrison, Wa- 
bash, Springviile,ClarkTille, and Madison. 

Rivers. The IVdbash and its numerous branches, 
and the principal sources of the Illinois' river. 

This, together with Illinois Territory, was formerly 
called the Northwestern Territory. In the surface of 
the country there is a pleasing variety of hills, vales, and 
prairies or plains, which are naturally destitute of trees. 
The land is rich and productive, yielding plentiful har- 
vests of wheat and corn. 


Towns. CHiLicorn' Ef Marietta, Cincinna'ti^ Zdnes^ 
-ville^ Steubenville, Bellville, St. Clairville, Lancaster, 
Franklinton, Galliop'olis, Athens, Xenia, Columbia, 
Springfield, Warren. 

Rivers. Ohio^ Muskin'gum^ Scio'to^ Great and Little 
Mia'mi^ Hockhock'ing* Sandusky, and their branches. 

Ohio is neither hilly nor mountainous It presents a 
varied surface, and is extremely rich and productive. 
Grass, grain, and almost all kinds of fruit, common to 
temperate climates, grow here in abundance. 



Towns. FnANKFOR'T, Lexington^ Louisville, Wash- 
ington, Paris, Boonsborovigh, Shebbyville, Beardstown, 
Danville, Harrodsburg, Georgetown, and Ver-sailks', 
Most of these are small but fast increasing. 

Mountains, Cumberland mountains are the priilci- 

Rivers. Kentucky, Elkhorn, Sandy, Licking, Salt, 
Green, and Cumberland. 

Springs. In this country are several salt springs, or 
as they are sometimes called, licka^ from which salt is 
made in sufficient quanthies to supply the inhabitants. 

Curiosities. The banks of the Kentucky, and Dick's 
river, are great curiosities. In some places the water 
has worn a channel through solid lime-sione ; in others 
through a beautiful white marole, to the depth of 300 

There are several bitu'minous springs, which afford a 
substance, answering every purpose of the best lamp 

Caverns of great extent have been found in this coun- 
try. In many places in this part of the United States 
there is a stratum of lime-stone, not very thick, nor ma- 
ny feet bslow the surface, which extends many miles. 
Through this the water sometimes finds a passage, and, 
running underneath, carries off the loose earth and grav- 
el, and produces extensive cavities. In consequence of 
♦his, considerable tracts of land are frequently known to 
fall, and form deep cavities in the earth, called pitfalls. 
Farms are sometimes ruined by them, and domestic 
animals lose their lives. 


Towns. Knoxville^ JVashville^ Clarkesville^ Jones* 
borough, Abbington, Greenville. 

Mountains. Cumberland^ Clinch, Stone, Yellow, 


Iron, Bald, Smoky, and Unaka, are elevations, which 
form the grand chain in the eastern part of the state. 

JRivers, Hol'st^in, Cumberland or Shawanee', Ten* 
nessee^ Clinch, Wolf, Hatchee', Forked, Deer, Obri'an 
and Reelfoot. 

Sfiringa, Salt springs or licks are found in many 
parts of this country, which are sufficient to supply the 
whole country with salt. 

Mines. Iron, lead, gold, and silvei mines are found 
in this state ; also coal, ochre, copperas, alum, and sul- 

Curiosities^ There are remains of towns and forts, 
which appear to have been built long before the discov- 
ery of the country. 

In this country are several streams of water of con- 
siderable size, which fall into the earth, and entirely dis- 

It is said, that on what is called the Enchanted moun- 
tain^ there are, in the solid rock, distinct impressions of 
the feet of several animals, Euch as men, horses, bears, 
Sec. The origin and design of these footsteps are not 
known. They were probably engraved by the original 
Inhabitants, and are objects of great curiosity. 


Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia. North Car. 
olina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Mississippi. 


Towns, H J LT'i M OR E.^nnaffcHs.Geovgetown.V red' 
erickstown. Ha gar's or Elizabethtown, Elkton, Wash- 
ington, The cities Washington and Georgeto'«^n are 
situated on the Maryland side of the Polow'mac in the 
District of Columbia. 


Rivers, In the eastern part of this state are the Po'- 
komoke, Man'okin, VVicom'ico, Nan'ticoke, Choptank, 
Chester, Sas'safras, Bohe'mia, Elk. These, except the 
Man'okin, take their rise in Delaware, and fall into Ches'- 
apeak bay. 

The Susquehannah^ a large and rapid river, falls in- 
to the Ches'apeak, in the northern part of the state. 

In the western part are Gunpowder, Petap'sco, Sev- 
ern, Patux'ent, and the Potow'mac riyers. The Po- 
tbw'mac separates Maryland from Virginia, and is nav- 
igable 300 miles to Georgetown. The eastern part of 
this state is low, marshy, and unhealthy. 

Seminaries of Learning. The principal colleges are 
St. John's in Annap'olis, St. Mary's in Baltimore, and a 
college in Georgetown. The two last are under the su- 
perintendance of the Roman Catholics, and are repre- 
sented as in a flourishing condition. In Somerset county 
is Washington college. In this state learning is, in geny 
eral, much neglected. 


The District of Columbia is divided into 2 counties. 

'Counties, Princlfial towns, 

Washington. WASHiNcros Cirr and Georgetown. 

Alexandria. Alexandria. 

Rivers. The Potow'inac^ the Eastern Branch, and 
Tiber creek. 

The District of Columbia is only 10 miles square. 
It is about 300 miles from the sea, at the head of tide 
water on the Potow'mac, which runs thrbugh it diago- 
nally, near the centre. 

In 1790, it was ceded by Maryland and Virginia to 
the United States, and in 1800, it became the perma- 
nent seat of government. 

The situation of Washington is open ap^d ' elevated, 
afid commands a pleasant southern prospect down the 


Potowmac. The plan of the city is regular and ex- 
tensive. The streets arc so laid out, that the two most 
conspicuous buildings, the Capitol, in which Congress, 
or our national assembly meet, and the President's house, 
are seen at the same time from almost every part of it. 
Should this city ever be completed according to the orig- 
inal plan, it would be one of the most magnificent in the 
world, and in some measure worthy the man, who first 
selected it for the capital of the nation, and whose name it 
bears ; but it is at present in such a state, that it has 
scarcely the appearance of a city. 


Towns, Richmond^ jilexandria^ J^orfolk^ Peters* 
durgj Williamsburg, and Fredericksburg^ are the princi- 
pal. Dumfries^ Leeds. Yorktown^ Lexington, Urban'- 
nan, Portroyal, Falmouth, New 'castle, Hanover, New- 
London, Suffolk, Smithfield, Portsmouth, Hampton, 
Char'lotteville, Staunton, and Winchester. These last 
are small. Yorktown^ on York river, is memorable for 
the surrender of Lord Cornwallis and his army to the 
Americans in the revolutionary war. This event de- 
cided the contest with Great Britain, and gave indepen- 
dence to America. Mount Vernon, the celebrated seat 
of the late President Washington, though not a town, 
may be noticed here. It is situated on the west bank 
of the Potow'mac, nine miles below Alexandria. It 
commands a beautiful and extensive prospect up and 
down the river. The mansion is now decaying. 

Mountains. The Blue Ridge^ North mountain, 
Jackson's mountain, and Laurel mountai7i^ are the prin- 
cipal rarges of what is generally called the Mlegany. 
In the southern part are the Cumberland mountains. 

Rivers, The Ohio^ Potow^macj Rafifiahan'noc, 
York, Jamesy and Roanoke', are the largest. Their 
branches are numerous, and some of them important, 
such as the Shenando'ah, Mattapo'ney, Pamunky, Ri- 


vaima, Jfifiomat'tox^ Chickahom'iny, Nan'semond', and 
Elizabeth. 4n the southeast part are the Not'toway and 
Meher'rin^ which unite in North Carolina and form the 
Chowan river ; and the Roanoke'^ which is formed by 
the junction of Staunton and Dan rivers. In the north- 
west are the Kanhd'wai^ and Sandy rivers, which fall in- 
to the Ohio. They abundantly water the country, and 
afford an easy water conveyance through almost every 
part of the state. 

Bays, Chea^afieak is the largest bay in the United 
States ; it extends 200 miles into the country, and is 
from 7 -to 13 miles wide. Hampton Road is a safe, 
commodious harbour, at the mouth of James river. 

Cafies, Cafie Charles and Cajie Henry^ sometimes 
called The Capes of Virginia. 

LeavTiing. William and Mary's college in Williams- 
burg, Hamden Sidney college in Prince Edward county, 
and Washington college in Lexington. They are not 
eminent. There are academies in Alexandria, Norfolk* 
Hanover, New London, Sec. 

Curiosities, There is a remarkable fall of water on 
Jackson's river, in which the water descends 200 feet 

Over Cedar creek is what is called the J^'aturnl 
Bridge. It is a solid lime-stone, 40 or 50 feet thick, of 
sufficient width for a road, and for the support of a num- 
ber of trees. It is nearly 100 feet in length, and more 
than 200 feet above the surface of the water. 

There is another natural bridge over Stock creek in 
Washington county. 

In this state are several caves of considerable extent. 
Madison* s cave, the most celebrated, is north of the 
Blue Ridge. Its entrance is into the perpendicular side 
of a hill 200 feet high, more than 130 feet above its base, 
which is washed by a small river. It extends 300 feet 
into the earth, descending irregularly till it terminates in 
stagnant water of unknown extent, and apparently on .a 
level with the surface cf the river. The top of this 


cave is lime-stone, and from 20 to 50 feet high ; its 
width is various. 

Near the North mountain is a cave, the entrance to 
^vhich is on the top of a ridge. It descends 30 or 40 
feet perpendicularly ; then takes a horizontal direction, 
and extends 400 feet. Its breadth is from 20 to 50, and 
its height from 5 to 1 2 feet. 

At a place, called the Panther Gap, is Blowing Cave^ 
whence constantly issues a strong current of air, which 
prostrates the herbage at the distance of 50 or 60 feet. 

In Monroe county, near KanAa'way river, is a subter- 
raneous passage through the base of a mountain. It ex- 
tends more than tv.o miles, and is so large, that persons 
have passed throu gh. The earth on the bottom is strong- 
ly impregnated with nitre, from which saltpetre may be 
made in great quantities. 

In the western part of this state, and in Kentucky, are 
many remains of ancient fortifications, some of which 
include several acres. Their form and apparent struc- 
ture indicate a people of great antiquity, and of more 
improvement, than the natives of this country had gen- 
erally attained. 

In the vicinity of Richmond on James river, pit-coal 
is found in great quantities. The western parts of the 
state, on the Ohio river, afford it in still greater abun- 

Medicinal Sfirin^s, There are many springs in Vir- 
ginia, which possess medicinal qualities. The Warm 
and Hot springs in Augusta, near Jackson's, or, as it is 
sometimes called, Warm s/iring 7nou7itain^ are the most 
celebrated. The Warm fifiring is a current sufficient to 
carry a corn-mill ; the water raises mercury in the ther- 
mometer to about blood heat. 

The Hot sfiriiig^ about 6 miles distant, is less than the 
Warm spring, and so hot as to boil an egg. These 
springs have proved efficacious in rheumatism and some 
other complaints. 

About 40 miles from these springs, in Botetourt 
rounty, are the Siveet s/irings^ which posJ^ss medicinal 
tiualities, tho\igh they are less known. 


Not far from the Great Kan/2 a' way there is a small 
cavity in the earth, from which issues a stvong current of 
\»apour, which, on presenting a blaze, takes fire, and ris- 
es in a flame 4 or 5 feet. It sometimes burns several 
days. There is another similar curiosity on Sandy river. 

West of the AlUegany n.ountains are many salt 
springs. They are not, however, more than one third 
as salt as the ocean. 


Tonvns» RA^LEiGii^E^denton^TdiYbovou^h^l^ewhcrn, 
Kingston, Smithtield, Hillsborough, Brunswick, Wit* 
.nington, Fay'etteville'^ Haywood, Halifax, Washington, 
and Greenville. 

Moimtains. The western part of North Carolina ris- 
es into the AVlegamj^ or Afiala! chian mountains. The 
eastern part, to the distance of 60 or 70 miles from the 
sea, i*s a level, pine barren country, except on the mar- 
gins of rivers, where is generally good land. 

Rivers. Meher'rin^ Not'taway and Black, which form 
the Chowan ; the Roanoke'^ Tar^ J^euse^ Cafie Fear^ or 
Clarendon river ^ Yadkin, Cataw'baw. 

Sounds^ Pamlico^ Albermarlc'^ and Core sounds, all 
communicaiiting with each other. 

Inlets. Currituck, Roanoke', and O'cracoke. The 
last only is navigable, 

Cafies, Cape Hat'terasy remarkable for violent winds 
and tempestuous weather ; Cafie Fear^ near which is a 
dangerous shoal, called, from its peculiar form, the Fry* 
ingfiani Cafie Lookout, ■ 

Swamfis. There are two swamps in North Carolina, 
called the Great and Little DisrnaL The former is 70 
or 80 miles in circumference, situated in the eastern part 
of this state and in Virginia. Its greatest extent is from 
north to south, and contains 140 or 150 thousand acres. 
In the centre of it is Drummond's pond, 7 miles long and 




5 broad. It is remarkable, that several rivers, and 
creeks, running in opposite directions, take their rise in 
this swamp. 

The LUtie Dismal is between Albermarle and Pamli- 
co sounds ; there is likewise a pond in this, 1 1 miles 
long and 7 broad. 

Curiosities, A mountain called Ar'arat^ in the 
northwest part of this state, is a singular elevation, rising 
in the form of a pyramid in an easy and regular ascent, 
nearly a mile high, where it is not more than 12 or 15 
rods in diameter. From the top of this pyramid rises a 
stupendous rock 300 feet perpendicular. Its summit is 
smooth and regular, and affords an extensive and de- 
lightful prospect of the Apalachian mountains for 60 or 
70 miles on the north, and of the rivers Dan and Yadkin, 
•which flow from them, and whid through the rales be- 

In the western part of this state, in Rowan county, 
have been disi overed two subterraneous walls, similar in 
construction, but not in extent. One is nearly 2 feet 
thick, from 12 to 1 4 high, and 300 feet long. The stones, 
of which these walls are built, are all of the same kind. 
Their form, though various, is regular. They are from 

6 to 10 inches long, arranged crosswise of the wall, and 
united with a peculiar cem'ent, between which and the 
stone there is an appearance of iron rust. These walls 
are from 1 to 7 feet below the surface of the earth, and 
evince much art and correctness in their construction. 

The mis's'iltoe^ in the back part of North Carolina, is 
a great curiosity. It is a shrub that grows only on ^he 
tops of trees. The roots pierce the bark and wood, and 
thence draw their nourishment, as other vegetables do 
from the ear^h It is an evergreen, growing chiefly on 
the crab, the haw i horn, and the maple. If not prevent- 
ed by cutting, it frequently robs the tree, on which it 
grows, of its s'^p, and kills it. The ancient Britons con- 
sidered this shruh sacred, for its supposed medicinal 
qualities, especially when found on the oak, 


Learning, At Chapel Hill is a university. There 
are several academies ; but none eminent. The state 
ot learning is low in general. 


Towns* Charlestons Beau'fort^ Georgetonvn^ Co* 
iumbia^ Granby, Camden^ Purysburg, Jacksonburg, 
Orangeburg, Winnsborough, States'burg, Cambridge. 

Mountains, The Afiala'chian mountains in the vi^est- 
ern part of the state. The eastern part, to the distance 
of more than 100 miles from the Atljm^c, is almost an 
uninterrupted level. 

Rivers, Ashley and Cooper ; Winy aw' river or bay, 
formed by the union of Wakkamaw', Great and Little 
Pedee'^ Lynch creek, and Black river, about 15 miles 
from the ocean. Sant€e\ and its branches, Salu'da, 
Broad; Congaree', and Wateree' ; Edis'to^ Ashepoo', 
Combahee', Btono, Coo'saw, Sec. 

Islands. Bull's, Dewee', Sullivan*s^ James's, John's, 
Wadmelaw', Simon, Edis'to, St. Hel'ena, Lad'ico, Paris, 
Hilton Head, Pinckney*s, and several others. These 
islands are not large. 

Capes, Cape Car'teret or Roman. 

Learning, South Carolina colUge is at Columbia. 
There are colleges and academies in Charleston, in 
Cambridge, and other towns, 


Towns, Savan'nah, jlugus'ta^ MiVledgeville\ 
Washington^ Emberton, Louisville^ Lexington, Sunbu- 
ry, Frederi'ca, Da'rien, Brunswick, St. Patrick's, and 
St. Mary's. 

Mountains. The Blue Ridge terminates in the west- 
ern part of this state. 

Rivers, Savan'nah and its branches, Keowee', Tu- 
gulo, Broad, Little river, Ogee'chee^ Al'atamaha'^ of 
which Oakmul'gee and Oco'nee are the principal branch™ 


es ; Turtle river, Great and Little SatWlas^ St, Mary's^ 
which forms part of the soutliern boundary of the United 
States; Aji'alach'ico'la or Cat'aho'che, Flint River. 

There is in this state, at the head of St. Mary's river ^ 
a swamp or marsh, 300 miles in circumference, known 
by the name of Ouaquaphenogaw. Cfiro, O'-ke-fe-no'^e,) 

Medicinal Springs. In Wilkes county, near Washing- 
ton, is a spring, flowing from the trunk of a hollow tree> 
the inside of which is covered with a solid coat, an inch 
thick, and the leaves, to a considerable distance round, 
arc incrusted with a white substance. Its waters have 
been considered an effectual remedy in many cutaneous 
and other disorders. There are other medicinal springs 
in this state. 

Islands. Tybee', Wassaw, St. Catherine's, Sapelo, 
St. Simon's, Je'kyl, and Cumberland islands. 

Learning. Literary institutions are established in 
Athens, Eatonton, Powelton, aVid various other places. 
Attention to learning in this state is fast increasing. 


Towns. Na^ch'ez is the only considerable town in 
this state. Pinkneyville, and some other settlements, 
extend several miles, but are not so compactly settled 
as to receive the name of towns. 

Mountains. The grand chain of the AVlegany or 
Afiala chian mountains terminates in the northern part 
of this state. 

Rivers. Aji* alachHco^ la or Cat'aho^che^ which sepa- 
rates this state from Georgia ; Escam'bia, Perdifdo ; the 
Mobile'^ into which flow Tombig*bee^ Alaba'ma^ and 
White rivers ; Pascagou'la and Pearl rivers^ all which 
run through the Floridas and Louisiana into the gulf of 
Mexico. Am'ite fk»ws into the river Ib'berville', which, 
with the lakes Ponchartrain' and Maurepa^', forms a wa- 
ter passage between the gulf of Mexico and theMissis- 
sip'pi to Manchack, which is about 150 miles up the 


river from its mouth. The great and little Yazoo', and 
several others, which flow into the Mississip'pi. 

Mississip'pi is not generally settled, except by the In- 
dians, of whom there are many tribes, and who, by the 
benevolent exertions of missionaries, have made some 
progress towards civilization. 

This state is extensive, including the disputed lands, 
generally called the land of the Georgia Company. It 
contains much good land, and is well watered by large 

Its productions are cotton, Indian corn, indigo. Sec. 


Lou'isia'na is divided into the state and territory of 
Lou'isia'na. The territory is of great extent ; but its 
boundaries are so indefinite, that they cannot be given. 

Towns* JSTejv Or'leans^ St^ Louis^ Ar'kansas, St» 
Genev/eve^, New Bourbon, J\'e%v Mad'ridy Sec. 

Bivers. The Mississi/i'fiU Red river, jir'kansas^ 
White river, St. Francis, the Missou'ri with its numer- 
ous branches, as the Osages, Plate or Shallow river, 
&c. There are also many others, little known. 

The Miasissi/i'Jii is the principal river of Lou'isia'na, 
and one of the two largest in North America. It nses 
in the unexplored country northwest of the United 
States. In its course it receives the Illinois^ Missou^rij 
and the 0/220, which are themselves large and navigable 
rivers ; and many other smaller streams. It is f;cncral- 
ly deep and rapid, and seldom more than a mile wide. 

The country through which the Mississip'pi flows, es- 
pecially on the west, is a marsh or sv/amp of great ex- 
tent, and lower than the river itself, except a narrow 
strip, sometimes a mile or two wide, which forms a bank 
and confines the water in its channel. This river in its 
inundations, which are annual, and generally from the 
first of March to June, rises to the astonishing height of 
40 or 50, and sometimes even 60 feet perpendicular, and 


deluges the country in many places to the distance of 30 
or 40 miles. 

JVew Or'leans'i the capital of Lfju'isia'na, is situated on 
the Mississip'pi, about 100 miles from its mouth. It is a 
place of great and increasing trade, and from its situa-- 
tion, will probably become one of the most important 
places in the world. 

The inhabitants are principally French and Canadians. 
There are some Americans and EnglisJvbut the climate 
frequently proves fatal to them. 

The state of learning is very low. Scarcely half of 
the inhabitants can cither read or write. 

There is in Lcu'isia'na some of the best land in the 
world'. The productions are sugar, cotton, rice, indigo. 
The greatest part of this country is in a state of nature^ 
and inhabited only by Indians. 


Mouraains, The W/iite and Green mountains^ the 
Highlands, the Blue Ridge, the Laurel, the Al'legany^ 
the Cumberland^ and the Aliala^chian mountains, are the 
principal. «- 

These mountains form an extensive chain, which 
passes through the United States from Maine to Geor- 
gia, more than lOOO miles. They run nearly parallel 
lo the sea coast, sometimes in separate ridges, and at the 
distance, in the northern and middle states, of 50 or 60 
miles, but gradually diverging in the southern to more 
than 100 miles. 

They are, in some places, immense masses of rocks, 
piled one above another in frightful precipices, till they 
reach the height of npore than 10,000 feet above a level 
with the ocean ; in other places they rise in gradual 
swells of easy ascent ; affordhig a variety of soil and sur- 
face, supporting vast forests of timber, and giving rise to 
innumerable streams, which water and fertilize the 

























from 1 to 25 
in breadth. 

These lakes form one of the distinguishing features 
of the United States, and indeed ot North America. 
They are the largest collections of fresh water, that are 
known ; and being connected by large rivers or straits, 
they, together with the river St. i-,awrence, which dis- 
charges their waters into the Atlantic, afford inland 
navigation, from 1500 to 2000 miles. They are seldom 
if ever frozen, and are as much affected by storms as the 

Besides these, there are many smaller lakes, as lake 
George, Rainy lake, lake of the Woods, &c. 

St. Lawrence 








Potow'mac . 





Miles JVdvigable^ Length, 

2000 tq Falls of St. An't>^ony 5000 











Saco Falls 



^ Berwick > 

^Exeter \\ 
































Besides these rivers, there are Appomat'tox, Roan- 
6ke', Pedee', Santee', Cooper, Ashley, Edis'to, Ogee'- 
chee, Alatamaha'j Satil'la, St. Mary's, Ap'alach'ico'la, 
Mobile', and many smaller streams, which flow into the 
Atlantic, or Us waters. 

The Missou'ri, Illinois, Ohio, Wabash, Mia'mi, 
Scio'to, Miiskin'gum, Cuniberland, Tennessee' Gene- 
see', Oswe'goj Mo'nawk, fall into the lakes and other 
rivers Thehe streams afford safe and easy conveyance 
for all kinds of articles through almost every part of the 
United Stales, 

Cataracts. Feet Perfiendicular, 

St. AntA(my on the Mississip'pi - 80 

Coho<7s' on the Mo'hawk liver - - 60 

Pajsfca'ic .... - 70 

Potow'mac - - - - - 70 

Tennessee' ... - SO 

Niagara - * * • - *- *50 

There are many other beautiful falls and cascades ill 
the United States, in some of which the water falls from 
a greater height, than those above mentioned, but the 
quantity of water is much less. 

The great falls of JWigura are the most grand and 
stupendous in the known world. The height is not the 
j^reatcst, but the quantity of water is such, as to render 
them an object of great curiosity and admiration. The 
accumulated waters of our large lakes, and their innu- 
tnerable rivers, rush down a precipice of about 150 feet, 
with almost incredible force and grandeur. The ^pray 
is constantly rising in a thick cloud, which in clear 
weather produces the rainbow, and falls in gentle dews 
and showers to a considerable distance. The noise of 
the falling water is frequently heard to the distance of 30 
or 40 miles* 

Bays, Length, Greatest breadth. Miies^ 

Penob'scot 40 1 6 

Massachusetts 60 30 from Cape Ann to Cape Cod 45 
Narragan'set 35 13 Pt. Judith to Pt. Seacon'net 10 
Delaware 60 30 Cape Mary to Cape Hen'lopen 20 

Ches'apeak 200 18 Cape Charles to Cape Henry IS 








'\ 41,: Lengtiu Greatest breadth. 

Sounds, Long Isfiind soi^id 140 24 

Pam'iice?sound 200 20 

Albermarle sound 60 12 

Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream is a current in the 
ocean, from the Gulf of Mexico, along the shore of the 
United States, 60 or 70 miles distant^ to Newfoundland'. 
The waters of this stream are many degrees warmer 
than the ocean, through which it runs. 

Length. Greatest breadth. 
Islands, Nantuck'et 15 11 

Martha's Vine'yard 2 1 6 

Rhode Island 
Long Is'land 
Staten Is'land 

Cajies. Cape Ann and Cape Cod, Cape Malabar', 
Montauk' Point, Sandy Hook, Cape May and Cape Hen'- 
lopen, Cape Charles and Cape Henry, Cape Hat'teras, 
Cape Lookout, Cape Fear, 

Face of the country and Soil. In the United States 
are all the varieties of soil and surface. The northern 
states in general, and the back parts of the middle and 
southern states, are hilly and mountainous. 

The southern states, from the Atlantic to the Al'le- 
gany mountains, a distance of from 40 or 50 to 100 
miles, is a vast extent of barren plain, with but little va- 
riety, except on the rivers, where there is frequently a 
narrow strip ot excellent land. 

The United States are generally well watered, and, 
under skilful cultivation, produce all the necessaries 
of life in abundance, and richly reward the husbandman 
for his in'dustry and labour. 

Climate. The Territory of the United States, which 
extends from north to south, and from east to west be- 
tween 12 and 14 hundred miles, experiences a great va- 
riety of climate. 

In the northern states the winters are long and cold j 


though generally less severe, than they were formerly. 
In summer, the heat is moderate, except a few days in 
some seasons. 

In the southern states, the summers are long and hot, 
though frequently moderated by copious showers. The 
winters are mild and agreeable. There is sometimes 
Irost, but rarely snow, except on high lands. In some 
parts, snow is seldom or never seen. 

In all the states, the weather is subject to frequent 
and sudden changes, though the inhabitants are in gen- 
eral healthy, active, industrious, and enterprising, 


Minerals. Iron ore^ the most useful of all minerals, 
is found in great quantities in New England, and is ex- 
tensively manufactured. 

Coal of excellent quality abounds in Rhode Is'land, 
on James* river, at Pittsburg, and in various parts of the 
United States, 

Lead and cofifier mines are found in Massachusetts, 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and other places. Gold and sil^ 
ver have been discovered, but they are rare. 

There are quarries of excellent marble in Vermont', 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Sul» 
phur abounds in New York ; aluvi is found in several 
places, and salt sftrings2ive frequent in the western states. 

Medicinal Springs, The Ballstown, Sarato'ga, and New 
Leb'anon springs in New York, and the Stafford springs 
in Connecticut are the most celebrated. Others, proba- 
bly of equal value, are found in various places. 

Vegetables, The northern states produce various 
kinds of grain, grass, fruits, and vegetables. There is of 
course a great supply of beef, butter, cheese, mutton, 
wool, leather. 

The middle states produce principally Indian corn, 
wheat, and tobacco ; an<J the southern, tobacco, cotton, 
and rice. 

Animals, The mammoth, bisoH or "urild ox, moose, 
deer, bear, catamount, wolf, fox, and a great variety ot 
smaller animals. 


The xnammoth, which is known to have existed only 
from its bones, was the largest of all land animals. Its 
bones, which have been found in several places, partic- 
ularly about the salt licks in the western states, show, 
that this animal lived on flesh, and must have been about 
18 feet in length and 12 feet in height ; and not less than 
5 or 6 times larger than the elephant. 

The forests of the United States are full of game, and 
the lakes and rivers afford plenty of fish and fowl. 

The American animals, though many of them are 
fierce and dangerous, are in general less so than those 
of Africa and Asia. 


In 1497, John Cabot, a Venetian, in the service of 
Henry VII, king of England, and his son, Sebastian 
V Cabot, explored the shores of the United States. 

In 1607, the first permanent settlement was made at 
Jamestown in Virginia. 

In 1620, on the 22d of December, our pious ances- 
tors, 101 in number, landed at Plymouth in Massachu- 
setts, and commenced the first settlement in New Eng- 
land. From sickness, occasioned by severity of weather, 
want of provision, and other necessaries of life, and of com- 
fortable shelter from the storm, their sufferings were so 
severethathalf their number died within the first 6 months. 

Before the year 1700, settlements in most of the Uni- 
ted States were established, principally by adventurers 
from Great Britain; they were therefore under her ju- 
risdiction, and called the British colonies. 

These colonies, under the protection of the parent 
country, increased with unexampled rapidity, and soon 
became a source of considerable revenue and importance 
to the English nation. 

In consequence, however, of heavy duties and taxes 
being imposed by Great Britain, the colonies became dis- 
satisfied ; and the dissatisfaction was increased by new 
and repeated impositions, till it produced open war. 
^ In 1775, hostilities commenced. 

In 1776, on the Ath qf July^ the colonies declared 


themselves an independent Nation, under the title of 
" The United States of America,'* 

In 1783, Great Britain, after an immense loss of biood 
and treasure, acknowledged the independence of the Uni- 
ted States. This separation of the colonics from the 
government of England is called " the American revo- 

In 178S, a government, embracing the general inter- 
est of all the states, was formed, and adopted by most of 
the states, and soon after by all of them. The articles 
of this confederation are called*^ the Constitution of the 
United States." 

The government, which is refiuhlican^ consists of a 
President, Vice President, Senate, and House of Repre- 
sentatives, all elected by the peoplej and when assem- 
bled, they compose what is called " the Congress of the 
United States." 

The first President was Gen. George Washington, 
who was commander in chief of the America.n forces 
during the revolution. 

The succession of Presidents is as follows : — < 

in Office, 

George Washington from 
John Adams from 

Thomas Jefferson from 
James Madison from 

James Monroe from 

The United States, from the adoption of the Federal 
Constitution to 1808, increased in riches, power and pop- 
ulation, more rapidly, than was ever before known in any 
nation. Their agriculture and commerce, the two prin- 
cipal occupations, were extensive and successful. They 
were respected by foreign nations, and, at home, enjoyed 
all the blessings of peace, religion and good government. 

In 1807, commerce became obstructed; after which 
new impediments were annually multiplied, till the 
18th of June 1812, when the United States declared 
war against Great Britain. This continued to the 17th 
c-f February, 1815, ^vhen peace was again restored. 

1789 to 1797 

8 years, 

1797 to 1801 


1801 to 1809 


1809 to 1817 


1817 to 



Religion, There is no established religion in the 
United States, All sects are tolerated ; but the most 
numerous are the Congrega' tionalistsj sometimes called 
Indepen'dents, and the Presbyte'rians. 

In New England, religion is supported by a tax on 
the people, except in Rhode I«'land ; in the other states, 
it is left to the liberality and voluntary exertions of indi- 

By the Constitution of the United States, all are ell- 
gible to offices of trust and profit, without regard to re- 
ligion. ' 

Fofiulation, The United States, in 1810, contained 
75230,514 inhabitants. 

The following Table shows the respective number of slaves 
and free citizens in each state. 

Slaves, Free Citizens* Total 

or New 


and Terri- 

(^District of Maine 
j New Hampshire 
j Vermont 
j Massachusetts - 
j Rhode Island - 
LConnecticut - - 
f New York - - 

J New Jersey - . 

\ Delaware - - • 

^Pennsylvania - 

fMichigan Ter. - 

j Illinois Ter. 

J Indiana - - . 
i- ^j Ohio - • - 
j Kentucky . - 
LTennessee - - 

- 108 

- 310 



. - 24 

- 168 

- 237 


■ - 44,535 

- 111,502 

J District of Columbia 5.395 



j Virginia 
< North Carolina 
1 South Carolina 
1 Georgia - - 
C Orleans - - 

. 392,518 
. 168,824 
- 196,365 

- 105,218 
- 17,088 

< Louisiana Territory 3,011 





































1>185,223 6,045,291 7,230,514 



Chief cities and towns^ with the number of their 
inhabitants annexed. 

New York city 




Philadelphia city 




B^rtimope city 








Charleston, S. C. 


New Haven city 


New Orleans 
















Al'bany city 








Washington city 






Hartford city 




Learning. In the United States in general, but es- 
pecially in New England, great attention is paid to the 
education of children. The number of young men, edu- 
cated in the colleges, affords a large supply for the pro- 
fessions of medicine, law, and divinity. 

Colleges. The principal colleges, in the United 
States, are the University in Cambridge, and Yale Col- 
lege in New Haven. Each institution has about 300 

Character. The people of the United States, being 
the descendants of the various European nations, have 
not yet become so assimilated, as to possess a strongly 
marked national character. They are, however, gener- 
ally industrious, intelligent, and enterprising. In the 
northern states, they are, for the most part, well inform- 
ed and regular in their habits ; in the southern states, 
they are more addicted to gaming and dii^esipation. 



The Spanish dominions in North America are East 
Florida, West Florida, Mexico or New Spain, and Gua- 


Princiflal towns, St» AuGusfiu and New Smyrna. 

Rivers. St. Johns, Indian river, Apalach'y or St, 

Bays C5* Lakes. Chatham bay, bay of Charlos, bay 
of Espir'itu Santo, St. Josephs, and Apalacl/y ; lake St. 
George, Maya'co, and Long lake. 

Cafies, Cape Florida, Cape Sable, Cape Roman. 


Princiflal towns. Pensaco'la^ Mobile^ 

Lakes or Lagoons. Ponchartrain^ and Maurcpas', 
which, by the river Ibberville', communicate with the 
river Mississip'pi, and the Gulf of Mexico. 

Rivers. Pearly Pascagou^la^ Mobile^ ^ Escam'bia, and 

Bays, Apalach'y, St. Josephs, St. Rose, Pensaco^a, 
Perdi'do, Mobile', Hillsborough bay, Boca Grande*, Spir'- 
itu Santo, and many others. 

Face of the country y Climate^ l!fc. The Floridas are 
in general low and level. The climate is warm, espe- 
cially in summer, and frequently unhealthy. The pro- 
ductions are sugar, oranges, lemons, citrons, and other 
tropjcal fruits. 




Mexico or New Spain is very extensive, and is divid- 
ed into the following provinces or governments, some- 
times called Intendancies, 

Provinces. Princifial towns. 

*/• /-> ir . ■ ^ MoNTEREr. San Die'f^o^ San Ga'- 

Loret'to, Santa Ana, San Joseph. 

Old Califor^nia. 

•V(PW Mexico. 

5 Culiacan, Cinalo'a, Rosa'rio, Villa 
\ del Fuerte, los Alamos. 

C Taos, Albuquerque, Santa Fe^ Pas- 
\ so del Norte. 

DnramroorNewf^^^^^S'^^^ Guadid'na, Chihuahua, 
mrangoorNew 1 ^^^ j^^^ ^^j j^.^^ Nombre de Dies, 

Uiscay. ^ Pasquia'ro, Saltillo. 

San Luis Potosi,^ 

divided into New | San Luis Potosi^ Nuevo, Santdn'der, 
Leon, New San- ^Charcas, Cator'ce, Monterey, Lina'- 
tander, Cohahu- j res, Monclova, San Antonio de Bejar. 
ila, and Texas. J 

Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Sombrere'te. 

C Guadalaxa'ra, San ^/fls,Compostella, 
^ Aguas, Colima. 

C Valladolid de Mechoacan, Pascua'ro, 
^ Tzintzontzan or Huitzitzilla* 

iGuanaxuato or Santa Fe de Gonna- 
joa'to, Salamanca, Cela'ya, Villa dc 
Leon, San Miguel el Grande. 

C Mexico J Quereta'ro, Tezcuco, Aca* 
JfiiiVco^ Tacuba,TasG0, Zacatula,L€r- 
J ma, Toluca, Cadarei'ta, San Juan del 






Vera Cruz. 


Meri'da or Yu- 

C Pue'bla, Cholu'la, Tlascala, Atiixcoj 
^ Tehuacan. 

C Vera Cruz^ Xalapa, Pcrote, Cordo'ba, 
\ Orizaba, Victoria. 

C Gaxa'ca or Guaxa'ca^ Tehuan'tepec, 
\ San Antonio de los Cues. 

C MerVda or Yucatan', Campeacli'y, 
I Valladolid. 

Mechoacan, Nev Gallicia, New Leo , New Biscay, 
and some others, were formerly considered provinces, 
and may now be found on most maps, 


Guatima'la comprises the southern parts of the Span- 
ish possessions in North America, and is divided into the 
following provinces. 

Provinces, Principal towns, 

Chia'pa. ^ Chia'pa de los Indos, Chia'pa or Civ 

^ * C idad Real, Acapa'la, 

Vera Paz. Vera Paz. 

Guatima'la. Guatima'la. 

{ Valladolid, Truxil^o, Gra'cios aDi'os, 
and St. Jago. The eastern coast of 
Hondurasis called the Musquito shore, 

Nicarag'ua. Leon, Grana'da, Nicara'gua. 

Costa Rica. Carthage. 

{Conception. This province, though 
in North America, belongs to J^ev> 
Grana'da in South America. 
Lakes, J^icara'^ua. 

Rivers, Chia'pa, Rio St. Juan, Scc^ 


Pojiulation, The number of inhabitants in Mexico 
is about 6,000,000. Many of the towns are large, rich, 
and populous, to a much greater extent, than has usual- 
ly been estimated. Some of the principal towns, and 
the number of their inhabitants, are shown in the follow- 
ing table. 











Vera Cruz 








San Luis Potosi 


Mexico is supposed to be the most ancient and pop- 
ulous city in America. It was founded in 1325, about 
500 years ago. It was the capital of the vast empire of 
Mexico, and the residence of the great monarch Monte-^ 
zu'ma, whose authority extended over numerous provin- 
ces and millions of people. 

In 152 1, Cortez, a Spanish adventurer, with a few des- 
perate followers, allured by the prospect of immense 
plunder in gold and silver, entered the dominions of 
Montezu'ma, and attacked his capital. 

By false professions of friendship, by fraud and ar- 
tifice, he induced Montezu'ma to visit his camp. He 
seized his person, made him prisoner, and then endeav- 
oured to conquer his subjects, but without success. Cor- 
tez then by promises of safety, persuaded the empe- 
rour to address, from a conspicuous place, his own sub« 
jects, to induce them to submit. But notwithstanding 
their respect for Montezuma rose almost to adoration, 
their indignation was excited to such a degree, that they 
instantly discharged at him a volley of stones and ar- 
rows, which wounded him so that he soon died. 

His son in law, Guatimo'zin, succeeded to the throne 
and vigorously prosecuted the war. But, though brave 
and *magnan)mous, he soon fell into the hands of the 
Spaniards, who disgracefully put him to death and took 
possession of the country. 


Mountains. Popocatepetl, Volcan de Orizaba, Cofre 
dc Perote Nevado de Toluco Pic de Tancitaro, Volcan 
de Colima, &c. These are some of the highest peaks 
of the great chain, which extends through Mexico from 
north to »outh, generally called the Cordilleras of New 
Spain. Some of these mountains, notwithstandhig their 
situation in the torrid zone, are so high as to penetrate 
the region of perpetual snow. They are rendered sub- 
lime and terrific by their frequent volcanic eruptions 
and the tremendous earthquakes, that sometimes attend 

In 1769, during one of these earthquakes, a new 
mountain) by the name of Volcan de Jurullo, was, in the 
interior of the continent, by subterranean fires, thrown 
up to the height of nearly 1 700 feet above the level of 
the adjoining plain. This is one of the most extraordi- 
nary events in the history of our earth.. There are seve- 
ral instances of volcanic islands having risen from the 
bed of the ocean, as those near the Azo'res, in the Ar- 
chipelago sea, and to the south of Iceland; but no other 
instance is known of a mountain's being raised in the 
centre of a vast plain. 

Lakes Chapa'la, Chalco, Tezcuco, San Christovalj 
Zunipango, Pascua'ro, Mexlillan, &c. 

These lakes are not remarkably large. They are 
sometimes much swollen by tropical rains, and are rep. 
resented as yery beautiful, 

JRiver8. Th^ Rio Bra'vo c/e/ Aorre, Colora'do, Pal- 
imas,'Tabas'co, Sumasin'ia? Rio de las Nueces, Tula> Pa- 
nuco, (Rio Tempico,) Zacatula, Culiacan, Mayo, Yopez, 
Gaudalaxara, Sec. 

Gulfs and Bays, Mexico^ Camfieachy^ Vera CruZy 
Honduras^ Amatique, Dulce, Solinas or Nicoya, Papa- 
guas, Fonseca, Tecoantepeck, California^ &c. 

Cafies. Gra'cios a Di'os^ Camaron, /Towt/w'rc^, False 
cape, Catoche, Mala, Blancho, Catherine, Corientes, St. 
JLucas. i!fe\ 

Face of the country ^ Climate^ ^c. A great part of the 
country of Mexico, though in the torrid zone, is elevated 
so high, as to enjoy a temperate and healthy climate. 


On the coasts, both of the Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans, the land, for some distance, is low and level, and 
the climate hot and unhealthy ; but a traveller may in a i 
few hours, by ascending the Cordilleras, pass from this * 
sultry and scorching heat of summer to the refreshing 
breezes of spring or autumn ; and by pursuing' his jour- 
ney, may in a short time reach the frosts and snows of 

&oil and Prcductions, In some places the soil is ex- 
tremely fertile, producing two or three harvests in a 
year. The productions are various and abundant. 
Wheat, rye J barley, maize (or Indian corn,) are huccess- 
fuUy cultivated. Apples, pears, grapes, melons, figs, Sec. 
are common. 

Gold and Silver mines are rich and numerous, and 
wrought to an immense profit. 

The Spanish dominions have hitherto been but imper- 
fectly known. Some late travels into these countries 
render them more interesting, and show, tha4:a great part 
of the country is rich in mineral and -vegetable pro- 
ductions, and that its population is numerous and in- 


The West Indies consist of a great number of islands 
in the waters of the Atlantic ocean, between North and 
South America, or the Gulf of Mexico and the Carib- 
be'an sea. 

The West Indies are divided into the Bahama or Lw 
c<iz/'o islands, the Great AntU'les, the Caribbee' islands, 
and the Liitle Antil'les. 


The Bahamas are. Great Bahama, Abaco or Luciy'o, 
Berrys' island, Andros, Nassau, New Providence, Eleu- 


thera, Green's island, Gfianaha'ni or St. Salvador, Wat- 
ling, Exu'ma, Yama or Long isjy^nd, Crooked, Mogane 
or Mayagua'na, Inagua, Caycos, Turks islands, &c. 



'Towns, Havan'na^ Principe, Baya'mo^ 
Cub J '^^'^^^ici' go^ St, Carlos. , 

• "^ Cafies, Cape St^ Antonio, Cape de Cruz^ 

Cape Maizi. 

Towna^ St. Jago or Spanish town, Kin^s^ 
Jamai'ca. -^ ton. 

Capes. Point Pedro, Morant Point. 
TT- ^- • /I fl'owns. Cnfie Fran^ois^ Port au Prince, 
St Domin 4 ^^- ^^"^^^g^' The Mole, Leogane, Sec. 
„ "! I Capes, Cape St. Nicholas, Cape Tiburon, 
g y u 1^ Cape Capricorn, Cape Raphael, &c. 

r Towns, St. John or St. Juan. 
Porto Ri'co.< Capes, Cape Agua'da, St. Juan, and 
(^ Roxa, 

These four are the largest and most important of the 
West India Islands. 


ThP Virp-ifj f Anega'da, St. Thomas, Torto'la, Virgin 

^^/; ^^f^" ^ Gor'da, St. Johns, St. Croix or Saftta 
isianaa. ^ ^^^^^ 

f Anguiria, St. Martin, St. Bartholomew's, 
J , J Barbu'da, St. Eus'tatia, St. Christopher's, 

l^eewarci, <^ g^^^^ -^^yis, Montserrat', Anti'gua, Desi- 

Lrade, Guadaloupe', Domini'ca. 

r Martini'co, St. Lu'cie, BarbaMoes, St. Vin- 
Windward. •< cent, Bequia,' Grenada^ Toba'go^ Trlnl- 




Little Antil- CAruba, Curazou or Curacoa, Bonaire, 
les. I Orchil 'la|^TorLu'ga, La Marg-^ri'ta. 

The West Indies are subject to frequent earthquakes, 
violent thunder and lightning, and in autumn to furious 
hurricanes. The cLmate, in general, is hot and un- 
#iealthy. The soil is fertile, and being watered by fre- 
quent showers, produces in abundance sugar, cotton, 
coffee, tobacco, indigo, ginger, pimento, various tropical 
fruits, and some drugs. There are some mines of silver 
and gold. 

When these islands were first discovered, it was 
supposed they belonged to the Asiatic islands, which 
were then known by the general name Indies ; but 
when it was ascertained, that ihey were on opposite parts 
of the earth, these, being in longitude west of Europe, re- 
ceived the appellation West Indies^ to distinguish them 
from the others, east of Europe, which accordingly were 
called £ast Indies, 


South America principally belongs to Spain, Portu- 
gal, and the original uncivilized inhabitants. 


Mountains. The Jndesy or CordiHeras of South A- 
merica: These are the highest mountains known. 

Lakes. Maracay^bo^ Tlticaca, Guanacache, &c. The 
lakes in South America are not large. 

Rivers, Orino'co. the Am'azons^i called also Mara'- 
non or Marag'non, Xh^Rio de la Plata, The two last are 
the largest rivers in the known world. They mn a 
course of nearly 3000 miles, and are about 150 miles 
wide at their mouths. 

Seas, Bays, Gulfs^ Isfc, Caribbe'an Sea.Gulf of Da'^ 
rien.Ba'hia or Jll Saints Bay, Assumption^ St. Matthias^ 
St. Josef, St.George's Bay, Gulfo/Fcnas^ Gulf of Che- 


liCs or Guay'tecas, Gulf of Guayaquil' ^ Bay of Bucna* 
t'cntu'ra^ and Pana!ma. Strait of Magel'lan^ and of Le 

Islands. Trinidad^ FernanUlo de JSl'oron'ha^ Trin'tda- 
da, St Catharine, Grande, Georgia^ Sandwich, -Fa/A*- 
land, Staten, Terra del Fuego or the Land of Fire, Trin- 
ity, Chilo' e^ Juan Fernan'dez^ St. Felix^ St, jimbrose^ 
Easter island, and the Galafia'gos, 

Cafies, Cafie Vela, Cape Nassau, Cape Orange, 
Cape North, Cape Maqui'ra, Cajie St» Roque^ Cape 
Frio, Cape St, Martha, Cape Santa Mari'a, Cape St. 
Anto'nio, Cape Corien'tes, Cajie Homey Cape Ti*QS 
Mon'tes, Cape St. Nicholas, Cafie Blanco^ &c. 


South America is divided into New Grana'da, Ve« 
iiezue'ia, Guia'na, Peru', Amazo'nia, Brazil. Bu'enos 
Ay 'res, and Patago'nia. 


New Grana'da contains 24 provinces. Those prov- 
inces in Italics, have their capitals of the same name. 

^ Provinces. 
"g I Verag'ua 

Princifial towns. 


Conception, St. Jago, in Rapasa 

N. America. Po)ia!yan 
• Pana'ma, 
. Porto Beilo. 

Pastos, " 

^1 Pana'ma 
g ! Da'rien 

Choco Ataca*mcs 

Zinu Qui'to 

Carthage'na Riobambo 

Santa Martha Guayaquil' 

Meri'da Macas 

San Juan de los Llanos Cuen'^a 
Santa Fe Sarte Fe de Bogo'ta* Loja 

Antio'quia JuandeBra- 
Novi'ta camc'ro*^. 

'y2 GUIANA. 

Mountains, Arides is the general name of the raomv 
tains in South America. The principal summits in 
New Grana'da are, Pachin'ca, Antisa'na, Catopax'i, Tun- 
gurag'ua, Chimbora^'zo. These are the highest moun- 
tains known, rising from 16,000 to more than 20,000 
4cet above a level with the sea. 

Rivers^ Magdale'na and its branchesjGua'yaquil^, 8<^: 


Provinces^ Margari'ta^ Cuma'na^ Barcelona, Carac" 
eas^ Truxil'lo^ McrUda^ Vari'na^. 

Toivns, Carac'cas^ Cuma'na^ MaracaVbo^ Barceio'na^ 
Guana'ra, Meri'da^ Barquisimc'to, Tecu'yo, Coro, San 
Carlos, Maracay',Tulme'ro, Valcn'cia, Victo'ria, Trux- 
irio, Porto Cavello, St. Philip, St. Thomas, Curia'co^ 
La Guira^ Vari'nas, San FernanMo. 

These towns are generally large, containing from 8 
or 10,000 to more than 40.000 inhabitants each* 

Mountains. Picha'co and Tumeriqui'ri. 

Seas i!f Lakes. Caribbe'an Sea^ Maracai'bo, and 
Valen'cia lakes. 

Rivers. Palmar or Sulia^ Tocu'yo, Aroa or Yara- 
cay, Tuy, and several branches of the Orino'co, 

Bays ^ Gulfs, Gulf ot V^enezue'la, Bay of Coro 
and Tacarag'ua, the Gulf Caria'co, and Paria or Tristet 

Margari^ta is the principal island 


Guia'na has been divided as follows. 

Spanish, extending from Orino^cc to the Essequebo.* 
Now C Dutch, Esseque'bo to the Maroni. 

Eng. X French or Cai/e?ine'^ Maroni to the Aroivary. 
Portuguese, Ar'ewary to the Jlm'azons^ 






Principal towns, 

New AnVsterdam 
Stab rook 

Cafies. Cape Bari'ma, Cape Nassau, Cape Orange^ 
Corroba'na point, and Cape North. 

This country is generally level and fertile ; produc- 
ing sugar, tobacco, indigo, cotton, coffee, cocoa, &c. 
There are only two seasons, the wet and the dry. The 
climate is unhealthy. 

In Surinam' is found that wonderful fish, called the 
torfiedoy whose touch excites a sensation similar to that 
of an electrical shock. 


Intenda?icies, TruxilUoj l^ar'ma^ Lvma^ Guan'ca 
Velica, Guaman'ga, Guantajaya, Cusco, Arequi'pa. 

Towns. Li'MA^Qlw^io^Cus'co^Ardfjui'fia^ Truxil'lo^ 
^uaman'ga^ Caxamar'ca, Lambaye'que, and lea, 

Mountai?i8, The Andes with their various summits, 
which rise to such a height, that they are covered with 
perpetual snow. 

Lake. Titicii^ca, ^ 

Rivers, The rivers are inconsiderable, except the 
GulU'ga and Ucay'le^ which are remarkable for being 
sources of the Am'azons^ taking their rise in this country 
among the Andes, 

There are but two seasons in Peru, summer and 
winter, which are the reverse of ours in North America. 
On tiie summit of the mountains however winter is per- 





jimnzo'nkiy situated in the interior of Soutli Americ^c 
nas not been sufficiently explored for accurate descrip- 
tion. It abounds with rivers, most of which unite their 
waters in the great river Jivi'azQtiB^ the largest in the 
world, and from which the whole country receives its 
name. It is mostly inhabited by Indians, who are supe- 
rior in arts mid improvement to those of North Ameri- 


Brazil is divided into the following provinces-. 
JSTorthern. Middle, Interior. 





Rio Grande 





Porto Segu'ro 
Espiritu Santo. 

Rio Janei'ro 
St. Vin'cent 
Del Key, 


Minas Geraes 

St. Paul 







Totvns, Rio Jane/ro or 5^. SjBAs'fJAN^ St. Sal* 
vador or Bahai, Fernavibu'co^ Para, Porto Segu'ro, San 

The three first towns contain from 40 to 140 thou- 
^apd inhabitants each. 

Rivers. The Jm'azons and the Tocantines with their 
numerous branches ; St. Francis'co, and several branch 
es of the La Pla'ta, are the principal. 

The Am'azons or Mara'non is the largest river in tb# 
world. It runs a course of more than 5000 miles, is aC 
fected by the tide 600, and it is said to be 150 miles wide 
at its mouth. It receives a vast number of streams, the 
pjUicigal of which are, the Rio Negro, Para'na, and 


Madei'ra. Alligators and serpents of enormous size in- 
fest the neighbouring marshes and the shores upon this 

Brazil' is a vast country, extending nearly 2003 
miles in ea^ch direction. The climate is generally tem- 
perate and healthy; the soil fertile, producing maize, 
wheat, rice, sugar-cane, coffee* indigo, tobacco, pepper, 
cotton, Sec. and the mines of gold, silver, and diamonds, 
are rich and productive. 

The royal family of Portugal, in 1 806, fled from the 
dangers, with which it was threatened by the ravages of 
Bonaparte in Europe, and took up their residence in 


Governments. Princifial towns, 

fLampa, Caiabay'a, Aranga'ro, and Asi'lo^ 
La Paz. < Laricax'as, 0masuyos, Chucuito, La Paz, 
(^ Pacajes, Paucar-Colla. 

dek Sierra. \ ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ Sier'ra. 

rCiacica, Pa'ria, Chayaota, Oruro.; Attaca- 

p, J ma, Carangas, La Plata, and Poto^siy Por- 

I CO, Amparaes, Lipos, Tarija or Chicas, 
\^Tomina, Pilay a and Pispaya, Cochabam'b^. 

Tucuman, Salta, Jujuy. 

Paraguay. Guarania, Paraguay. 

Bu'enos ^^u^enos At'rbs^ Mon'te T^Veo, Tugu, 
Ay'res. X Pampas. 

These governments have been so modified as to form 
three others in addition, vizt Paucar-Colla, Salla, and 

Towns. Bu'eno$ At^res^ Mon'teVi'deo^ Poto'si^ La 
Plata^ La Paz^ Assumfition^ Yaguaron, Puno, Chucuito, 
Santa Cruz de la Siir'ra, Orope'sa, Attaca'ma, Jujuy, 
Salta, Miguel, Santia'go^CorrienUes^Cordo'va^ Santa Fe^ 
St, Sacramen'to^ Maldona'do, 

Mountains, The Andes r\^e in the western part ot 


this government, and many branches of them pass off in- 
to the interiour. 

Lakes, Ttticaca is the principal ; it discharges its 
waters into another lake by the name of Pa ria, which 
appears to have no communication with the ocean. 

Rivers. The Rio de la PlatUy or the river Silver, 
is the largest ; its branches are large and numerous ; 
some of them take their rise in the Andes, near the Pa- 
cific ocean. The principal are the Tercero, i^lado, 
Verme'jojPilcomay'o, Paraguay, Parana, and the Urug'- 

The Rio de la Plata is navigable for vessels of bur- 
den to Assumption, about 1200 miles, though the chan- 
nel is so obstructed by shoals, as in many places to ren- 
der the navigation difficult and dangerous. 

There are in this country immense fields of grass 
called/zaw/ias, which extend several hundred miles, and 
afford range and pasturage to innumerable herds of wild 
cattle and horses ; vast numbers of which are killed for 
their hides only. The hunters pursue them on fleet 
horses, and while on full speed, drive in among them, 
and with cutlasses, sharpened for the purpose, cut the 
hamstrings of as many as possible, and thus barbaroiisly 
secure their game. 

The climate of this country is represented as healthy 
and delightful, the soil fertile, and the productions abun- 


Provinces. Copia'po, Coquim'bo, Quillo'ta, Aconcag'. 
ua, MelipiHa, St^Jago^ Rancag'ua, Calchag'ua, Maule, 
Itata, Chilian, Puchacay, Huilquilemu, Cujo, and Valdi'* 

Tovms. San^ia'co or S<f, Jago^ Cancefition^ Vallia* 
raiso^ Valdiv'ia^ Talca, Copia'po, Coqviim'bo, Mendo'ta^ 
St. Juan, Chaca'o, and Castro. 

Mountains* The Andes pass through Chili in seve- 
ral ridges and under various names. Some of th«^m 
rise to the immense height of 20,000 feet above the &ut- 
fece of the sea. 


Many of the mountains are volcanic and constantly 
burning, which gives them a grand and truly sublime 
appearance. Earthquakes are so frequent, that they give 
no alarm, although they have s'ometimes been attended 
with ruinous consequences. 

Lakes, Guanaca'che, Huechin, Layquin, and sever- 
al others, three of which are salt, but none are large. 

Rivers. The largest are Cauten, Maule, Bio'bio, 
Valdiv'ia, Sec. 

Climate and Soil, The climate is in general temper- 
ate and healthy. In the northern parts it seldom rains- 
The heavy dews afford sufficient moisture for vegetation* 
In the other parts, the year is divide into the wet and 
dry seasons, each continuing several months. The soil 
is rich, and watered by innumerable streams, whicli pre- 
cipitate themselves from the Andes, and of which some 
in their progress become rivers of considerable magnir- 


Patago'nia extends to the southern extremity of South 
America, a cold and severe latitude. Like Amazo'nia, it 
is inhabited by native tribes of Indians who are ignorant 
and superstitious. They pay some little attention to the 
cultivation of corn, and the raising of sheep. They gen- 
erally appear on horseback, live a wandering life, eat the 
ilesh of animals taken in hunting, and clothe them^ielvcs 
with their skins. The men have been represented as of 
uncommon strength and stature, and the women as sub- 
jected by them to an abject state of labour and drugc- 
ry. It is, however, but little frequented by other n^itions^ 
and of course not. well known. 

Mountains p The Andes or CordilUeras of South A- 
merica, which have before been mentioned, are the high- 
est, the longest, and the most remarkable in the world, 
They extend about 4600 miles, from the northern to the 
southern extremity of vSouth America. 

Their chief summits are near the equator, and the 


highest, which is Chimhoi a'zo, rises 20,280 feet, or morci 
than 3 miles above a level with the sea, which is ^000 
feet higher than Mount Blanc, the highest mountain in 

Chimbora'zo is covered with perpetual snow fiom 
2400 feet below the top. The plain of QuitOy whicli 
forms the base of these prodigious mountains, is elevated 
so far from the sea, as to constitute about one third of 
their height, so that from their base they do not surpass 
Mount Blanc. 

The other principal peaks or elevations are Cotopa'xi, 
a volcano, about 18,600 feet high ; Pachin'ca, Sanga, and 
the Altar. 

Rivers. Saladil'io, river of willows, Colord'do, and 
Rio Negro. 

South America is best known for its gold and silver 
mines. They are exceedingly rich, particularly those 
of C/«7iand Pc7^Uy and have been wonderfully productive 
to Spain. 



Mountains, The DoPrafeld, Ura^lian^ Pyrenees'^ Car- 
path'ia7iy Altis^ Ap'pennines. Mount Mtna^ Vesu'vius^ 
and Hecla are volcanoes. 

Oceans, The Atlantic^ the Jrtic or Xorthern 
Prozen Ocean^ the German Ocean, usually called the 
Korth Sea. 

Lakes, Lado^ga^ One'ga^ Ccn'stance^ Gene^va^ ^c. 

Rivers. The Wolga^ Don^ Dnze'per, Nzes'ter, Da^z- 
ube^ Fis'tuia. Oder^ Elbe^ Weser^ Rhine ^ Rhone^ Scone, 
Garonne'^ JLozre, Seine, Somme, Ta'gus^ Dou'ro^ E'broy 
Guadid'na, Guadalquiver^ Tiber^ Po^ Dwina^ South Dwi- 
na or Duna, Thames ^ Sev'eniy Humber, Mersey j the 
Fort/i^ Tay. Clyde^ Shannon^ Sec. 

Seas, The Med'iterra'nean^ the ArchijieVago^ the Sea 
of Mir'mora,the Black Sea^ the Sea ofA^zofihyWiQWhiti 
Seuy the Baltic^ the A''or(h Sea, and the Irish Sea. 


Gulfs. Gulf^f Venice^ Bothnia^ and Fmland. 

Bays. Bay of Biscay. 

Straits. Strait of Gibraltar^ Messi'na^ Bonafa^cio^ 
Dardanelles'. Constantinople or Bosfihorus^ CofFu or Je- 
nicalcj tlic Scag' track or Cat'tegat^ the Sound, the Strait 
of Do-oer^ the English channel^ St. George's channeUlJfc* 

Islands JSTova Zem'bla' ^ Sfiitsber'geriy Iceland., the 
Fer'ro, Shetland^ Orkney^ and Western Isles^ England^ 
Ireland^ the Isle of Man ^ An'glesedi^ Scilly isles^ Isle of 
White^ J'.rsey, GuQrn'sey^ AVderney^ and Sark ; in the 
Baltic are Funen, Zealand, Falster, Langland, Feme- 
ren, Laland Moen. Bornholm. Rugen^ Oeland^ Goth' 
land and Aland ; Dago, and Oesel^ belonging to Russia ; 
Ushant^ Belle isle\ isles of Rhe and Oleron in the Bay of 
Biscay^ belonging to France. 

. Ifi the Mediterranean are Yv^ica^ Major' ca. Minor' ca^ 
Cor^sica., Sardin'ia^ jElba, Sicily^ Slorm'boli, Lipfari^ and 
Malta ; in the Gulf of Venice are Corfu^ Cefihalo'niay 
Zante, &c. which form what has been called the Repub- 
lic of the Seven Islands ; Candia^ Rh6d<?s, Cyfirus., in the 
Lerantf^ NegroponU or Egrifio^ Samos^ Chios, Lesbos, 
Lemnos, Icaria, Paros, Patmos, kc. in the Archipel'ago. 

Peninsulas, Jutland or Denmark Proper, Spain^ It' 
aly., Vfore^a Crim'ea* 

Isthmuses. Cor'inth^ and Precop or Per' e cop. 

Capes. J^orth Cape^ J^aze or Lindeness^ Spurn 

Head. Lizard Pointy Lands End^ Cape Clear^ Gape la 

Hogue^ Cape Or'tegal^Cape Finisterre^ Cape St.Vin'cent^ 

Cape Pas' saro^SpartivenUOy Di Leuca, Cape Mat'apan. 


Europe comprehends Lapland^ JVorway^ Sweddn^ 
Russia^ Denmark^ Prussia^ Bata'via or Holland, Gfr;7za- 
ny^ Po/anc?, Austria, Hun'gary^ France^Spain^ Portu'gal^ 
Switzerland^ Italy ^ Turnkey ^ and the united kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland^ 


Lapland is divided into Danish or North Lapland, 


Swedish or Soutii Lapland, and Russian or East Lapland. 
The extent ot these divisions is uncertain. 

The Laplanders are under no regular government ; 
they live in huts so low, as scarcely to admit of their 
standing upright Their fire is built in the centre, 
around which they set upon their heels. In this man- 
ner, when they eat, both men and women assemble 
around their food, which is placed on the ground, or up- 
on the carpet. They live in a state of great ignorance, 
having neither writing nor letters, but only a number of 

Climate, The winters are intensely cold. In at- 
tempting to drink, the iips are frequently frozen to the 
cup.— The snow sometimes falls to the depth of 4 or 5 
feet, which renders the country almost impassable till 
after a thaw and a succeeding frost ; the Laplander is 
then presented with a smooth level of ice, over which 
he travels with his rein deer in a sledge 2 or 3 hundred 
miles a day. 

In some parts of Lapland the sun, in winter, is absent 
several weeks, but the moon and stars are almost con- 
stantly visible, and, together with the northern ligi.t, ren- 
der the night less dreary than might be expected. In 
summer the sun does not set for the same length of 
time, which for several weeks renders the heat exces- 

Mountains. Lapland is a vast mass of mountains 
irregularly crowded together, but in some places sepa- 
rated by rivers and lakes- 

Metals, Silver, gold, copper, and lead mines have 
been found in Lapland, and wrought to some profit. 

Animals, Rein deer are numerous in Lapland, and 
of great importance lo the inhabitants. They supply 
the places of cattle an») horses. Their flesh affords food, 
their skins clothing, their milk cheese, and their tendons 

thread and cordage. 



Norv/ay, (or the Northern \Vay,j which now is sub- 
ject to Sweden, is divided into four governments. 


Government. Princifial towns. 

Ward'huys Ward'huys. 

Dron'theim Dron'theim, 

Bcr'gen , Bcr'gen. 

Ag'gerhuEs Christia'na^ Fred' erick shall'* 

Mountains, the Dof'rafeld or Daara-field separate 
A'orivay from Sweden, They form a long chain, and 
are known by different names ; as FiKlefield, Runiield* 
Dourfield, 8cc. 

Islands, The Loff'oden isles. 

Cafies, North cafic^ the JSTaze or Lindeness. 

On the northwest coast of Norway is the famous vor- 
tex, called the MaeV stroom It is heard at a great dis- 
tance, and forms a whirlpool of vast depth and extent, 
and is so violent, that when a ship comes near, it is 
drawn in and shattered to pieces. 

The CVima^e of Norway is various:. The days in win- 
ter are short and cold ; in summer they are long and hot, 
for several weeks. 

The country is rough, and so barren, that the inhabi- 
tants live principally by hunting and fishing. 

The chief wealth of Norway consists in its immense 
forests, which furnish foreigners with various kinds of 
timber ; such as masts, boards, &c. 


Denmark Proper is a small kingdom, consisting on» 
lyof the peninsula of Jutland, and several islands in the 
Baltick sea ; but to Denmark belong the northern part 
of Lapland^ Greenland^ Iceland^ and the Faro isles. 

Provinces, Principal towns. 

fN, Jutland, Wiborg, Alborg, Aarhuus. 
Denmark J S. Jutland,") ci , - i a i. , Tr. . 

Profier. i Sles^mck, 1%\^^T^\ Ktel, 

LHorstdn. J Gluckstad^ Toi^^mngen. 



Piincipal fZea'land Copenha'gen^ Elsineur'. 

Islands, (^Fynen Odcnsee. 

The other islands are FaFster, Langland, Laland, 
Fcm'eren, Al'sen, Mona, Bornholm ; Iceland in the 
northern part of the Atlantic, (the chief town bkalholt,) 
Spitzber'gen, and the Faro isles. 

Cofienhagen^ the capital of Derimark^ on the island 
of Zea'land, is a noted sea-port. It signifies the mer" 
chant^a haven. It is one of the best fortified, and the 
most regularly built cities in the North of Europe, 

Elsineur' is situated on the Soundbox passage into the 
Baltic where vessels, visiting this sea, are obliged to 
pay a toll or small tribute, to Denmark. 

Keel, in Hoi stein, has a respectable university. Al- 
tona, on the Elbe, is next to Copenha'gen in commerce 
and population. 

Iceland, 2. large and celebrated island, is subject to 
Denmark. For two months the sun never sets in sum- 
mer, nor rises in winter. This island abounds in sul- 
phur, subterranean fires, and volcanos. Mount Hecla 
is a volcano one mile high, and is always covered with 
snow. Several years ago a volcanic island near Ice- 
land rose from the bottom of the sea ; but it soon after 

Greenland, celebrated for its whale fishery, and the 
Faro islands, belong to Denmark 

The climate of Denmark is temperate for the latitude. 
The transitions from summer to winter, and the reverse, 
are so sudden, that spring and autumn are scarcely 

The ancient Danes were courageous almost to feroc- 
ity ; the present inhabitants are more mild and polished. 

Denmark is a hereditary kingdom, and governed in 
an absolute manner. 


Sweden is divided into the following provinces. 


Provinces*^ Frincifial towns* 

Sweden proper StocK^HOLM^ Upsal. 

Gothland CalmarjLundenjGorVew^wr^. 

Finland Abo. 

Swedish Lapland Tor'nea, 

Islands. Gothland^ Oland^ Aland^ Rugen, Born- 

Gulfs. Finland^ and BotJinia. 

Straits. The Sound, between Sweden and the Island 
of Zea'land. 

Stock'holm^ the capital of Sweden, is built on several 
rocky islands, which are united by wooden bridges. 

Ujisal is a considerable town, and noted for its univer- 

Abo^ the capitsil of Finland, is a seaport, from which 
are exported grain, flax, and iron. 

Climate. In Sweden there is neither spring nor au- 
tumn. Summer suddenly succeeds winter, and the val- 
lies are green in a few days after being covered with 

The Swedes are in general healthy, cheerful, com- 
plaisant, and courageous. They patiently endure hun- 
ger, cold, and poverty. The women are frequently en- 
gaged in the most laborious and painful occupations a- 


Russia includes most of the North of Europe, and 
all the North of Asia. It is divided into about 50 prov- 
inces or governments, the principle of which are St. 
Pe'tersburg, iievel, Riga, Courland, Lithua'nia, Novo'- 
gorod, Smolensk', Mos'qua, Voro'nez, Bel'gorod, Oio- 
netz, Vologda, Kiow, \rchan'gel, Vyborg, Caucasus, 
Perme, Tobolsk', and the country of the Cossacks, or 
Don Kazacks. 

Tow7i8, PErERSBURG. Narva, Moscow^ Archan'gel^ 
Vyborg, Riga^ Polotsk^ Wil'nd^ Revel, Cronstadt, Tu- 
la, Odes'sa, Azo/y Precofi, Cherson, Oc'zakow, &c. in 
Europe; and As'trachan^ Ouralsk, Arenburg, Tobolsk'^ 


Ob'dorskoi, CoUyvanc' Ecal'erinburn, Tomsk, Irkutsk, 
Yakutsk, Okotsk, Sec, in Asia. 

Mountains, The Oural or Ura'lian^ the Ol'onetz, &c 

Lakes. Lado'ga^ One'ga^ Peypus, Umen, &c. 

Rivers. The IVolga^ Don^ Niefier^ Nils' ter^ Dunoj 
Cara, Petchora, Mezen, Dwina.^ One'ga, Neva, 8cc. 

Gulfs. Fin land J Livo'nia or Riga. 

Islands, Cronstad/ ,Oe'sel5 Dago» 

The river IVolga, or To/^a, the largest in Europe, 
and Uialian mountains, tuake the boundary between Eu- 
rope and Asia. 

The extent of Russia affords a great variety in both 
soil and climate. In the northern part the winter is 
severe, in the southern moderate, and the seasons are 
pleasant and temperate. 

Russia is generally a level country, abounding with 
marslies, forests, lakes, and rivers. 

Government* The government of Russia is an ab- 
solute monarchy. The emperour has the lives and for- 
tunes of his subjects at his own disposal. The succes- 
r>ion is hereditary, although the reigning sovereign has 
the power of appointing his successour. 

Commerce. Russia is noied for its timber, hemp, and 
flax trade ; for its iron and copper mines ; its pich, tar, 
wax, and honey ; and its furs and peltry. Inland navi- 
gation is extensive, both by caravans and canals. To 
China the merchants send furs ; and in return bring home 
tea, silk, cotton, gold, &c. 


Poland is divided into 1 2 provinces. 

Provinces. Great Poland, Little Poland, Prussia 
Royal, Mosa'via, Pola'chia, Red Prussia, Podo'lia, Vol- 
hyn'ia, Litlma'nia, Samogi'tia, and Courland. 

Towns. War'saw^ Cra'cotVy JDant'zic, Thotriy Wit^ 
na^ Le'opold or Lemburg. 

Mountains. Krafiack or Carfia'thian mountains. 

Rivers. The Vistula or Wesel, the Bug, the Me-= 
mel, Prypec, the Nie'per, the Nies'ter, and the Bog. 


Poland^ though at present struck out of the list of 
nations, being divided between Russia, Prussia, and 
Aus'tria^ yet, on account both of historical and political 
knowledge, requires a place in geography. 

War'saw, situated on the Vis'tula, is surrounded by a . 
mote and a double wall. The city and its suburbs oc- 
cupy a great extent. It has a melancholy appearance, 
exhibiting a contrast of wealth and poverty, luxury and 
distress, which pervade every part of this unhappy coun* 

The Carfidthian mountains are high and always cov- 
ered with snow, which has been known to fall in the mid- 
dle of summer. 

The salt mines in Poland are a great curiosity. 
They are 6 or 8 hundred feet deep, more than 1000 broad 
and extend to 6 or 8 thousand feet in length. The top 
of the cave is supported by columns of salt, which have 
been left for supports to the roof. When these mines 
are illuminated, they exhibit a brilliant appearance , the 
smooth and transparent surface of the salt, reflecting all 
the colours of the rainbow. 


Prussia is a small kingdom. It is divided into Du- 
cal Prussia (now called the kingdom ot Prussia,) Polish 
Prussia or Prussia Royal, Sile'sia, &c. 

Towns, BER'LiNy Kon'ingsberg^ Dant'zic^ Thorn^ 
War'saw^ EPbing, Bres'law, Potz'dam. 

Rivers. The Via'tiila^ the Pregel, the Mcmel, the 

Gulfs. The principal is th^t of Dant'zlc. 


The British Dominions include Great Britain, Ire- 
land and the adjacent islands. 

The island of Great Britain is about 300 miles broad 
600 long, and contains about 1 2,000,000 inhabitants. It 
is divided into England, Scotland, and Wales. 



England contains 40 counties or shires, 



Princifial towns. 

J^ew'castle^ Morpeth, Alnwick. 

Carlisle'^ Penrith, Whitehaven. 

Appleby, Kendal. 

Durham, Stockton^ Sun'derland, 
York J Leeds, Hull, Scar'bofough, 
Wakefield, Seffield. 
Lan'caster, Liv erfiool, Manchester. 

Berwick-ufion-Tweed is on the borders of England 
and Scotland. It properly belongs to neither, but pos- 
sessing peculiar privileges, is both a town and county of 

York is the capital of the north, and, in point of rank, 
is the second city in England. 

Leeds and Wakefield SLve celebrated for woollen cloth, 
Sheffield for cutlery and hardware, and Manchester for 
cotton goods. 

Liverfiool, upon the river Mersey, is a large and flour- 
ishing seaport, and, though a century ago but a small 
village, it is now the second port iti the kingdom. 

Glot/ces'ter shire , 

Princifial towns. 
Chester, Nantwich, Mac'clesfield. 
Derby, Chesterfield, Ashborn. 
Stafford, Litchfield, Leek. 
Warwick, Bir^mingham, Coventry. 
Worcester, Kid'dermin'ster. 
Shrews' bury, Ludlow, Bridgenorth. 
Hereford, Ledbury, Leom'inster. 
Monmouth, Abergai^en'ny. 
GloMcf s'ter, Bristol, Tewkesbury* 
Oxford, Hanley, Banbury. 

Buckinghamshire. Ayles'bury, Buckingham, 


Derbyshire is celebrated for many natural curiosities 
among which are the mountains of the Peajt, which are, 
much visited on account of their extraordinary caverns 
and perforations. 

Staffordshire and Worc^ s'tershire are noted for their 
porcelain and earthen ware. 

Bir'mingham is a large and populpus town, noted for 
its cutlery and hardware. 

Strafford upon Avon is the birthplace of Shakspeare. 

Kid'dermin'ster has a large manufactory of carpets. 

Droitioich is noted for its salt-pits, from which are an- 
nually obtained 700,000 bushels. 

Cheshire and Gloucestershire are famous for cheese. 
Bristol^ in wealth, trade, and population, is the third 
city in England. 

Oxford has one of the best endowed universities in 
the world. Eton is likewise celebrated for its college. 

Counties* Princifial towns. 

Bedfordshire. Bedford, Ampthill, Woburn. 

Huntingdonshire. Huntingdon, St. Ives, St Neot*s. 

Northamptonshire. Northampton, Peterborough. 

Rutlandshire. Oakham, Uppingham. 

Leices'tershire. Lefces'ter, Loughborough. 

Nottinghamshire. Nottingham, NeVark, Mansfield. 

Lincolnshire. Lincoln, Stamford, Boston. 

Norfolk. Norivich^ Yarmouth^ Lynn. 

Suffolk. Ipswich, Bury, Hadley. 

Cambridgeshire. Cam bridge ^ New'market, Royston. 

Hertfordshire. Hertford, St, Alban's, Hitchin. 

Essex. Chelmsford, Colchester, Harivich* 

Cambridge is the seat of a celebrated university. 


Harwich is a portjwhence passengers usually embark 
for Hollando 

Counties. Princifial towns. 

Middlesex. London, West'minster jVxhrid^e. 
Kent. Canterbury, Maidstone, Dover. 
Sussex. Chichester, Lewis, BrighVAe/7n«ton. 
Surry. Guildford, Southwark, Kingston. 
TT i^» 5 Winchester, Portsmouth, South- 
amps ire* ^ampton. 

Berkshire. Reading, Windsor, Abington. 

Wiltshire. Sahs'buryj Devizes, Mirrborough. 

Sonle-rsetshire. IJat/i^ Wells, Taunton, Bridgewater. 

Devonshire. Exeter, Plymouth, Barnstable. 

Dorsetshire. Dorchester, Weymouth, Blandford. 

Cornwall. Launceston, Falmouth, Truro. 

London, the metropolis of the British empire, is situ- 
ated on both sides of the T/^ames, about 60 miles from 
the sea. It is 18 or 20 miles in circumference, contains 
about 1,000,000 of inhabitants, and on account of its rich- 
es, commerce^ and manufactures, may be considered the 
first city in the world. 

Plymouth^ Chatham, Portsmouth, Woolwich, are 
large dockyards. 

Devizes is noted for its wool trade ; Wilton for its 

Somersetshire supplies lead, copper, 8cc. Bath ia 
celebrated for its medicinal waters. 

Mountains, Hills, Isfc. Skiddaw, the Peak, the En- 
dle, the Wolds, the Chiltern, Malvern, Cotswold, Wrek- 
en. Mindip, Chev'iot hills, &c. The last are between 
England and Scotland. 

Lakes. Win <n'der mere', Derwent, Uls water, &c. 

Pivers, The Thames, Severn, Number, Trent, 
Ouse, Mersey, Dee, the four Ayons, Tyne, Tweed, &c. 


Bays. Mount's bay, Tor-bay^ St. Ives, Milford haven^ 
St, Brides bay, tar'digan^ Caernarvon, Robinhood bay, 

Island^^ The Isle of Wight ^ An'glesea^ Isle of Man ^ 
Scilly isles, Lundy isle. Coquet, Holy^ Guern'sey^ Jer* 
Bey-i Al'derney^ and Sark, The four last are near the 
coast of France. 

Cafies, Lizard Pointy Land'^s End, Start Point, St. 
Alban's Head, Spurn Head, Flamboiough Head, St, 
Bees Head, Rossal Point, Orme's Head, Stumble Head, 
^t. David^s Head^ St. Gowen's Head, Hartland Pointy 
Trevose Head, Towan Point, Cape Cornwall, 8cc. 

Climate, England, being surrounded by water, is 
less subject to extreme heat and cold, than most places 
in the same latitude on the continent. The sea breezes 
moderate the severity both of summer aud winter. The 
weather is inconstant, and the frequency of fogs and 
clouds contributes much to the perpetual verdure of the 

Soil. The soil, though not remarkable for its natu- 
ral fertility, is, under a most skilful cultivation, abun- 
dantly productive ; and the scenery of the country is rep- 
resented as inimitably beautiful. 

Metals, istc. The tin mines of Cornwall are the most 
remarkable, and are of immense value to the nation. 
The number of mines is said to amout to 100,000. 
Silver^ gold^ cofiJier,lcad^ &c. have been found. There 
are salt-pits and quarries oimardle 2indfreestone in many 
places, and iron ore and pit coal in great abundance. 

Character. The English are in general of a moderate 
stature, regular features, and of a fair and florid com- 
plexion. Their valour, both by sea and land, is univer- 
sally acknowledged, and no nation surpasses them in true 
and solid learning. 

Government, The Biitish government is a limited 
monarchy. It consists of a king, who is a hereditary 
and independent sovereign, a hereditary house of lords, 
and of representatives, who are elected by the people. 
These three powers, composing the parliament or geti- 

70 WALES. 

eral assembly of Great Rritain, are useful checks upqn 
each other. 

Commerce. Commerce and manufactures have ren- 
dered the English one of the most powerful nations in 
the world. The woollen, cotton, hard- ware, and porce- 
lain manufactures are the most important, and are sour- 
ces of immense wealth to the kingdom. The ocean is 
covered with her ships, which carry her productions and 
arms to every part of the globe. 


Wales is divided into 12 counties. 
Counties, Frincifial Towns, 

Flint. Flint, St. Asaph, Holywell. 

Denbighshire. Denbi^/i, Wrexham^ Ruthen. 

Isle of An'glesea. Becuma'ris and Holyhead, 

Caernarvonshire, Caernarvon, Bangor, Conway. 

Merionethshire. Dolgelly, Bala, Harlech. 

Montgorrfery shire. Montgom'ery, Welch Pool. 

Cardiganshire. Cardigan, Aberistwith. 

Radnorshire. Radnor, Preste/^-n, Knighton. 

Brecknockshire. Brecknock, Builth, Hay. 

Glamorganshire. Cardiff, Landaff, Cov/bridge, 

Caermarthenshire. Caermarthen, Kidwelly. 

Pembrokshire. Pembroke, St, JDavid^s^ Milford, 

Mountains, Wales is a mountainous country. The 
principal mountains are Snowden and Plinlim'mon. 

Rivers, The Wye, and the sources of the Severn, 
and the Dee. 

Wrexham is the largest town in North Wales, and is 
famous for its flannels. 

Holyhead is a seaport, whence passengers usually 
embark for Dublin. 



Milford Haven is an excellent harbour, perhaps the 
best in Great Britain, and as safe and spacious as any in 
Europe. A thousand ships may lie here in perfect 

The Welch are the worthy descendants of the ancient 
Britons, They are passionate, but honest, brave, and 


Scotland is divided into 33 counties. 


Princifial towns. 




Wick, Thurso. 


Strathy Dornock. 


Tain, Dhigwall. 







Elgin or Murray. 

Elgin, Forres. 




jib rdeen. 


Bervie, Kinkardine* 


Montrose, Forfar. 


Perth, Dunkeld. 


St. Andrews, Cupar* 






Stirling, Falkirk, 








Ayi Irvine. 


Renfrew, Greenock, 


Glasgow^ Lanerk. 






Haddington, Dunbai?. 


Berwick. Berwick, Dunsc. 

Roxborough. Jedburgh. 

Selkirk. Selkirk. 

Peebles. Peebles. 

Dumfries. Dumfries. 

Kirkcudbright. Kirkcudbright. 

Wigtown. Wigtown, Whitehorn. 

Mountains. The Grampian hills, Pentland hills, 
Lammer Muir, and the Cheviot hills. 

Lakes. Loch Lomond, Loch Tay, Loch Fine, Loch 
Awe, Loch Ness, Sec. 

Rivers. The Forth^ the Tay^ the Tweed, the Dee, 
the Don, the Spey, the Clyde^ the Nith, &c. 

Islands. The Heb'rides or Westtrn Itsles^ of which 
Harris or Lewis is the largest ; the Ork'neys^ the Shet- 
icnd, Arran. and Bute. 

Capes and Headlands. St. Abbe's Head, Kinnaird's 
and Dun'cansby's He^id. 

Scotland, anciently called Caledo'nia, is separated 
from England by the river Tweed, Cheviot hills^ and 
the Solway Frith. 

It is divided by the river Tay into North Scotland, 
or the Highlayids^ and South Scotland, or the Lorolands* 

EdHnburghs the capital of Scotland, is situated near 
the river Forth. It stands on an eminence, and makes a 
grand appearance. The castle is built on a solid rock 
of great height, which overlooks the city, and com- 
mands an extensive and beautiful prospect. 

GlasgoHV^ situated on the Clyde, is for population, 
riches, and commerce, the second city in Scotland. 

Aberdeen! is situated on the river Dee, and, for its 
trade, extent, and beauty, considered the third city in 
Scotland. Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Aberdeen, are all 
celebrated for their universities. 

The Scotch are temperate, industrious, hardy, and 
valiant ; they are great lovers of learning, and many of 
tjjem have been eminent in the sciences. 

England and Scotland were formerly two kingdoms ; 
but they have been united more than 100 years. 




Ireland is divided into 4 provinces ; Leinster, Ulstei*, 
Munster, and Connaught. These are subdivided into 
32 counties. 

Leinster contains 12. 


Principal toion^. 











East Meath. 


West Meath. 


King's County. 

Philip's Town. 

Queen's County- 

Mary Boro*. 




Naas, Athy, 



Ulster contains 9. 










Carrickfer'gus, Belfast. 









Munster contains 6. 













Connaught contains 5. 









Mountains. In Ireland there are several lofty moun- 
tains. Mourne and Iveah are among ttie highest. 

Lakes, Ireland abounds in lakes or loughs^ as they 
are called in that country. The principal arc lough 
Neagh, Erne, Foyle, Corrib, Ree, and Derg. 

Lough Neagh is remarkable for its efficacy in scrof- 
ulous diseases, and for its petrifying qualities, or for its 
changing wood and other substances into stone. 

Rivers. The Shannon., the Blackwater, the Barrow, 
Noir, Suir, Liffey, Boyne, Bandon, Derg, &c. 

Bays and Harbours, Donegal bay, Belfast lough, 
Sligo, Galway, Dingle, and Bantry bays; Cork, Water- 
ford, and Wexford harbours. 

Islands. Raghlin, Ennistrahul, Tory, North and 
South Arran, Clara, Blasquets, Skelig, Valentia, 8cc 

Dublin^ the capital of Ireland, is situated on both 
sides of the Liflfey. It is considered the second city in 
the British dominions, and contains \ 40.000 inhabitants. 

The appearance of the metropolis, the bay of Dub- 
lin, and the surrounding country, is grand and beautiful. 

Trinity College, in Dublin, is the only university in 

The other moiit considerable towns are Cork<^ Lim.- 
erick, Galway. Londonder'ry^ Belfast^ Waterford, Car- 
rickfer'gus, and Ar'magh. 

Character. The Irish are generally well made, strong, 
active, haughty, careless of their lives, and greedy of glo- 
ry quick of apprehension courteous to strangers, and 
often violent in their passions. Ireland has produced 
many great men. 



Bata'via or Holland had 7 Provinc-es. 


Provinces* Princifial towns. 

^Jmsi'erdam, Rotter- 
^^"^"^' I dam, Ley'den, the Hague. 

Zealand. Mid'dieburg, Flushiog. 

mrec/;t. V'irec/it, 

C Guel'derland Nimegusn, 

I and Zutphen. Zulphen* 

Overys'sel. De venter. 

Gron'ingen. Gron'ingen. 

Friesland. Lewav'den. 

Rivers. The Rhine^Xhe^ Maese, the Schelc^t. 

Islands, The Tex'el^,\y\i\c\\ lies at the mouth of the 
Zuyder Zee, has a good harbour, and a town of the same 
name. There are some other islandsj but they are 

These provinces lie opposite to England, at the dis- 
tance of 90 miles, upon the east end of the English chan- 
nel. They are a narrow tract of low, swampy land, ly- 
ing below the mouths of several rivers. The streets 
have canals running through them, bordered with rows 
of trees. During the conquest of Holland by the Frep'jh 
this country, including the whole Dutch territory *^n the 
Netherlands, was divided into fifteen departrnf* nts, viz. 
Am'sterdam, U'trecM? Friesland, Delft, the iims, Res 
and Aa, North and Zuyder Zee, Sparen, Yssel, Rhine, 
Merwe, Waal, Schelc/t, Mark, Meuse. 

Holland is the finest and richest of all thciie provinces. 

Am'sterdam^ the capital, is a fine, r\Q\\ city, contain* 
ing about 240,000 inhabitants. The houses are all built 
upon piles or beams of v/ood, driven Ynto the soft earth. 

Rot'terdam ranks next for comme.rce and wealth. It 
stands on the Maese, and is the birth place of the famous 
Erasmus, Its inhabitants are 60^000. 

The Hague, though called a village, was long the 
seat of government, and the residence of all the foreign 
ambassadors and strangers of distinction. It is celebrat- 


ed for the magnificence and beauty of its buildings, ana 
the politeness ot its inhabitants, who are computed at 
40,000. Leyden and U'trec^^t are fine cities, as well 
fis famous for their universities. 

Climate. This country .consists of land between the 
mouths of great rivers, and of what the inhabitants have 
gained from the sea, by means of dykes, which were 
raised, and which are still supported at an incredible 

The air is fog^gy ; and the moisture of the atniospheTC 
causes metals to rust, and wood to decay, more than in 
other countries. 

The soil is unfavourable to vegetation, but by indus- 
try it is rendered fit for both pasture and tillage. Here 
are no mountains or rising grounds, no plantations or 
cataracts. The whole face of the country, when viewed 
from a tower, has the appearance of a continued mars>h 
or bog, drained by innumerable ditches. The canals 
are numerous, and serve the same purpose as roads in 
other countries. 

Pofiulation. This country is perhaps the best peo- 
pled of any spot in the world. The number of inhabi- 
tants is about 3,000,000. Great cleanliness, neatness, 
ifiyustry, and econ'omy are observed among them. The 
air ai?d temperature of the climate, and the government, 
incline chem to phlegmatic, slow dispositions, both in 
body and .mind. 

Character. The Dutch are distinguished for their 
industry, econ'omy, and love of liberty ; but the over- 
whelming power of France deprived them of their free- 
dom, and reduced them to a state of servitude and op- 
pression. They are now, however, released from this 
iron bondage. 

Learning. Among the learned men, Erasmus, Gro- 
tlus, and Bo'er/zaavc are most eminent. The invention 
of printing is claimed by the Dutch. Their universities 
are those of Leyden, U trec/zt, Gron'ingen, Har'derwick, 
and Francker. 

Curhsities Their prodigious dykes, to preserve the 
country from inundations, are stupendous. The stadt* 


house of Am'sterdam is a fine building ; it stands on 
nearly 14,000 long^ piles driven into the ground. In 
I this couutry are several njuseums. containing many sin- 
gular curiosities, natural and artificial. 

Commerce, The Dutch, before the late revolution^ 
were the most commercial people in the world. Their 
commerce extended to all parts ; and their East India 
fleet brought them every summer large quantities of 
gold, besides pearls, diamonds, ivory, spices, kc. 



Consisted of 10 Provinces to the south of Bata'via ; 
viz. Flanders, Brabant, Ant'werp, Mechlin, I^imburgh, 
l-ux'emburgh, Mamur', Hainault, Cambray, and Artois. 

Cities ksf Towns, jlnt/werp^ once the emporium of 
the Europe'an continent, is nov/ reduced to a tap'estry and 
tbread-lace shop One of the first exploits of the Dutch, 
after they shook off the Spanish yoke, was to ruin the 
commerce of Ant'werp, by sinking vessels, loaded with 
stone, in the mouth of the Schelt/t, thDS shutting up for- 
ever the entrance of that river to ships of burden. This 
was the more cruel, as the people of Ant'werp had been 
their friends and fellow-sufferers in the cause of liberty^ 

Brussels is also a fine town : here are made the best 
camlets, and the finest kinds of lace. Brussels, Lou- 
vain, and St. O'mers, have been famous for their col- 
leges. Bru'ges, Ostend', and Newport lie near the sea. 
Lisle is a large and rich town. Gacnt, a considerable 
town, is divided by canals into 26 islands, and over these 
are 300 bridges. 

JRivers, The Maese, Schek/t, Sambre, Sec. 

Canals. Brussels, Ghent, Ostend', ScCc 

jlir^ Soil^ ^c. The air on some parts of the coast 

is bad, m the interior it is more healthful. The soil is 

rich, and produces excellent corn, fruits, and flax. 

They have abundance of pasture. Travelling in this 




luxuriaiu country is safe and delightful. Flanders is a 
flat country, with scarcely a single hill. The roads are 
generally a broad causeway and run several miles in a 
straight line, till they terminate in a view of some mag- 
nificent building. 

Religion, Before the conq\iest of the country by the 
French, the establi^ hed religion was the Roman Catho- 
lic ; but Protestai!tSj and other sects, were not mo- 

.4rtic<t$ Isf Learning, The Fiendish painters and 
scalptors have grea* merit. The works of Rubens ?nd 
Vandyke' are groatly admired. Strada was an elegant 
historian and poet 

Their nanufactures are beautiful linens and laces, in 
which they are unrivalled, particularly in tlieir cambric's 
from Cambrav. 


Germany contains V great Divisions or Circles. 
Princifial towns. 

Lower Saxony. 
Upper Saxony 

Lower Rhine. 

L^pper Rhine, 





C Munster, Embden, Paderbornj Os'na- 
^burg. Minden, Dus'seldorf. 

Brunswick, Han'over^ 

C Ham' burgh. B] 
'I MecV/ienburg^ 


Dresden^ Frankfort, Lexfi'sic^ Ber* 


S H(^i'delburg, Worms, Mentz^ Cc* 

2 logne'. Bon. 
Frankfort, Spire. 
Nu'remburg, Wurtzburg. 
Au^s'burg, Wir'temburg. 

hiich^ S^lts'burg, Ingoidstadt, 

C Muhi 
\ Ratisbon. 



The mountains are the Mp8y and those on the borders 
of Bohe'mia. 

Tne lakes are those of Con'stance, Chiemsee, and th©^ 

The rivers of Ger'many are the Dan'ube^ the Rhine^ 
the FAbe^ the Oder. Weser. and the Mame 

Haiti bwrgh is situated on the Elbe^ and is one of the 
first commercial cities in Europe. 

Bcr'lin^ the capital of the Prussian dominions, is sit- 
uated in Germany. 

Fien'na was formerly the capital of the whole German 
emnire. But in 1806 the constitution of Germany was 
dissolved by the power of France, and it is now the cap- 
ital only of the Aus'irian'<!ominjons. 

The above circles are again subdivided into numer- 
ous principalities, duchies, electorates bishopricks, See. 
and besides these, there are a number of free cities, 
which are independent states. 

The Dayi'ube rises in Sua'Hia, near the borders of 
Switzerland, and passing by Ulm, Rat'isbon^ Vicn'na^ 
and through Hun'gary and Turkey, falls into the Black 
Sea by several channels. 

The Rhine rises in the Alps, and passes through lake 
Constance. After passing many cities, and dividing 
France from Germany, it almost loses itself in the sands 
belov/ Ley 'den, in Bata'via. 

Inhabitants. The Germans are frank, grave, hospit- 
able, and generally honest in their dealings ; excellent 
both in arts and war Industry, application, and per- 
severance are their characteristics ; although by some 
they are thought to want animation. They have distin- 
guished themselves in various branches of learning. 


The Jus'trian Dominions^ or the Emfiire of Austria, 
comprehend the following countries. 







"Archduchy > 
of Aus'tna. 3 

{Bohemia Proper. 
Mora' via. 

rUpper Hungary. 
J Lower Kungary. 
j Transylva nia. 

Principal toivns. 

ViEN'NAy Lintz. 

Giatz, Judenburg. 
Clagenfurt, Pleyburg. 
Lay bach, Tries t', 

Prague^ Pilsen. 
Breslaiv, Ligiiitz. 
Olmutz, Iglau. 

Tokay, Debreczin. 
Bjiduy Presburg. 
Esseck, Gradiska. 

Croa'tia and Dalma'tia, which lie on the gulf of Ven'- 
ice, in Ihe 11th century descended to the king of Hun- 
gary, and hence are a part of the Austrian dominions. 

Mountains, The Krafiack or Carjia'thian, 

Rivers^ The Dan'ube^ the Drave^ Save, &c. 

Character, The Hungarians are generally indolent, 
though a brave magnanimous people. They are hand- 
some and well shaped, and their appearance is improved 
by their dress, which is peculiar and becoming. 


France stands in a commanding situation in the cen- 
tre of Europe It is distinguislicd fo? the activiry of its 
inhabitants, the number and bravery of its soldiers, and 
for its power and ambition. 

It was anciently divided into provinces. It is now 
formed into about 150 departmenta. 




Departments. Principal town's. 



j Seine and Oise. 
Isle of France^ Sexne and Marne. 

Picardy. Somme. 

Artois. Cal. Straits. 

Flanders. North. 

f Lower Seme. 
I Calvados. 
«^ Ome. 
I Eure. 

flsle and Villaine. 
I Lower Loire. 
<^ Finisterre. 
I North Coast. 

f Vienne. 
J Vendee, 
j Two Sevres. 
I^Lower Charente. 

I Upper Vienne. 
J Lot and Garonne. 
I Aveiron. 
I Dordogne. 


Upper Pyr'enees. 
Lower Pyr'enees. 






Gascony. <{ 

Ver saiiles'. 

Arras, Cataie, 






St. Brieux. 

Fontenai compte. 















Fr. Compte. 



East Pyr'enees. 

Upper Garonne, 


"^1 ArrJege. 
I Tarne. 
J Aude. 

{Mouths of Rhone, 
Lower Alps. 

f Moselle. 
J Vosges. 
I Meurthe. 

5 Lower Rhine. 
^ Upper Rhine, 
f Aube. 
J Maine, 
] Upper Marne* 

Upper Saone. 
{Corte d'Or. 
Saone and Loir, 

Upper Alps. 

? Puy de Dome, 
i Cantal. 

Upper Loire, 





Mont tidier. 








Bar le due. 



Lons le Seulier. 










St. Flour. 

Le Puy. 







Corsica islands. 


Part of Switzer- 







f Cher. 
\ Ain. 
(^ Indre. 

Indre and Loire. 

5 Sarte. 

f"Maine and Loire. 
J Loiret. 
\ Eure and Loir. 
t.Loir and Cher. 


^ Galo. 
\ Liamond. 

Mount Blanc. 

Mont Terrible. 








Le Mans. 




Nice. Sec. 

Maritime Alps. 

The jitfis^ Mount Jura, the Cevennes; 
the Vauge, Mount Dor, and the Pyr'tnees, 

Rivers. The Rhone^ Saone. Garonne', Loire, Seine^ 
and Somme. The canals of Languedoc, Cal'ais, Sec. 

Bay 8^ Sec. The Bay oj Biscay ^ Brest harbour, bays 
of Quiberon and Toulon, and the Gulf of Lyons ^ 

Islands, Ushant^ Belle Isle^ islands of Rhe and Ole- 
ron ; and the isles of Hyeres. 

Cafies, Logz^e, Feret. 

The departments of Paris, Se<ne, Sec. formerly called 
the Isle of France, are among the richest departments. 

Paris^ the capital of France, is a most magnificent 
city, and contains about 600,000 inhabitants. It stands^ 


on the Seine, and is adorned with magnificent buildings^ 
and works ot art. 

Ver-sazlks is remarkable for its splendid and expert- 
sive palaces and gardens. 

Cal'ais is the nearest port to England, and stands 
opposite to Dover. 

B6urdeaux' is one of the first cities in France for 
magnitude, riches, and beauty. The wines, called Clar- ' 
et and Bouicleaux', come fiom this place. 

Bay-onne' is a rich, populous, and vommercial city, 
near the border of Spain. Thi^ city has become cele- 
brated for being the piace where Bonaparte, the empe- 
ror of France, af<er inviting Ferdinand VII, king of 
Spain, to a friendly visit, seized his person and madp 
him prisoner. 

Montjielier is one of the largest and most beautiful 
cities in France. It stunds five miles from the sea, the 
air and cliiuatc are so excellent, that sick people of oth- 
er countries often go there for health. 

Toulon' and Mar'seilies are important seaports. 

Lyons stands at the confluence of the Rhone and the 
Saone ; and is the second city in France for beauty, com- 
merce, and opulence. It has manufactures of silk, gold, 
and silver stuffs. In the year 1793 it suffered extreme- 
ly from the effects of the revolution. 

^ Climate^ Suil^ ^ Productions. France is generally ^ 
thought the finest country in Europe ; the air is temper- i 
ate, much warmer than in England, and very healthy. 

The soil produces grain and excellent wines. Silk * 
and woollen goods are extensively manufactured. 

This country abounds in excellent roots ; in all kinds 
of seasonings and saldds ; in fruits of all kinds, as giapes, 
figs, prunes, chesnuts, capers, &c, Olive oil is made 
in large quantities. 

Inhabitants. France contains above 30 millions. 
The French in their persons are well proportioned, ac- 
tive, and brave They have a pleasing deportment ; and, 
not only- polite themselves, they have contributed to give 
a polish to the manners of other nations. 


Language. It has long been an object with the 
French, to render their language universal ; and they 
have so far succeeded, that it is now more general than 
any other, and is become almost neees3ary in a polite or 
a commercial education. 

Great attention has been paid to literature in Franc6. 
Before the revolution, there were 28 public colleges 
or universities, among which the Sorbonne', in Pariif, 
was the most celebrated. 

Government. The government of France was an ab^ 
solute monarchy till 1792, when anarchy prevailed 
through all her dominions. In August 1792, a dreadful 
massacre took place at Paris. Louis XVI, the reign- 
ing king, was dethroned and imprisoned, together with 
the queen and royal family. On the 2 1 st September, an 
assembly of men, called the National Convention, passed 
a decree for the aboHtion of royalty, declaring the con- 
stitution of France republican. Violent factions succeed- 
ed, and the Convention, contrary to every principle of 
humanity and justice, condemned the king to be behead» 
ed. The sentence was executed the 21st January, 1793. 
After the lapse of a few years, and when changes had 
taken place in the National Convention, or Directory,, 
which weakened its authority, Bonaparte at first made 
himself dictator, and afterwards emperor. This is what 
is called the French Revolution. This famous con* 
queror and despot, by his arms and his intrigues, sub- 
jugated all the nations of Europe, except Great Britain. 
In 1812, he marched with a powerful army of 500,000 
men to Moscow, the capital of Russia ; but he was soon 
compelled to retreat to France with immense loss, after 
sufferini^ almost incredible distress from cold and hun- 
ger. The allied Sovereigns of England, Russia, Aus- 
tria, Prussia, and Sweden, early in IS 14, conquered 
France, exiled Bonaparte to the island of Elba, and re^- 
tored the Bourbons to the throne. lu March 1815, Boi- 
naparte escaped from Elba, ajid again usurped the throne 
of France ; but was finally conquerad by the Duke of 
Wellington at the famous Battle of Waterloo^ and he is 
now a prisoner to the English and confined, under strict 
•guard, in the islimd of St. Herena. 



Spain is divided into 14 provinces, viz. 
Provinces. Principal towns. 

On the J\orth. 

Gali'cia. Compostel'la, Corun'na^ and Fer'rQL 

Astu'ria. Ovi'edo. 

Bis 'cay. Bilbo' a, 

JVear the Pyr'enees^ 
Navarre'. Pamfielo'na. 

Ar'ra^on. Saragos'sa. 

Catalo'nia. Barcelo'na. 

On the Eaat. 
Valen'tia, Valen'tia^ Micant, 

Mur'cia. Mur'cia, Carthage'na. 

On the West. 

Leon. Leon, Salaman'c^. 

Estremadu^ra. Badajos, Meri'da. 

In the Middle^ 

Old Castik'. Burgos^ ValladoM. 

New Castile^. Mad'rid^ Tole'do^ Es'curkL 

On the South* 

Grana'da. Grana'da, Malaga, 

Andalu'sia* Se-villc^ Ca*dizy Gibral'tar. 

Mountains. The Pyr'eneesy the Cantabrian moun- 
tains, and Mount CaPpe. 

Rivers. The piincipal are theJS^^ro, the Tagus^ the 
Dou'ro^ the Guadia'na, the Guadalquiv^er^ the Xucar^ 
-and the Minho. 

Bays, Bay of Biscay^ Ferrol, Groyne, Vigo, Ca- 
diz, Gibraltar, C^rthage'na, and Al'icaat. 

Islands^. Major'ca, Minor'ca, and Iv'ica. 

SPAIN. 8jr 

Cafies. Cape Or'tegal^ Cape FinUterre^ Cape do 
Gates; and Cape de Palos. 

Mad'rid^ the capital, is not remarkable for its beauty 
or pleasant situation. Many of its buildings bear the 
marks of former magnificence and grandeur, but they 
are mostly in a state of decay. 

Se-ville' is one of the most commercial towns in Spain. 
It is famous for its oranges. — Ca'dlz^ the emporium ot 
the Spanish foreign trade, is situated on an island.— 
Gibral^tar is a very strong fort, built on a rock, and has 
more than a century belonged to the English. It is con- 
sidered impregnable. 

Mountains, The Pyr'enees extend from the Bay of 
Biscay to the Mediterra'nean. There are but five pass- 
es over them. 

Mount Cal'pe, now the Hill of Gibraltar, was in forr 
mer times called one of the pillars of Hei^cules. The 
other, Mount Aby'la, was opposite to it in Africa. 

Islands, Major ca is the largest of those islands an- 
ciently called Balea'res. It is fruitful, and surrounded 
with watch towers. Its capital is of the same name.' 

Minor'ca is chiefly valuable for its excellent harbour, 
Pert Ma'hon. Here are vines, olives, cotton, and ca- 
pers, Citadella is the capital. 

Iv'ica is also fruitful in corn, wine, and other fruits, 
and is noted for the great quantity of salt made in it. Its 
capital is of the same name. 

Air b* Soil, The air in Spain is pure. The sum- 
mers are extremely hot, but the winters are cold. The 
soil is very fertile, and produces all sorts of delicious 
fruits, corn, excellent wines, especially sack ancj sherry, 
fine wool and silk in abundance, drugs and metals. 

Ani7nals. The Spanish horses, especially those of 
Andalu'sia, are very handsome. Mules are common. 
The sheep, especially the Merino^ are the finest in the 

The inhabitants of this country arc reckoned at 10 or 
1 1 millions. The persons of the Spaniards are rather 
tall, especially the Castil'ians. They are grave and po- 
lite 5 of an olive complexion, have fine sparkling eyes, 


and glossy black hair. They are patient in ^yhat they 
undertake, and temperate in eating and drinking. It is 
said, that a Spanish gentleman is seldom guilty of a mean 

The religion of Spain is Roman Catholic ; no other 
is tolerated. The inquisition, Avhich is a disgrace to hu- 
man nature, is an ecclesiastical court, which inflicts tlic 
most excruciating tortures, and even death itself, for the 
support of the Catholic religion, and for the suppression 
of heresy. It was lately abolished, but is again reestab- 

The government is monarchical. Spain has been 
the most despotic and powerful kingdom in Europe, but 
her superstition, and immense wealth in gold and silver 
imported from her rich and extensive possessions in 
South America, had, till the late Spanish war, greatly re- . 
dnced her n^itjonal influence and importance. 


PortugaJ contains 6 provinces, viz. 
Provinces, Principal towns. 

Estremadu'ra. Lis'bon, Lei'ra. 

Beira. Coimbra, Guarda. 

Entre Minhoe Douro. 0/ior^to. Braga. 

Tra los Montes* IVliranda, Villa Real. 

Alentejo. Evo'ra, Bei'ra. 

Algarve. Faro. Lagos. 

Rivers, £>ovro^ Tagus^ Guadia'na. 

Ca/ics. Mondego, Roxo, Espithcl, St, Vincent^ La* 

Bays, Cadoan or St. Ubes, and Lagos bay. 

Portugal is 300 mile^ long, and 100 broad. 

Lisbon^ the capital of Portugal, is an extensive and 
populous city, built like old Rome on seven little hills. 
It contains 200,000 inhabitants. This city in 1755 was 
destroyed by an earthquake, but is since rebuilt. The 
wine, called Lisbon, comes from this place. 

Ofiorto or Porto is a handsome city and seaport, no- 
ted for its strong wines, called Port. 


Soil, Jir^ tfc. The soil in Portugal is not, in gener- 
al, equal to that in Spain. The fruits are the samcj but 
not so highly flavoured. The Portuguese wines, when 
old and genuine, are esteemed friendly to tlie constitu- 

The air, especially about Lisbon, ds soft and beneficial 
to consumptive patients. 

Inhabitants. Portugal contains nearly 4 millions of 
inhabitants. If the inhabitants have degenerated from 
that enterprising spirit, which made their forefathers so 
illustrious, it is owing to the weakness of their govern- 

The foreign settlements are of immense value. In 
Asia, they have Go'a on the Goroman'del coast, and 
Maco'a near China. In Africa, they have the Madei'ra 
and Cape Verd islands,»&c. In South America, Brazil'^ 
and in the Atlantic ocean,^the Azo'res. 


Switzerland is divided into 1 3 Cantons. 


Princifial towns* 



























Mountains. The Alfis, Mont Blanc, and St. Goihard- 
Lakes. Con'stance^ Zu'rich, LuceVn', Nez(/^chater, 
and Gene'va ; and part of Lacar W and Lu^a'no. 


Rivers. The Rhine^ the Rhone^ the Aar, the Reuss, 
the Limmat, and the Thur. 

Stvitzerland is a small, romantic country, lying upon 
the JifiSf between Italy, Germany, and France, and is 
the highest spot of ground in Europe. 

Zurich stands on a lake ot the same name ; it is an 
ancient, large, well built city, distinguished for its man- 
ufactures of crape. 

£erne, the capital of Switzerland, stands on the river 
Aar ; it is a neat and beautiful city. 

Basil is perhaps the largest, though not now the most 
populous town in Switzerland. It stands on the Rhine, 
The art of paper-making ia said to have been invented 

Climate l5* Soil, Switzerland being a mountainous 
country, the frosts in winter are severe ; the tops of the 
iBOuntains are sometimes covered with snow all the 
year. This renders the climate unequal. The higher 
parts are cold ^nd piercing, while the vallies are warm 
and fruitful. 

^' No country exceeds Switzerland in diversity of ap- 
pearance. The vast chain of the ^/^*, with enormous 
precipices, extensive regions of perpetual snow, and gla- 
ciers, that resemble seas ot ice, are contrasted by the 
vineyards and cultivated fields— the richly wooded brow, 
and the verdant and tranquil vale, with its happy cotta- 
ges and crystal streams." 

Inhabitants, The Swiss are a brave, hardy, and in- 
dustrious people ; true and faithtul to their word. The 
men are sober, courageous, and excellent soldiers. The 
Swiss cottages convey the liveliest image of clean'liness, 
contentment, and simplicity. 

The government was a free republic, till it fell a prey 
to the rapacity of France. The different cantons, though 
united in one common band, were g<)verned by their 
own laws. 



Italy is at present divided into 4 parts, viz. 


Principal towns. 

1, Kingdom of Italy ,^ 

"Pierfmon^. Turin'. 

Milan'. Milan\ 

Vene'tian States. Ven'ice. 
Man'tua. Man'tua, 

Par'ma. Par'ma, 

Gen'oa, Gen'oa. 

^Mode'na. Mtidena* 

2. Etru'ria.(fornierly) "Tus'cany. Flor'ence. 

3. States of the Churcl). Rome. 

4. Kingdom of Naples. JVafiles. 
Mountains. The Mfis^ Ap'ennines, Mount Vesu^- 


Lakes. Maggiorc', Como, Garda, Luga'no, &c. 

Rivers. The Po,the Tiber^ the Arno, the Ru'bicon, 
the Adige the Brenta, and Pia'vi. 

Gulfs. The Adriatic Sea, or Gulf of Ven'ice^ Gen'- 
oa, Gae'ta, Naples, Saler'no, Taren'to^ Eufe'mia, Squii'- 
lace, and Manfredo'nia. The gulfs of Ca^l'iari, Palma, 
and Orista'no belong to Sardinia. 

Straits. Mes^sina^ Bonifh'cio. 

Islands. Si'cily, Sardin'iOy Cor^sica, Mdlta^ and Z/y/- 
ori, Stromboli, Erba. 

Cafies. Pas'saro^ Sfiartiven'to^ Di Leu'ca. 

Italy, the garden of Europe, the parent of the arts 
and of civilization, is a large peninsula, resembling a boot, 
and is washed on three sides by the Mediterra'nean sea. 
It was (Mice the mistress of the world,, and is still a fine, 
populous, and interesting country, but inhabited by a 
race of people, who are degenerated by superstition and 
political slavery. 

Kingdom of Italy* By the conquest made in this 
country by the French, the northern states were, for a 
while, formed into a kingdom. 

Milan* is a beautiful and fertik'country. The city of 
Milan' is considered the capital of the kingdom of It- 
aly, and is the largest except Rome. 

92 ITALY, 

The Vcne'tian states are fruitful, abounding with 
vinejards and plantations of mulberries. Ven'ice is built 
on 72 little islands, which are connected by nearly 500 

Flor'ence is a very beautiful city, surrounded with 
vineyards and delightful villas. It is full of paintings, 
sculpture, and architecture. It stands on the Amo. 

Leghorn has a famous harbour on the Mediterra'neanj 
and great commerce. 

The States of the Church {ov territories of the Pope) 
contain several provinces. Rome is the capital, and the 
residence of the Pope. This grand city abounds with 
noble ruins, triuniphai arches, superb buildings, beauti- 
ful paintings, statues, &c. 

JVafiles has been called a paradise, from its beauty 
and fertility. The city is built in the form of an amphi- 
theatre, and is one of the finest in the world, containing 
about 380 thousand inhabit?\nts. 

Mountains, The Ap'ennines extend from the north- 
ern towards the southern part of Italy, and give rise to 
the numerous brooks and rivers, which water this de- 
lightful and fertile country. 

Mount Vesuviusj near Naples, is a celebrated volca- 
no ; but compared with MGU7it Etna in Si'cily, it is but 
a hill. The circuit of Vesu'vius is only 30 miles ; that 
of Etna is 180. The lava of Vesu'vius is sometimes 
thrown 7 miles ; that of Etna is frequently thrown SO. 

Islands, Sl'cUy is the largest. The principal towns 
ViXC Paler' mo ^ Mesbi'nc^ and Syracuse', 

Sardin'ia is a kingdom — chief town Cdgl'iari. 
Ccr'sica^ the capital of which is Bas'tla^ is rendered 
iamous by the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte, who was 
born in the city of^Ajac'cio: — and Elba is no less re- 
markable, as the place to which he was, in 1814, exiled 
by the allied Sovereigns of Europe. 

JVfa //a, formerly Mel'ita^ is now in the hands of the 
British. This islan ] is memorable for St. Paul's being 
shipwrecked on i; during his voyage, when he was sent 
prisoner from Cesaie'a to Rome. 


The Refiiiblic of the Seven Islands is composed of 
seven islands, which lie west of Turkey, in the lo'nian 
Sea. Zant, Cephalo'nia^ and Corfu are the principal. 

Air l^ Soil, There is a great variety in the air. 
Near the Alps, it is keen and piercing ; and the Ap'en- 
nines have also a great effect on its climate. The air 
in Campa^na di Roma, once the purest in Italy, is now 
almost pestilential. In general the air of Italy is dry 
and pure. 

The rich soil of Italy produces the necessaries, con* 
veniences, and luxuries of life in great abundance. The 
Italian cheese, particular Parmesan', and silks, form 
a great part of the commerce of the inhabitants. 

They excel in the fine arts ; such as poetry, music, 
painting, sculpture, &c. but not in the sciences. In their 
manners they afftct a medium between the volatility of 
the French, and the solemnity of the Spaniards, 

Curiosities. This country so abounds with remains 
of ancient monuments, that their very names would fill a 
volume — such as amphitheatres, triumphal arches, ruins 
of temples, villas, bridges, catacombs, &c. Modern 
curiosities are equally numerous. Rom« itself has 300 
churches filled with all that is rare in painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture. St. Peter's church is perhaps 
the most astonishing, bold, and regular fabric, that was 
ever erected. 

Italy, before the late revolution, was divided into dif- 
ferent states, and under different forms of government ; 
but the Pope was generally considered as the sovereign 
of the country ; his temporal power, however, even be- 
fore that event, began to decline, and is now nearly extinct, 


Turkey in Europe contains the following provinces. 

Provinces. Princifial towns. 

Molda'via, Choc'zim, Jassy* 

Bessara'bia, Ben'der, 

Wala'chia> Tergovis'co, 


Ser'via, Bel' grade. 

Bos'nia. Sera'io. 

Bulga'ria. Sophi'a. 

I Mariano file* 
Macedo'nia. Salo7ii'chi, 

Alba'nia. Duraz'zo. 

Epi'rus^ Cheme'ra. 

The part, called Greece, contains, 

Thes'saly. Laris'sa. 

Acha'ia or Boeo'tia. Atines or Athens, 

^ , 5 Laced<^'mon, now 

^^^^^^^' iMisit'ra. 

Mountains* A'thos, Olym'pus, Pin'dus, Parnas'sus, 
and Hae'mus are celebrated in aftcient history. 

Rivers. The Davfube^ or the ancient Is'ter, the Ma» 
ritz, and the Varda'ri. 

Seas i3> Gulfa^ The -fiux'ine or Black sea^ sea of 
Mar'mora^Archip.el'ago^ or Ege'an &ea, Qulfs of SalonU 
chi^ Cor'inth, and Lepan'to. 

Straits. The Bos'phorus, and the Dardanelles^ or 

Islands. Can'dia^ Ne'gropont or Egri/io^ Ceri'go, 
jEgi'na, Lem'nos,Tha'sof , Cyprus, Rhodes, Scio^ Samos^ 
Paros, the Cyc'lades, Lesbos, Sec. 

Turkey in Europe includes ancient Greece, and othev 
countries, formerly the finest in the world. This coun- 
try, Turkey in Asia, and the north of Africa, form the 
Turkish empire. 

Roma'nia is the largest of the Turkish ppovinees. It 
was formerly called Thrace. It is fruitful, and has mines 
of silver, lead, and alum. Co;z5/fl/2/mo'/i/<?, the ancient 
Byzan'tium^ is the capital of all the grand Seignior's do- 
minions. It is frequently called the Porte. The view 
of this city from the harbour is one of the finest in the 
world. But on entering the city, expectation is disap- 
pointed. The streets are narrow, the houses low, and 


the palaces concealed by high walls. Adriano'tile^ the 
second city, was formerly the capital. 

Greece was the ancient name of the southern provin- 

Thessaly contains mount Olym'pus, and the moun- 
tains of PeMion and Os'sa, mentioned by the poets. Be- 
tween the two last were the celebrated vales of Fem'pc. 
Laris'sa^ now Jenisahar, is famous for being the resi- 
dence of Achilles. 

Acha'ia or Boso'tia includes, besides Athens, the an- 
cient The'bes^ now Stives^ and Lepan'to ; also the famous 
city of Del'phos, now reduced to a mean village, called 
Cas'trU Ath'ens^ Atines^ or Setines^YXi its present state, 
is a city or fortress, standing on the brink of a precipice. 
Some portions of the ancient wall are still to be seen. 

Mbre'a, formerly Pelofionne'sus^ contains Corinth, and 
Lacedaemon, the ancient Sparta. 

The Dardanelles', or Hellespont, over which Xerxes 
laid his bridge, when he invaded Greece, is near the sit- 
uation of old Troy. 

Islands. In Can^dia is the famous Mount Ida, and 
the river Le'the. Ne'gropont is the ancient Euboe'a. 
Ceri'^o^ Cythere'a, south of More^a^ was the favourite 
residence of Venus. In jEgi'na moirey is said to have 
been first coined. Lemnos is still famous for its miner- 
al earth, Thasos is famous for its gold mines, delicate 
wines, and fruits. Cyfirus^ in which is the city of Pa- 
phos, is famous for its temple of Venus. In Rhodes 
stood the celebrated colossus of brass. Scio^ or Chios, 
was one of the seven places that contended for the birth- 
place of Homer. Samos v/as the birthplace of Pythag'o- 
ras ; to the southwest of which was situated Patmos, 
where St. John was in banishment, when he wrote the 
Revelations. Paros was famous for its marble. The 
Cyc'lades (islands) lie in a circle round Delos. Lesbos 
or Mytele'ne, is noted for the number of philosophers it 

Air^ Soil^ c^J'c. The soil, though unimproved, is lux- 
uriant, producing com, wine, coffee, rhubarb, myrrh, and 
othtfv odoriferous plmits and drugs. But though the air 


and climate are delightful and salubrious, yet Turkey, 
both in Europe and Asia, is oft«n visited by the plague. 

The religion of Turkey is that of Ma'homet, whom 
they believe to be a greater prophet than Jesus Christ. 
The book containing their laws and religion is called the 

Curiosities, Almost every spot of ground, every riv- 
er, aixl every fountain in Greece, pr«sent the traveller 
with the ruins of some celebrated antiquity. On the 
isthmus of Cor'inth the ruins of Neptune's temple, and 
the theatre where the Isthmian games were celebrated, 
are still visible. In Athens are the remains of the tem- 
ple of Miner'va, and of the emperor Adrian's palace ; 
of the temple of The'seus; the lantern of Demosthenes 
(a small round edifice of white marble ;) the temple of 
the winds ; the remains of the theatre of Bac'chus ; of 
the magnificent aqueduct of A'drian, and of the temple 
of Ju'piter Olym'pus, and Augustus. At Bastri, on the 
south side of mount Parnas'sus, the remains of the tem- 
ple of the oracle of Apollo, and the marble steps that 
descend to what is supposed to be the renowned Castil'ian 
springs, are still to be seen. 

Mount Athos has a number of churches, mon'aste- 
ries, her'mitages, &c. on its towering ascent ; and is in- 
habited by thousands of monks and hermits, who culti- 
vate the olive, and vineyards, lead an austere life, and 
live to a great age. 

Cammerce. Nature presents to the inhabitants all 
the conveniences and advantages of commerce, but the 
government is such as destroys every exertion, and de- 
presses every hope. Hence commerce is but little at- 
tended to. The manufactures are managed by the 
Christian subjects, who annually export the finest car- 
pets, cotton, leather, raw silk, &c. 

The ^OTJ^rnTTeen^ of Turkey is despotic. The grand 
Seignior or emperor is master of the lives and prop- 
erty of his subjects. Some of ihe emperors have exhib- 
ited all that is shocking and unnatural in arbitrary power. 
This country was formerly one of the finest in Europ'^ 
but owing to the despotism and vvretched policy of the 
Turks, it is now one of the most miserablCc 

ASIA. 97 

^* A 1 hough Europe is less considerable in extent, 
than cither Asia, Africa, or America, it claims on a va- 
riety of accounts a more particular attention- Its ancietit 
inhabitants are generally supposed to have been the de- 
scendants of Japheth, the eldest son of Noah, Greece 
and Rome were early distinguished for their progress 
in arts and in civilization. 

*' Europe in modern times has been the seat of lite- 
rature and science Here every kind of cultivation and 
improvement has made the most rapid progress, and it 
has been distinguished, not only by the temperature of 
its climate, the fertility of its soil, and the abundance of 
its p.'oductions for the supply of necessity, and the grat- 
ifit ation of luxury, but more especially for the wisdom, 
strength, and courage of its inhabitants, and for the ex- 
cellency of its governments, laws, and religion." 

Europe has lat'cly been involved in a most destructive 
warfare. Most of the nations fell a prey to the ambition 
and rapacity of the French, who seemed to forget, that 
others had rights as well as themselves. They march- 
ed with unexampled rapidity towards universal domin- 
ion, till recently checked by the Allied Sovereigns of 
England, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Sweden, 

The present population of Europe is estimated at 
about 150 millions. 


MouJitains* Cau'casus, between the Black and Cas'* 
fiian seas; Ar'arat, a part of mountCau'^casus; Tau'rus 
or Kuron, a chain of mountains that runs from Nato'lia 
to India; and the East and West Gauts in Hindos'tan, 

^ Rivers. The Ti^^ris and EupJira'tes^ the Oxus or 
Jihon, the Indus, Ganges, and Burramfioo'ter or San/ioo'^ 
the Meinam., Kiang Ku, Hoang Ho, the Amcur or Sag^- 
iien^ the Lena^ Enis'sey^ and the 06, 


Seas, Giii/s, Straits, iJfc. Tlie Red Sea or Arabiaw 
Gulf; the straits of Babelman^del ; the Guljs of Persia 
and Ormiis ; the Casfiian Sea, and Lake Aral, The A* 
rabian Sea ; the Bay of Bengal ; the straits of Malac^ca, 
and Suyida i Sea of Celebes ; the Gulfs of Siam and 
Tonquin ; the Chinese Sea ; Bay of Nankin ; Gulf of 
Core^a ; Sea of Kamtschat'ka, 

Ptninsulas Hindos'tan or Indos'tan, Malac'ca, Cam- 
bo'dia, Core'a. and Kamtschat'ka. 

Islands. In the Archipel'ago and Mediterranean are 
Mytile'ne, Scio, Samos, Cos. Rhodes, Candia, and Cy- 
prus ; in the Indian ocean, the Lac'cadive and Mal'dive 
isles, Ceylon' ; An'daman and Nic'obar isles, in the bay 
of Bengal' ; Suma'tra, Ja'va, and Bor'neo ; the Moluc'- 
cas or Spice islands, Cel'ebes and Gilo'lo ; the Manil- 
las or Phirippine isles ; Hai'nan. Formo'sa, Le'oo Ke'oo, 
Japan', and Ku'rile isles ; and between Asia and Amer- 
ica are the Aleu'tian or Foxes isles. 

Cafies. Cape Tamour, Zelan'dia, North Cape, and 
Cape Com'orin. 

Isthmus, The Isthmus of Su^ez^ which connects 
Asia and Africa. 


Asia comprehends Great Tartary, Turkey in Asia, 
Arabia, Persia, Hindos'tan or India within the Ganges, 
British India, India beyond the Ganges, the Birman em- 
pire, China, and the Japan islands. 


Great Tartary includes the following countries, Sec'. 

Countries, Princifial towns, 

Russian Tartary. Tobolsk' and AsUracan, 

Chinese Tartary. Chiniang'. 

Independent Tartary. Samar'cand, Balk. 

TAibet. Lasm^ 


Mountains. Cau'casus, Taurus, Ar'arat, Stolp. 

Rivers. Ob or Oby, Tdbol, Ii^tysh, Burrampoo'ter 
or Sanpoo'5 Enis'sey or Jenska, Lena, Argun. 

Cafies. Taymour or Taymura, North Cape, East 
Cape, Lopat'ka. 

Great Tartary includes all the northern part of Asia. 
It was anciently called Scyth'.a^ and was more powerful 
than Greece or Rome. 

Russian Tartary^ formerly Sibe'ria^ extends along the 
north of Asia and is divided into two governments ; 
Tobolsk'^ and Irkutsk'. 

Aatracan is a large and populous city, on the Wolga^ 
about 50 miles from the Cas /lian sea. 

Independent Tartary includes all the country between 
Chinese Tartary and the Caspian. It is celebrated 
for being the seat ct the most ancient Persian king- 
dom, and afterwards the empire of Jen'ghiz and 
Timur. It gave birth to many ancient men of letters, 
among whom were Zoroas'ier and Abulga'zi The 
present inhabitants are remaikable for their hospitality. 

Samar'cand^ the capital, is a large and populous city, 
to which the Mahometans from all the neighbouring 
countries, resort to suidy the arts aud sciences. 

Thibet is considered a part of Tartary. 

Character. Great part of the north of Asia, former- 
ly called Sibe'ria, and now a part of tlie Russian empire, 
is savage and unpolished. In the northern parts the 
people live in huts, half sunk under the ground, which 
is covered with snow nine months in a year. The Tar- 
tars are a fierce people, and in p;eneral live a wandering, 
unsettled life. They are inured to horsemanship from 
tlieir youth, and are remarkable for their dexterity with 
the bow and arrow 

Religion, '^ The religion of Thibet is of great anti- 
quity, and one of the most extraordinary in the world, 
it is the most extensive and splendid form of paganism. 
The high firiest^ or sovereign fiontijff^ is called the Gra7id 
Lama. He resides in a vast palace or temple, called 
Pago'da^ situated on mount Putoli, near the bank of the 


Burrampooter, a few miles from Lassa. The foot of this 
mountain is inhabited by many thousand Lamas op 
priests, who, according to their respective rank, are 
placed neat er or at a greater distance from the sove- 
reign pontiff. He is worshipped not only by the irihabi- 
tvints of Thibet, but by various tribes of heathen Tar- 
tars who roam through the vast country that spreads 
from ihe ^^'olga to the sea ef Japan. His worshippers 
behtve him to be immortal, endowed with all knowledge 
and virtue, and c ill him God, the everlasting leather of 
heaven The Grand Lama is never to be seen, but in 
a secret place of his palace, amidst a number of lamps, 
sitting cross-legged upon a cushion, and adorned with 
gold and precious stones ; where at a distance the peo- 
ple ptostraie themselves before him, it being unlawful 
for any so much as to kiss his feet. He returns not the 
least b)ign of respect, not even speaks to the greatest 
princeS; but only puts his hand upon the heads of some 
<^f his most favourite worshippers, in token of his appro- 

"It is the opinion of these ignorant heathen, that 
v»hen the Grand Lama seemb to die, either of old age or 
infirmity, his soul only quits its crazy habitation for an- 
©the^ younger and better ; and that it is again discover- 
ed in the body of some child, by certain tokens or signs, 
known only to priests, in whose order he always a'p- 

<* The inauguration of the infant Lama is attended 
with great splendour and parade. Multitudes assemble 
from every quarter to see and join the solemn procession. 
Priests and princes, amidst an amazing display of col- 
ours, the acclamations of the crowd, and the music of 
cymbals and trumpets, accompany the Grand Lama, 
who is seated on a bier covered with a rich canopy, and 
borne upon the shoulders of men to the throne, where 
he receives the insig'nia or badges of his office, the rich- 
est presents; and divine honours.*' 



Turkey in Asia contains the following proviipces. 

Provinces, Princifial towns, 

^ ;,. fJVatolia Proper. Bur'sa., Smyr'na^ Efih^e&us. 
JVatoLia, J C3j.^^,yj^j^^ Satania. Teras'so, Konia. 

?^. ^^^n Ama'sia. Ama'sia,Treb'izond,6V;zo7^(^. 

^'"''''- LAladu'lia. Ajaz'zo, Marat. 

Turcoma'nia> ^>zerz/m, Van, 

or Arme nia. 3 

Geor^gja, Mingre'lia, ^ ^^j, ^ . Amar'chia, 

Part of C/rcas'szfl, &c. 5 ^ > ? ^ 

Curdis'tan or Assyr'ia. Curdis'tan, Bet'lis. 

Diai^beck or Mesoputa'mia. Diar'beck^ Mousel. 
I rac- Arabia or Chalde'a. Basso'ra^ Bag' dad, 

Syr'ia, Jude'a, Palestine J^/^^'^"' Sca.daroon', Trifi'. 
or the Holv Land. i olt, Damas^cus. Tyre, Stdon, 
{^Antioch^ Jerusalem, 

Mountains* Taurus. Anti-Tanrus, Cau'casus, Ar'a- 
rat, Leb'ancn, and Hermon 

Rivers, Tigris^ Euphra'tes^ Oron'tes, Mean'der, 
Kara, and Jordan. 

JS/'atolia^ Lesser Asia^ or Asia Minor^ lies between 
the Black and Mediterranean seas, and comprehends the 
ancient provinces of I^yd'ia. Pamphyl'ia, Fisid'ia. Lyco'- 
nia,Cilic'ii, Pontus, Cappado'ci-^and the Seven Church^ 
es of Asia^ mentioned in the Revelations of St John ; 
viz, Eph'esub, Smyi-'na, Per'gamos, Thyati'ra, Sardis, 
Philadel'phia, and Laodice'a ; all of them crlebraled in 
Grecian, Roman, and sacred History ; but they are now 
in ruins. Bur'sa and Smyr'na, now Is^mir, are still very 
considerable cities. Eph'esus has some remains o. its 
an^ ient splendour ; but the inhabitants are only a few, 
who have reared their huts among the ruins. 

Geor^gia lies east of the Black sea^ and comprehends 


the ancient Ibe'ria and Col'chis. Circas'sia has been 
usually considered a part of this country, till lately reduc- 
ed under the dominion of Russia. 

The Georgians are said to be the handsomest peo- 
ple in the world. The country, though subject to the 
Turks, is chiefly peopled by Christians, a brave, warlike 
race of men, often at war with the Mahom'etans. 7>/- 
iis is called by the inhabitants Thilis Cabar^ (warm town,) 
from the warm baths in the neighbourhood. The houses 
Jhave flat roofs, which, according to the custom of the 
East, serve for walks. The streets seldom exceed 7 
feet in breadth, and some arc so narrow, as scarcely to 
allow room for a man on horseback. 

Curdis'tan lies south of Geor'gia, and comprehends 
part of ancient Assyr'ia. 

Diarbeck^ southeast of Curdis'tan, is a part of the an- 
cient JVlesopota'raia, lying between the rivers Tt'gria and- 
Mufihrates, The town Diai'bekir is large, and is situ • 
ated on the bank of the Tigris. 

jlntioch^ now Anthakia, was anciently a celebrated, 
feut now a ruined cty. Here the disciples of otir Sav- 
iour first received the name of Christians, l^s ruins are 
yet magnificent. 

Jerusalem is now an inconsiderable place, and famous 
only for what it was formerly. It was here, that Jesus 
Christ preached the Christian religion, and was crucifi- 
ed by the Jews upon Mount Calvaiy. It was the capi- 
tal of Judea, but was razed to the ground by Titus, the 
Roman general, in the year 70. 

Mountains, Taurus or Kuron, a great chain of 
mountains, that begins near the western part of Natolia, 
and extends to India. In different places they have dif- 
ferent names. Cau'casus extends in a chain from the 
Black to the Ccs^pian sea, and is inhabited by several 
iJistinct nations, who speak different languages. Ararat 
is the name given to that part of Mount Cau'casus, upon 
which Noah's ark is supposed to have rested after the 

Jordan is a river of Palestine, which rises in the 
moiintj^in of Anti Lib'anus, and running south, passes 

ARABIA. 103 

Uiiough the Sea of Garilee, or Lake of Tibe'rias; and 
falls into the Dead Sea. 

Both the mountains and rivers of Turkey in Asia are 
famous in sacred and profane writings. 

Curiosities* These countries contain all that is rich 
and magnificent in architecture ; and neither the bar- 
barities of the Turks, nor the depredations of Europeans 
seem to diminish their number. Many of the finest 
temples are converted into Turkish mosques, or Greek 
churches. The magnificent ruins of BdVbeck^ 37 miles 
north of Damascus, are still to be seen. According to 
the best judges, they display the boldest plan of archi- 
tecture, that was ever attempted. But the Turks, in- 
sensible to the beauties of art and antiquity, do not hesi- 
tate to destroy the columns and other remains of those 
splendid ruins, for the sake of the iron. 

Palmy' ra is situated in Syria, at the northern extrem- 
ity of the sandy wastes of Arabia, about So*^ N. latitude, 
and 39° E. longitude. It is approached through a nar- 
row plain, covered, as it were, with the remains of an- 
tiquity. Suddenly the scene opens to the traveller, and 
the eye is presented with the most striking objects, that 
are to be found in the world. The temple of the sun 
lies in ruins, but the access to it is through a vast num- 
ber of beautiful Corin'thian columns of white marble. 
Palmy'ra was called by the ancients Tadmor in the Des- 
ert. The Asiat'ics think that Palmy'ra, as well Bal» 
beck, owes its origin to Solomon, 


Arabia is divided into 3 parts. 

Divisions, Priiici/ial tOKvnB. 

Arabia Petrae'a. Su'ez, 

Arabia Deser'ta. Mcc'ca, Medi'na. 

Arabia Felix. Mo'cha^ Mus'cat, 

Mountains. Horeb and Sfnai. 

Arabia Petrceay or the Rocky^ has its nLune fiom the 
many mountaincfus rocks, scattered about in it. It lies 

104 ARABIA, 

in the north, adjoining the isthmus and town of Suez in 
Egyp:, anciently called Bereni'ce or ArsinVe, on the 
islbinub of the same name This town is without water, 
and situated in a sandy country, where plants and trees 
are entirely unknown. It is destitute of all the necessa- 
ries ol life, except fish. 

Arabia Dtser'ta or the Desert^ is so called from its 
soil, which is generally a barren sand. It lies in the 
middle of Arabia. 

Mecca is seated on a barren spot in a valley. It is 
chiefly supported by the annual resort of many thousand 
pilgrims. It was the birth place of Mii'homet. 

Medina is a small, poor place, celcbraltd as the bu- 
rial place of Ma'homet. Here is a stately mosque, sup- 
ported by 400 pillars, and furnished with 300 silver 
lamps, which are continually burning. His coffin is cov- 
ered with cloth of gold, under a canopy of silver tissue, 

Araibia Felix or the Hcfi/nj^ is a rich and populous 
country, abounding in fragrant spices, myirh, frankin- 
cense* and cassia. Hence comes the saying, '' all the 
sweets of Arabia." 

Moclia^ a place of great trade, is a port on the Red 
sea. It is well built, and contains several handsome 
mosques. Aden is a port near the straits of Babelman- 

The mount aiiiB of Horeb and Sinai, mentioned in the 
Holy Scriptuies, lie near the noith end of the Red sea. 
In Horcb, Moses saw the burning bush. On mount Si'- 
nai, the Lord delivered to h:m the Ten Commandments. 
On these mountains are mnny chapels and cells, inhab- 
ited by Greek and Lutin monks, who pretend to show 
the very spot, where every miracle or transaction, re- 
corded in Scripture, happened. 

Climate 'cf Soil» The air in Arabia is excessively 
hot and dry, and the countiy subject to hot and poison- 
ous winds. The soil in some parts is nothing but a 
loose sand, which, when agitated by the \*indj rolls like 
the troubled ocean, and buries whole caravans in its fuiy. 
In the southern part the soil is extremely fertile. 

ARABIA. 105 

dnimais. The most useful animals are camels and 
dromedaries. They are wonderfully fitted by Providence 
for traversing the diy and parched deserts of this coun- 
try. They travel 6 or 8 days without water, and usually 
carry 800 pounds upon their backs, Avhich is not taken 
off duruig their journey. When weary, they kneel 
down to restj and at length rise again with their load. 
The Arabian horses are much admired fur their beauty 
and swiftness ; they have contributed to improve the 
breed of those in England. 

Inhabitants. The Arabians are of a middle stature, 
thin, and of a swarthy complexion, with black hair, and 
black*eyes. They are excellent horsemen, expert at the< 
bow and the lance, and good marksmen. The inhabi- 
tants of the inland country live in tents, and remove from 
place to place, with their flocks and herds. 

They are such ihieves, that travellers and pilgrims 
are stmck with terror on ay)proaching the desert. 
These robbers, headed by a captam, traverse the country 
in troops on horseback, and assault and plurider the car- 
airans. On the sea coast they are mere pirates, and 
make prize of every vebsel they can master, of whatev- 
er nation. 

The dress of the roving Arabs is a kind of blue shirt, 
tied about them with a white sash or girdle ; but some 
of them have a vest jof furs over it. The women are so 
wrapped up, that noihingcan bediacerned but their eyes. 

Religion, Their religion is Mahom'edanism, intro- 
duced by the celebrated impostor Ma'homet, in the sixth 

Learning. In former ages, the Arabians were famous 
for their learning and skill in the liberal arts. At present 
there is scarcely a nation where the people are so uni- 
versally ignorant. 

The Arabs are the descendants of Ishmael, of whose 
posterity it was foretold, -hat they should be invincible, 
-' have their hands against every man, and every man's 
hand against them " They are at present, and have 
been from the remotest ages, a proof of this prediction.. 

1^6 PERSIA. 

The wandering tribes in the southern and inland parts 
are subjected to no foreign power. 

Their conquests make as wonderful a part of their 
history, as their independence. Both their conquests 
and tbeir religion began with one man, the famoua Ma'- 
homet ; who from a deceitful hypocrite, became the most 
powerful monarch of his time. He died a» d. 629. 


Persia is divided into many provinces, among wluch 
are the following. 

Modern. ji7icient. 

Geor'gia, Alba'nia. 

Erivan. Arme'nia. 

Aderbijan Atropate'na, Me'dia.v 

Ghilan. Gela. Hyrca'nia. 

Irac-Agen^i. Ecbat'ana, or Par'thia. 
Chosistan. Susia'na. 

Kerman. Cavma'nia. 
Subleustan. Bactria'na. 

Chief towns, Is'pahan^ Gombroon!^ Or'mus^ Shiras, 
Susa, Candahar, Tauris, Derbent, Hamadan or Ecbat'- 

Rivers, Kur^ anciently Cyrus ; and Aras, anciently 

Gulfs, The Persian gulf, and the gulf of Ormus, 

Is'fiahan^ the capital of Persia, is thought by some to 
be the finest city in the East ; it is seated on a plain, sur» 
rounded at some distance by mountains. It is said to con- 
sist of a great number of magnificent palaces, mosques, 
caravansaries, baths, and fine streets 

Airlit SoiL The air near Cau'casus and the Cas- 
pian Sea is cold \ the mountains being generally cover- 

INDIA. 107 

ed with snow. In the middle parts it is serene and 
pure ; in the southern parts, hot. There are sometimes 
noxious blasts, which are fatal. 

The fruits, vegetables, and flowers are delicious. 
Here are the finest drugs, among which are the asiifoeti- 
da, which flows from a plant and becomes a gum. 

Rich pearls are found in the gulf of Basso' ra The 
principal manufactures are silk, woollen, mohair, car- 
pets, and leather. 

Curiosities, Among these are the remains of the 
famous temple of Persep'olis, the tombs of the kings. of 
Persia, cut out of a rock, and a curious modern pillar at 
Ispahan, built of the skulls of beasts. On the western 
coast of the Caspian sea, near Baku, are springs of nap- 
tha, or pure rock-oil. It is clear as water, and sudden- 
ly takes fire on the approach of flame. The earth in the 
neighbourhood, when dry 2 or 3 inches deep, will like- 
wise easily take fire. 

Persia is remarkable for its mountains, and desert 
plains; and still more for its want of rivers. 

The Persian empire succeeded the ancient Assyrian 
or Babylonian, and was tlie second which has been call- 
ed universal. It was founded by Cyrua^ who, about 536 
years before the Christian era, restored the Israelites to 
liberty and their country, after having been 70 years in 
captivity at Babylon, This empire ^was of short dura- 
tion. It ended with Dan'us^ who was conquered by 
Alexander the Greats 331 years before Christ. 

The Persians were formerly distinguished for their 
wisdom and learning ; but for a century past they have 
been as much degraded by moral debasement, and civil 


India comprises 2 great divisions. India vjithin^ aad 
India without the Ganges. 

108 INDIA. 


This includes all the countries in the Western Pen- 
insula, from the mountains of Tartary, and Thibet, on 
the north. It has usually 3 div^sions. 

1. Hindostan Profier^ or the Northern Provinces, as 
Agimere, Ai^ra, Cashmere. Delhi Guzerat, Luhore, 
Mih^'a, Moult ?.n.<^ude. Rochilcund, Sindy, the Soubahs 
of Bahar and Bengal', 8cc. 

2. The Deccan, or the Provinces of Candeish, Dow- 
latabad, Vibiapour', Golcon'da, and the western part of 

3. The Provinces of the Peninsula, south of the River 
Kis'^na, as the Carnatick, on the Coromandcl coast, in- 
cluding Jaghire, Tanjore, and Mndura. On the Mala- 
bar coast, Travancore. Cochin, &c. The Mysore coun- 
try occupies the interior. 

Towns, Delhi^ the capital, ^gra^ Cashmere^ La» 
hore^ Oude, Benares, Hydra bad, Arungabad, Nagpour, 
Arcot, Serin' gafiatam'. 

Mountains The East and West Gauts, 

Rivers, The Ganges^ Indusy Hoogly, Kistna, and 

Bays, ^c. Bay of Bengal', Gulfs of Cutch, and Cam- 

Cafie, Com'orin at the southern extremity. 

The whole of India within the Ganges is frequently 
called Hindos'tan ; and under the term East Indies the 
moderns have included most of the islands in the Indian 
and Eastern Oceans. 

Cities. Delhi was once a l«Tge, rich, and populous 
city, and the capital of the Mogul empire ; but since its 
decline and downfal by repeated invasions, the popula- 
tion is much diminished. 

Jgra was once a most extensive and optilent city, 
where the Great Mogul' sometimes resided, but of late 
it has rapidly declined. 

INDIA. 109 

Mountains, The Gauts extend from Surat river to 
Cafie Com^orin, running' within 60 and sometimes within 
20 miles of the co^st. They are termed the Indian Ap- 

Rivers, The Ganges is a large and celebrated riv- 
er, which rises in Thibet, and after running southeast 
many hundred miles, and receiving a number of large 
rivers, falls by several mouths, into the Bay of Bengal, 
The Hindoos hold its waters in high veneration. 

The Indus or Sinde is a fine, deep, and nivigable 
river ; the entrance from the sea, however, is much 
choked with sand. 

The Hoogly is an arm of the Ganges, and the only 
branch of it commonly navigated by ships. 

The Burramfioo'ter rises near the source of the Gan- 
ges, and after flowing separately 10 .0 miles, unites 
with it, 4rO miles above the Bay of Bengal'. 

Climate. Ilindos'tan towards the north is temperate 
but hot towards the south. It rains here almost constantly 
for three months in the year. 

Its fir duct ions are rice, millet, cotton, figs, pome- 
granates, oranges, lemons, citrons, cocoa trees, 8cc. 
There are mines of gold, silver, and diamonds. The 
diamond mines in the province of Golcon'da are reckon- 
ed the most considerable in the world. Between Cape 
Com'orin and the Isle of Ceylon' is a pear! fisheiy. 

Animals. Here are elephants, rhinoceroses, bufHi- 
loes» lions, tigers, leopards, panthers, monkeys, camels, 
and dromedaries. 

The inhabitants^ exclusive of I^luropc'ans, are com- 
puted at 10 millions of Mahom'etans, and 100 millions 
of Hindoos. The Mahom'etans or Mussulnicn> improp- 
erly called Moors, bear but an indifferent character. 
The Hindoos or GGntoos are of a black compk-xion, 
their hair long, their persons straight, their liinbr. rer^t, 
their fingers long and tapcvirg, and their countenar^ce'^; 
open and pleasant 

Th^v are divided into different tribes o: casts. ! re 
4 principal tribes ?.re xX\e.bra7nins^ soKiers^ labtjurcrc, a:-:: 

no INDIA. 

mechanics. The bramins have the cure of their religion 
and their laws. The priests are held sacred by the Hin- 
doos. The soldiers are generally called rajah poots ; 
that is, descendants of the rajahs. The labourers include 
farmers, and all who cultivate the land The mechan- 
ics include merchants, and all who follow any trade : 
but these are subdivided again into separate branches. 
Besides these, there arc the Flallachorcs* who are the 
outcasts of the other tribes, and perform the most disa- 
greeable offices of life. Ail the different tribes are for- 
bidden to intermarry or dwell, to eat or drink with each 

The diet of the Hindoos is simple, consisting chiefly 
of rice, milk, vegetables, spices, and gheo, a kind of im- 
perfect butter. The warrior cast may eat flesh of 
goats, sheep, and poultry. Other supeiior casts may 
eat poultry and fish ; but the inferior casts are pro- 
hibited from eating flesh or fish of any kind. 

Their manners are gentle ; their happiness consists 
in the solace of domestir, life. Their religion permits 
them to have several wives, but they seldom have more 
than one ; and their wives, it is said, are distinguished 
by a decorum and fidelity, that do honour to human na- 
ture. The shocking custom of women burning them- 
selves on the funeral pile with their husbands, is still 
practised in this country. 

The religion of Hindos'tan is a system, upheld by ev- 
ery thing that can excite reverence, and secure the at- 
tachment of the superstitious multitude. The tem- 
ples, consecrated to their deities, are magnificent, their 
religious ceremonies splendid, and the dominion of the 
bramins is supported by immense revenues. The in- 
fluence of religion extends to a thousi^nd particulars^^ 
which in other countries are governed by civil laws, 
taste, custom, or fashion. Their dress, their food, their 
professions, are all under the jurisdiction of religion. 
They pretend that Brumma, who was their legislator 
both in politics and religion, was inferior only to God. 
His d .ctrine consisted in the belief of a supreme Be- 
ing, of the immortality of the soul, of a future state of 


rewards and punishments, and of a transmigration of the 
soul into differejit bodies ; but the Hindoos worship 
animals, images, and hideous figures, delineated or carv- 

Go-uernmcnt. They are governed by no written lawsj 
nor is there a lawyer in the whole empire. Their 
courts of justice are directed by precedents. TKe Ma- 
hometan institu es prevail only in the great towns, and 
their nciglibouihoo.L 

Trade, In all ages the trade with India has been the 
same. Gold and silver have been uniformly carried 
thither to purchase the same commodities, witii which 
it now supplies all nations. What India now is. it always 
was, and is still likely to continue. To the early divis- 
ion of the people into casts, we must ascribe the per- 
manency of its institutions, and the immutability in the 
manners of its inhabitants. 

Chronology, It is pretended that Brumma, their leg- 
islator, existed many years before our account of the cre- 
ation. The Mahom'ctcins began in the reigns of the 
caliphs of Bagdad to invade HiiKlostan. They pene- 
trated as far as Delhi, and settled colonies in various pla- 
ces, whose descendants are called Titans. Their em- 
pire was overthrown by Tamerlane, who founded the 
Mogul government, which still continues. 

Instead of the preceding Divisions of Provinces, the 
Western Peninsula, or India within the Ganges, is 
now rather considered as subject to 


1. The Seiks^ a numerous and powerful nation in 
Hindostan Proper, spreading from the Indus to the Gan- 
ges. Lahore is their capital. 

2. The Behrar or Eastern Mahrat'tas. Their capi- 
tal is Nagpour. 


3. The Poonah or Western Mahrat^as ; capital Poo 
nah. These two states extend nearly from sea lo sea 
across the widest part of the peninsula. 

4. The Soubah ot the Deccan, north of the rivep 
Kistna. Its capital is H} drabad. 

5. The Mysore, the country of Hydcr Ally and Tip- 
poo Sultan. Its capital is Serin' gaf: at am', 

6 The Britisih Possessions in India, which are the 


The British Possesiilons in India are Bengal, the 
greater part of Bahar, part of Allahcvbad, part of O. issa, 
the Northern Cicars, Jaghire of the Camatic, coun- 
tries north and south of Calicut, on the coast of Aialabar' ; 
with Eon.bay' and the island of Salsette, kc. Besides 
these, the allies of the British are the Nabob of Oude j 
Nabob of Carnatic, including Tanjore, Madura ; Rajah 
of Travancore', and the territory of Cochin. 

Calcut'tet is the emporium of Bengal, and seat of the 
governor general of India. It is seated on the river 
iloogly, which is navigable for large ships up to the 
town, 100 miles from its mouth. It contains 5C0 thou- 
sand inhabitants. The houses, vaiiously built, some of 
brick, others of mud, and a great number of bamboo 
canes and mats, make a motley appearance. The mix- 
ture cf European and Asiatic manners here is wonder- 
ful. Coaches, palanquins, carriages drawn by bullocks, 
the passing ceremonies of the Hindoos, and the different 
appearances of the Faquirs, form a diversified and cu^ 
rious scene. 

Madraa'^ or Fort St, George^ on the Coroman'del 
coast, is a Britisli fort and tow-n, next in importance to 

Bombay' and the island of Salsette are fertile in rice^ 
iVuits, and sugar canes. 


Surat'f Tellicher'ry, Cananore, Go'a^ Cal^icut, Co^c/iin, 
Sec. on the Malabar^ coast, are places of note and impor- 

These and other smaller territories form the British 
/Possessions vi India They contain 20 millions of in- 
habitants, and yield an annual revenue of 8 millions stei- 


The IVirman Empire contains the following countries > 
Peg-u, ,/iva, Cambo'dia^ Laos ; the principal town in each 
is of the same name* 

The Birmans are separated from the Hindoos by oniy 
a narrow range of mountains ; but the dispositions of the 
two people are extremely different. The Birmans are 
a lively, inquisitive race, irascible and impatient. 

Pegu^ south of Ava, is supposed to be the Golden 
Cher^one'sus of the ancients. 

The Birmans, like the Chinese, have no coin^ but 
silver in bullion and lead are current among them. 

The forests in this empire are numerous and large* 

The teek tree is superior to the Europe'an oak. 


Malaya^ or Malac'ca^ contains several kingdoms and 
provinces. The inhabitants are called Malays. This 
country is noted for its numerous wild elephants. 

The kingdom of Siam is situated in a large vale, bew 
tween two ridges of mountains. 

The river Meinam^ which signifies the mother of wu' 
ters^ is celebrated among oriental rivers. 

The elephants of Siam are distinguished for s^gaci- 
ty and beauty. The trees on the bank^ of the Meinara 
are finely illuminated with swarms of fire flies, which 
emit and conceal their light as uniformly, as if it pro- 
ceeded from a machine of the most exact contrivance. 

n4 CHlNxV. 

Cambo'dla is celebrated for the Gamboge' gum, 
The ch;::{ river m Toi/quin China is Holo kian, wliich 
passes by Kcsho, the capital. 


This empire contains 1 5 provinces^ viz, 

Pechelee. Houquahg. Kansore. v Jj 

Kiangnan. Honan. Sechueen^ ^ 

Kiangbee. Shangtiing. Canton. 

The Kiang. Shansec. Quangsee. 

Fochen Shensee. Yunan. 

The chief towns are Ptkln^ Xankin^ and Canton. 

Rivera, Hoang Ho^ ov Yellow River^ Kiang Ku, 
Amour or Sakalin^ Ar^un^ Kiam, or the Blue River, and 
the Tay. 

Bays. Nankin and Canton- 

Pekin is situated in a fertile plain. The capital 
forms an exact square, and is divided into two cities ; 
the first is inhabited by the Chinese, the second by Tar- 
tars. This city is 18 miles in circumference. It has 
nine gates, which are lofty and well arched. I'he streets 
arc quite straight, most of them three miles in length, 
and 120 feet wide, with shops on each side. All the 
great streets are guarded by soldiers, who patrole night 
and day, with swords by their sides, and whips in their 
hands, to preserve peace and good order. The empe- 
ror's palace stands in the middle of the Tartar city. It 
presents a prodigious assemblage of vast buildings and 
magnificent gardens. The inhabitants of Pekin are es- 
timated at tw^o millions. 

JVonkin was formerly the imperial city. It is now 
greatly fallen from its ancient splendour. It had a mag- 
nificent palace, of which not a vestige is now to be seen. 
Here is a famous tower of porcelain, 200 feet high, and 
divided into nine stories. 

Canton is a large, populous, and wealthy city. It 
consists of three towns, divided by high walls. The 

CHINA. 115 

temples, magnificent palaces, and courts are numerous. 
The houses are neat, but consist of only one story, and 
have no windows towards the street. Many families re- 
side in barks, which form a kind of floating city ; they 
touch one another, and are so arranged as to form streets. 
Mr Isf SoiL Tovards the noith the air is sharp, in 
the middle mild, and in the south hot. The soil is ei- 
ther by nature or art fruuful of every thing that can min- 
ister to the necessities, conveniences, or luxuries of liie. 
The culture of cotton and rice fields, from which the 
inhabitants are generally clothed and fed, is ingenious 
almobt beyond description The tallow tree produces 
a fruit having all the qualities of our tallow, and when 
manufactured with oil, serves the natives as candles. 

The tea p.lant is planted in rows on hilly land. The 
leaves undergo much ;repdration. Evejy leaf is rolled 
up in form hy the hands of a female. The colour of the 
green tea is thought to arise from the early period, at 
which the leaves are plucked, and which, like unripe 
fruit, are generally green and acrid. 

Reiii^ion, There is no stated religion in China. 'I he 
Chinese have no Sunday, nor even such a division of 
time as a week ; the temples are however open every 
day for the visits of devotees'. The temples of Fo 
abound with imap:es. 

Language, The Chinese language contains only 
330 words, all of one s\ liable ; but each word is pro- 
nouhced with such various modulations, and each hav- 
ing so differer t a meaning, that it becomes more copi- 
ous than could be easily imagined. 

jintiquities. The most remarkable is the great wall 
cxttndirg 12 or 15 hundred miles along the north of 
China, and separating it from Tartary. It passes over 
high mountains, wide rivers, supported by arches, and 
across deep vallies. In some places it is 25 feet high, 
and 15 feet broad at the top. It is constructed of stone, 
and a bluish kind of brick, cemented with mortar. It is 
supposed by some to have been feuilt 600, and by ethers 
more than 2000 years ago, to prevent the incursions of 
the Mogul Tartars; 


Persona^ Manners, isfc. The Chinese arc of a mod- 
erate size, their faces broad, their eyes black and small, 
their noses blunt ; they have high cheek bones and large 
lips, The women have little eyes, black hair, regular 
features, and a delicate, though florid complexion. The 
Chinese suffer their nails to giow ; they wear a lock of 
hair on the crown of their heads, and reduce their eye- 
brows to an arched line. 


Japan contains three large Islands, viz, 

Nifihon or Kiiion, Ximo, Sikoko, and several smaller 

The whole empire is divided into 70 provinces. 

Air ^ Soil, The air and water are very good. The 
soil produces rice, millet, v/heat, and barley. Cedars 
are common, and so larg^e that they are proper lor the 
masts of ships, and columns for temples. It is the rich- 
est country in the world for gold. 

jinimals. The horses, though extremely small, are 
very beauiifal and highly valued. 

Inliabitants, The people are very ingenious, and 
their manners are in many respects quite opposite to 
the Europeans. Our common drinks are cold, theirs 
are hot ; the Europeans uncover the head out of respect, 
they the feet ; we are fond of v/hiie teeth, they of black ; 
we H'ount our horses on the left side, they on the right. 

Religion, The religion of the whole country is Pa- 
ganism. There are two principal sects, one of which is 
subjected to the most painful severities, the other aban- 
dons itself to the most voluptuous enjoyments. 

Language They have a language so peculiar, that 
it is understood by no other nation. The sciences are 
highly esteemed among them, and they have several 
schools for rhetoric, arithmetic, poetry, history, astron- 


t)my, &c. At Mea'cQ there are some schools, whick 
have each 3 or 4 thousand schok\rs. 

Maniifaciures ^ Commerce, The Japanese' fo?- 
meriy traded with many countiics, but now only with 
the Chinese', the Core'ans, the country of Jeddo, and 
With the Dutch. They have the art of tempering steel 
beyond any other nation in the world. They have better 
teas of all sorts, much finer, and better cured than those 
of China. 

The Japanese' have neither tables, beds, nor chairs ; 
but they sit and lie on carpets and mats, in the manner 
€f the Turks. 


The Asiatic islands are those, which are situated 
near the shores of Asia in the Indian Ocean and the 
Chiiicse sea, and the numerous clusters, which are dis- 
persed through the Great Pacific ocean. They arc di- 
vided into different groups, according to their situation 
and proximity 5 as the Indian Isiandsy the Eastern Ar» 
ch'ptl'a^o^ Australada. and the Polytic'sia, 


The Indian Islands are Lac'cadlvcsy iMal'dives^ Cey^ 
lon\ An'daman^ A^icobar^ and many smaller islarids in the 
Bay of Bengal. 

Ceylon' is a large island south of llindostan, rich in 
every department of natural history, and presents many 
minerals of uncommon beauty. The ruby, the sap'phir^?, 
the topaz, and the emerald, are among the pi ecious stones 
found here. This island is likewise remarkable for the 
pearl fishery on its coasts. The pearls are obtained by 
divers, who de^gend from five to ten fathoms, and re=? 


main under water about two minutes. Each one briiif^^i 
up in his iicl the oysters, in which the pearls are fouiid. 

The British have a settlement on one of the An'da- 
man isles, where they send their convicts fiom Bengal'. 

On a small island near the An'daman is a volcano, 
which frequently emits showers of red hot stones. 


The Eastern Archiperago, sometimes also called 
Indian Ifilandsy consists of several clusters. 

I. The islands of Sunday or the Suma'tran chain, 
whicli comprise Suina'tra^Java^ Baili, Lombock, Ilorez, 
Timor, and several others of less importance. 

2 Borne'an isles comprise Bor'neoj Sooloos, Pulo- 
I^aut, Anum'ba, Natu'na. 

3. The Maniilas^ or Phil'ip-fiine islands, include Lu^ 
zon\ Mindana'oy P&lawa, A^indoro. Pany, Negros, Zebu, 
Leyta, Samar, and many smaller ones. 

4. Tlie Celebe'zian isles, which are Cel'ebes^ Boutan, 
Shulla, Salayar, &c. 

5. The I\Ioluc'ca& or Spice islands include Gilo'lo^ 
Geram, Bouro, Oby, Amboy'na, Banda, Tidore, Ternate, 
and many others. 

Suma'tra affords a variety of metals, such as gold^ 
copper, iron> tin, Sec. and produces pepper, camphor,, 
cinnamon. Sec. The animals are the elephaiat, rhino'ceros, 
hippopot'amus, tiger, bear, and many varieties of the 
monke}^ The capital of Suma'tra is BeiicooUen. 

Java is remarkable for the city of Bata'via^ the capi- 
tal of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies. It is a 
large city, well built, and strongly fortified with walls. 
Java aboun'.is with forests and beautiful scenery Croc'- 
odiies arc numerous, as they are in mos* of the eastern 
islands. The water is bad, the air unwholesome, and 
foreigners seldom enjoy health long in this climate. 

Bor'neo is the largest island in the world. The in- 
land parts are marshy and unhealthy. It produces trop'* 


ical fruits, gold and diamonds The Ou'rang Ou'tang;, 
the animal which most resembles the human species, 
is a native of this island. The principal harbour is Ben- 
der Mussin. 

The soil of the Philifijiine Isles is extremely fertile, 

The chief town is Manilla. 

The Moluccas or Spice iilimds produce vast quanti- 
ties of cloves, mace, nutmegs, and delicious fruits- The 
Boa serpent is sometimes found here 30 feet long, and 
so large, it is said, that it will sometimes swallov/ a small 

Hai'nan^ Formo'sa^ Leoo Keoo, &c. belong to China. 

The Kuril'ian, or Kouriiee' islands, Bher'ings, Andre- 
an, Fox islands, Sec. which are principally valued for 
thtir furs, belong to Russia. 


The Australa'sia contains the following islands : 

1. JVew Holland or Nota'sia, and all the islands be- 
tween 20 degrees west and 20 or 30 degrees east of it. 

2. Papua or J^cnv Guin'ea^ and the Papuan isles. 

3. JVew Britain^ JVew Ireland^ and the Solomon 

4. JV'ew Caledonia^ and the J^ew Hebrides. 

5. JVevj Zealand, 

6^ Van DiemaTi^s Land^ which is separated from 
New Holland by Basse's strait or channel, about 30 
leagues wide. 

JVew Holland is situated between the Indian and Pa- 
cific oceans, and extends 2730 miles in length from east 
to west, and 1960 in breadth from north to south. It is 
sufficiently large to be denominated a continent^ though 
it has generally been called an island. 

An English colony is established on the eastern coast 
at Port Jackson, Botany Bay^ about 12 miles distant, 
is remarkable for being made by the English a place for 


the annual transY>ortation of criminals from Great Brit. 

The original inhabitants of this country appear to be 
in tlie lowest state of human society. They are of a low 
stature, ill shaped, and from wearing a white bone or 
reed thrust through their nose, make a disgusting and 
friglitfiil appearance. It is said they have no religion, 
though they entertain some faint idea of a future state. 

New Holland has not yet been sufiiciently explorer^ 
to admit of much accurate information. 


The Polyne'sia includes, 

1. The 'PeltTj isles. 

2. T\\QLadjo7ie or Marian islinds ; the principal of 
which are Guan and Tiiiian. 

3. The Oirolinys^ the largest of vvliich are Hogolen 
and Yap. 

4. The Sand'unch islands, discovered by Captain 
Cook, at one of which, Oivhy'hee^ he lost his life. 

5 The Mar'qiicsas^ which are very numerous, 

6. The Society isles, about 60 or 70 in number ; Ota- 
hcite is the largest. 

7. The Friendly islands an 1 the Fejee' islands. 

8 The Kavi'^atcr*s islands, the pmicipal of which is 

'Jlie largest ibland in Polyne'sia, is Owhy'bee, about 
100 miles in length. 

The isbnds in the Pacific o^ean are numerous and 
important. Their piodiictions are v:uious, and in many 
respects peculiar to themselves. The inhabit. nts are 
s-wages though in some instances they seem to have 
risen a degree above a state of nature. 

The islands open a wide fiild for benevolent exert'on 
in. civilizing tl^e natives, and introducing order, industiy, 
and the Christian religion among tbcm. 

A4a^ next to America, is the lugest division of :hc 
earth, and on several accounts it is the most remarkable. 

AFRICA. 121 

lu Mia our first parents were created, and placed in 
the Garden of Eden^ which, by some, is supposed tf 
have been on the river Eufihrdtes^ near where Baaso'ra 
now stands. It was in Asia, that J^oah and his fanr^^y 
were preserved in the ark during the flood. Here the 
Je'ws or Hebrews^ the ancient and favoured people of 
God, once lived. 

Asia was the scene where Jesus Christ exerted him- 
self to reform and save the human race, and where he 
completed the work of redemption, as recorded in the 
New Testament. 

This was the seat of the famous Babylo'nian, Assyri- 
an, and Persian empires, and the field in which Alexan- 
der the Great displayed his power in the conquests of 

Asia is the birth place of the impostor Ma' hornet^ and 
the theatre, on which he first exhibited his power, and 
established that religion, which bears his name, and 
which is extensively professed in Asia and Africa, and in 
Turkey in Europe, 

The tower of Babely the cities of Bab'ylon and Jeru- 
salem, and many other works of art, are recorded, as 
monuments of astonishment, in the history of Asia. 

This division of the earth is remarkable for its fer- 
tility, the deliciousness of its fruits, the fragrance of its 
plants, spices, and gums, its precious stones, silks, cot- 
ton, &c. It abounds in corn and wine, and furnishes ev- 
ery thing necessary for life and health. It supphes al- 
most every other part of the world with cofTec. tea, the 
finest muslins, and other commodities of art and ingenu- 

The southern Asiatics arc generally effeminate, lux- 
urious, indolent, and servile ; though they evince con° 
siderable genius in the manufacture of fine silks, cottCn, 
and porcelain, and in some of the fine arts. 



Mountains, ^^/a«, between Bar'bary and BileduKge- 
rid ; Sier'ra Let'na mountains, northeast of Guinea; the 

1.22 • 33ARBARY, 

Mountains of Abyssin'ia, southwest of the Red Sea, and 
the Mountains of the Moon^ in Lower Ethio'pia. 

Rivers. The Mle in Egypt, the Xiger in Negro- 
land ; Senegal and Gam'bia^ which fall into the Atlantic; 
2iXi^ Cua'w a into the Mozambique Channel, 

Gulfs ^ Baijs^ Straits^ ^c. The Gulfs of Sidra^^ and 
Cabesy on the north ; Gulf of Guinea ; Saldana and Ta^ 
ble Bays^ near Cape of Good Hope ; Lake Mara'vi^ 
in NinVeamaySand Z>am'dea in Abyssin'ia. The Straits 
of Gibral'tar^ Channel of Mozambique^ and Straits of 

Inlands. In tbe Atlantic are the Azores' ^ or West- 
ern Isles ; the Madeir'as ; ihe Cana'ry Islesj of which the 
priiicipal are Tentriffe'^ Fer'ro. and Pal'ma ; Cafie Verd 
Isles, the largest of which are St. An'thony^ St. JSTich'olas^ 
St. Yugo^ and Bonavis'ta ; and Goree', In the Gull of 
Guinea aie Fertiayi'do Po^ Princes^ Isle^St. Thomas^ and 
Annabon. More distant are St, Matthew^ Ascen'sion^ 
and St, Hel'ena. On the eastern coast ^x^Madagas'car^ 
Bour'bon, Isle of France or MauriUius^ Comoro Islesy 
Almirante Isles, Ba'belman'deL and Soco'tra. 

Cafies, On the north are Capes Serrat^ Rassem, and 
Bon ; on the west, Bajador\ Blanco.^ Verd^ St Mary and 
Roxo On the coast of Guinea are Capes Palmas^ Three 
points, and Formo'sa ; lower down, Cypes Neg*oand 
Good Hofie^ On the east coast are AquiHas, Corien'- 
tes and Gardefan^ 


The Parbary or Mahom'etan States, include Moroc* 
CO, Fez, Tuj'ilet, Jjigilmes'sa, Algiers, Tunis, Trifi'oU^ 

The principal town m each takes the name of the 
state or kin^donn to which it belongs, except Barca, 
whose ( apital is Toleme'ta. 

Bar'bary extends from the Straits of Gibraltar to 
Egypt. It was known to the ancients by the name of 
Maurita'ma, Numid'ia, Africa Proper, and Lyb'ia. 

EGYPT. 123 

The territories of Moroc'co are formed by the union 
of several small stales, as Fez^ Sigilmes^sa^ Tafilety bcc, 
formerly distinct, but now subdued and united under one 
sovereign. I'he city of Moroc'co has nothing to recom- 
mend it, but its great extent, and the royal palace, v/hich 
takes up so much ground, that it resemliles a small city. 
Fez is one of the largest cities of Africa. The palaces, 
are magnificent, and there are 700 mosques, 50 of which 
are very considerable and highly adorned. 

Algiers is a kind of republic under the protection of 
the Grand Sei^-n'ior, governed by a sovereign or Dey, 
who in some respects \% absolute, though elected by the 
Turkish soldiers, and fi^equently deposed. yJ/.t^iers, the 
capital, stands on the declivity of a hill, in the form of an 
amphithe'atre, next the harbour. The houses, ribing 
one above another, have a fine appearance from the sea. 
The tops of the houses are fkit, and the people walk 
on them in the evening to take the air. They are cover- 
ed with earth and are used for gardens. 

Tunis is formed like an oblong square, and has fiva 
gates. The city has no water, but what is obtained at a 

Triti'oli is a large town, and has a harbour the most 
commodious of any along this whole coast, except Alex- 
an'dria. The houses are low and mean, the streets dir- 
ty and irregular. 

These states are fruitful in corn, wine, citrons, oran- 
ges, figs, olives, almonds, dates, and melons. Their 
principal trale consists in fruits, horses, morocco leath- 
er, ostrich feathers, indigo, wax, tin, and coral. 

The inhabitants of these countries are remarkable 
for their piracies, and for their inhuman conduct toward?. 
Christian prisoners, whom they make slaves, and treat 
with the utmost cruelty. 


Fgyfit is a narrow vale on each side of the river Nil 
bounded by parallel ridges of mountains or hiUs. It is 
divided into Upper, Lower, and Middle* 

124 EGYPT. 

Lo>7er Egypt, on the mouth of the Nile, comprehencls 
the Delta, which is famed for its fertility. 

Egypt is far the most important part of Africa, and 
was once the seat, if not the parent, of science. 

The principal towns or cities are Grand Cai'ro^ the 
capital ; Alexan'dria^ Roset'ta^ Damiet'tay Suez^ ;vn- 
ciently Bereni'ce ; Thebes, formerly celebrated for its 
hundred gates ; Syout, and Sye'ne, anciently Sien'na. 

Grand Cai'ro has been one of the largest cities in the 
world. Near it stood the ancient Memphis. The 
streets are narrow, and the best houses are generally 
built so as to enclose a piece of ground called a court, 
having their windows within, and presenting a dead wall 
to the street. 

jlUxan'dria^ once a magnificent and celebrated city, 
was built by Alexander the Great, and long considered 
the finest city in the world, next to Rome. It is now 
almost in ruins. Some remahis however of its ancient 
splendour are to be seen, particularly Pompcy's pillar ; 
and two celebrated ob'elisks. The ancient Pharos, sl 
watch tower, so famous in antiquity, that it was reckon- 
ed one of the seven wonders of the world, is now a cas- 
tle, and is used to direct vessels into the harbour. 

In Rosct'ta the houses, built with terraces and stand- 
ing asunder, have an air of neatness and elegance. The 
country to the north has pleasing gardens, full of orange, 
lemon, citron trees. Sec. with beautiful groves of palm- 

Damiet'ta, a seaport, situated on the eastern branch 
of the Nile, is a place of great trade. 

Soil, Climate, Isfc, The vast fertility of Egypt is 
owing to the inundations of the Nile, which rises in the 
mountains of Abyssin'ia, where it constantly rains for 
months in succession. In Egypt, however, rain is very 
uncommon. Egypt was noted for its abundance of corn, 
even in the days of Jacob, for when there was a dearth 
in all the lands, yet in the land of Egypt there was bread. 
The rush papyrus, which grows on the banks of the 
Nile, served the ancients to write on. 

Animals. The hip'popot'amus, or river horse, an am* 

EGYPT. 125 

pbib'ious animal, and the rat called ichneu'mon, are na-, 
lives of this Qountry, as is also the bird ibis. 

Inhabitants. The descendants of the original Egyp- 
tians are an indolent, ill looking, and slovenly people. 
They are distinguished by the name of Cofitis. In their 
complexion they are rather sun burnt, than swarthy or 

The Turks who reside in Egypt retam all their Ot- 
toman pride and insolence. 

Religion, The Cofitis profess themselves to be 
Christians of the Greek church ; but Mahom'etanism is 
the prevailing religion among the natives. 

Language, The Cop tic is the ancient language of 
Egypt. This was succeeded by the Greek, about the 
time of \lexander the Great 5 and that by the Ar'abic, 
when the Arabs gained possession. The Ai^abic, or 
Ar'abesqwe, as it is called, is the current language. The 
Cop'tic may be considered as extinct. 

Curiosities. The pyr'amids are the principal ; they 
are supposed to have been built by the children of Is- 
rael, for sep'ulchres for the Egyptian kings. The laby- 
rinth is another wonderful curiosity, being cut from a 
marble rock, and consisting of several palaceg. 

Egypt is one of the most interestmg countries in the 
world. It is celebrated both in sacred and profane his- 
tory. It was there the Jews were in bondage 440 years; 
but at length, after a series of miracles, were liberated, 
and conducted back to Ca'naan, the land of promise, un- 
der the direction of Moses and Aaron. It was there Je- 
sus in his infancy was carried by Joseph and his mother 
Mary, to avoid the cruelty of Herod, who sought the 
young child's life. 

In the early ages of Greece, Egypt was distinguish- 
ed for learning and science, and was the resort of sages, 
and legislators of other nations. The Egyptians are said 
to have been the first, who found out the rules of gov- 
ernment, and the art of making life easy, and a people 

The ancient Egyptians were as remarkable for their 
sufieratition^ as for their wisdom. Their religion was 


Idolatry, They worshipped almost an infinite number 
of deities ot different ranks and orders. The two, which 
they most honoured, were Osi'ris and lais^ by which it is 
supposed they meant the sun and moon. They paid di- 
vine honours to vegetables and various animals, as the 
cat, dog, wolf, croc'odile, and several others, which they 
either feat ed for their ferocity, or respected for their use. 
But Egypt is now debased, a land of slaves, without a 
prince of their own, and almost without government. 
A Turkish Bash'aiv or^ governor resides amoRg them 
at Cai'ro, and a number of Beys or Begsn who are infe- 
rior officers, are appointed over the different provinces 
under his authority. 


Ethiopia contains the following countries. 

Nu'bia. ^ 

Principal towns. 
Sen'naar^ Dongo' 


The following countries, which are little known, are 
sometimes included in Ethiopia ; Biledul'gerid, Zan'- 
haga, Fezzan, Za'hara or the Desert, J^e'groland or .AOf- 
gritiay and other places in the central part of Africa, 

Mi'bia contains several kingdoms, little known ex- 
cept Sen'naar and Dongo'la. In some parts, the houses 
are low, built with mud walls, and covered with reedsi 
The children are quite destitute of clothing. 

Sen'naar is a large town, and very populous. The 
king's palace is surrounded by high walls, formed of 
bricks and dried in the sun. 

Abyssin'ia is a very ancient kingdom. The season is 
rainy from April to September, /and then succeeds, 
without interval, a cloudless sky and a vertical sun. 
There is no country in the world that produces a great- 
er variety of quad'rupeds, both wild and tame. Here 
are found the lion, leop'ard, elephant, rhinoc'eros, drom- 
edary, camel, stag, horse, goat, and monkey j a variety 


of birds, as the ostrich, eagle, vulture, stork, Sec, Hy- 
e'nas are very numerous, and dreadful in their ravages. 

Gondar^ the capital of Abyssin'ia, is populous, and sit- 
uated on a hill of considerable height. 

Jbex has more wild beasts than human inhabitants. 

Suaquem stands on a small island of the same name 
in the Red Sea, near the coast of Nu'bia. It has a well 
sheltered bay in six or seven lathom water. 

Lower Ethio'pia extends through much of the inte- 
rior of Africa ; but there is great difference of opinion 
respecting the names, and even the existence of the na- 

River, One branch of the Nile is said to rise in 
Abyssin'ia, the other in the Mountains of the Moon, in 
Lower Ethio'pia 

The religion of these countries is a mixture of Chris- 
tianity aid Ju'daism. 

Bileduifgerid, the ancient Numid'ia, i» an inland coun- 
try. The inhabitants are composed of the ancient Af- 
ricans, who lead a settled life, and the Arabs, who roam 
at large. This country in some parts abounds with 
palm trees, fiom which the inhabitants gather vast quan- 
tities of dates, with which they carry on considerable 

Zan'haga is a district of Za'hara, bordering on the At- 

Fezzan is said to be a circular domain in a vast wil- 
derness, like an island in an ocean. It lies south of 
Trifi'eli, The natives are of a deep swarthy complex- 
ion, resembling the Negro mote than the Arab cast. 
Their dress is similar to that of the Moors in Bar'bary. 
In religion they are MahonVetans. Mourzouk^ the capi- 
tal, has the appellation of a Christian town. It exhibits a 
contrast of vast ruins of ancient buildings, and humble 

Za'haray or the Desert^ comprehends a vast extent, 
stretching from the Atlantic to Mc'bia^ and from Bile- 
dul'gerid to Mgri'tia: it is, excepting a few spots, a mere 
desert, and so parched, that the caravans from Moroc'c^ 
and JYe'groland are obliged to carry both water and pro-, 

i2g - GUINEA. 

^fe' groland^ Sudan' or Mgri'tia, is that part of Africa, 
through whicn the river Niger is supposed to run. It 
lies south of Za'hara, and stretches far to the east, but 
the inland parts are little known, 

Mataman^ or Cimdibe'a, lies on the western coast of 
Africa, between Lower Guinea and the Cape of Good 
Hope. It ib little visited by Europeans. 


This part of Africa is divided into Ufifier and Loiyer 

Ufifier Guinea. Lower Gmnea. 

Countries, Towns. Countries. Towns. 

Sicr'ra Leo'na. Loan go. Loango, 

Guinea. Cape Coast. Congo. St. Salvador. 

Dahomy. Abomey. Ango'la. Loan'da. 

Benin. Benin, Bengue'la. Bengue'la. 

Guinea is but little known, except the coast, which 
is divided into the Grain^ the Ivory ^ the Gold^ and the 
Slave coast. 

This country is unhealthy to Europe'ans, though the 
natives live to a great age. The productions are rich 
fruits, gums, hard wood, grain, gold, ivory, wax, &c. 

Be7un exhibits many beautiful landscapes, but the 
air in some places is noxious and pestilential, on account 
of the gross vapours exhaled from the marshes, Benin, 
the capital, seated on the river Benin or Formo'sa, is a 
spacious city ; the houses are large and handsome, 
though they have clay walls, and are covered with reeds, 
straw, or leaves. The shops are filled with Europe'an 
merchandise, and the streets are kept neat and clean by 
the women. j 

Congo is a name usually given to a large tract of 
country, which includes Loan'go, Ango'la* &c, 

Salvador contains several churches, and a palace, 
where the king resides : it has also a Portuguese bishop. 

Ango'la is a fertile kingdom. The Portuguese have 
settlements on the coast. The English and Dutch forra- 
erlv trafficed with the natives, and purchased a great 
number of slaves. 


These comprehend the countries on the western 
coast of Africa, where Europe'ans trade for ivory and 
gold, and where they traded for slaves, till that inhuman 
traffic was abolished Europe'an settlements are now 
formed here, chiefly under the British government, for 
the purpose of carrying on an honest and advantageous 
trade with the natives, and for promoting their civiliza- 
tion and teaching them the Christian religion. 


Countries, Towns. 

Adel, AncegureL 

A Jan. Brava. 

Zanguebar't Alclinda, 

Monasnjiugi or Nim'eamay'. 

Mozambique. Mozambique. 

Monomotapa. , Benemat'apa, 

Sofa'la. Sofa'la. 

Terra de Natal. 

Caffra'ria, or C. of Good Hope. Cafie Town, 

jldel is a fruitful province near the Red Sea. 

Zanguebar' includes several petty kingdoms, in which 
ihe Portuguese have had settlements. Melin'da^ the 
capital, is a large, populous place, in which the Portu- 
guese erecied seventeen churches and nine convents : 
carrying on an advantageous traffic with the natives in 
all the African fruits and productions, 

Mozambique is a kingdom, lying on the coast of Zan* 
guebai^. Its capital is situated on an island. The town 
of Mozambique is a large, well fortified place, having a 
strong citadel for the defence of the harbour. It belongs 
'o the Portuguese. 

Monomot'afia is fertile, the climate temperate, and 
the air clear and healthy. Here are many ostriches, and 
vast herds of elephants. The rivers abound with gold. 
There are mines of silver, the products of which are ex- 
changed with the Portuguese for Europe'an goods In 
Benemat'apa or Med'rogan, the capital, the houses are 
.idorned with beautiful cloths of cotton, finely worked 


and dved. The palace is a spacious fabric of wood, 
flanked with towers, and having stately gates. 

Sofala or Quitcr've is subject to the Portuguese. 
Some suppose it to be the Ophir of the ancients, the gold 
here being generally the purest and finest of all Africa. 
It is situated on a small island on the coast. Here is 
honey in great abundance. 

Terra cle A^aial is inhabi'ted bythe Boshmen Hottentots, 

Caff)^aria is an extensive country, including Caffra- 
m Proper, and the country of the Hottentots. 

Ca/ie of Good Ho/w stands on the most southerly 
point of the continent of Africa. Cape Town is situated 
about 30 miles to the north of the Cape. It is neat and 
well built. 

Rivers, The J^^ile rises in the mountains of Abys- 
sin'ia passes through lake Dan'bea^ crosses the country 
of Xubia^ and enters Egypt at Sye'ne ; below Cairo it 
divides itself into two great branches, which with the 
Mediterranean form the island of Delta, which has al- 
ways been remarkable for the fertility of its soil. 

Mger, This river takes its rise in the western part 
of -Africa, and runs east ; but where it discharges its 
waters is unknown. 

TiiC Gainbia and Senegal rise in the interior of Af- 
rica, oveiflow their banks like the Nile, aad fall into the 
Atlantic north and south of Cape Verd. 

Mount mns, Mou7it Atlas is a chain, which extends 
from Barca to Morocco, and from which the Atlantic 
ocean takes its name. The Lyb'ian mountains are be- 
tween Z:i7/ara and Egypt ; the Mountains of the Moon 
are in Lower Ethio'pia. 

Islands. The Azores' or Western Isles are a small 
cluster in the Atlantic ocean opposite to Portugal. St. 
Mi'chael is the largest, but Tercera is the residence of 
the Portuguese governour. 

The Madeir'k Isles belong to the Portuguese. The 
largest, named Madeir'a, is remarkable for the rich wines 
called Madezr^a, Malmsey, and Tent. 

The Canary Isles belong to Spain ; the principal ot 
them are Grand Cana'ry^ Teneriffe\ and Fer'ro. They 
are famous for the rich Cana'ry wine, and for the birds 

AFRICA. lai 

called Cana'ry birds. The Peak of TencrifFe' is one oi 
the nigiiebt mountains in the world. 1. rises very ab- 
ruptly ivom the ocean, and to about 3 miles above it. 

Cafie Verd Isles are about 10 in number.- The piin- 
cipal are St* Jat^o^ the largest and the residence of the 
Portuguese viceioy j St^ Anto'nio^ St, JVic/ioias^Sind Bo* 
na VisUa 

St, Hel'enai^ ^mass of rock in the Atlantic Ocean 
about 28 miles in circumference, situated UOO miles 
from Atiica, and 1800 from Soufn America. The cli- 
mate is pleasant and healthy. English ships on their 
Indm voyages all stop here for fresh provisions and V7a« 
ter. Gen. Napoleon Bonaparte was, after tlie battle of 
Waterloo, imprisoned m this Island, where he has been 
since strictly watched and guarded by British soldiers. 

Africa, though now reduced to a state of general bar- 
baiibin, once contained several kingdoms and ^ares, em- 
inent for their liberal arts, for wealih and power, and for 
the most extensive commerce. Almost all the southern 
parts, from the Red sea to the Atlantic, were full of 
people. The kingdoms of Egyfit and Ethio'fiia were 
much celebrated and the rich and powerful state of Car- 
thage^ the formidable rival to Rome, extended her com- 
merce to every part of the then known world But the 
celebrated iepui)lic ot Car'thage, after a contest of 
more than 100 years, was entirely subdued by the Ro- 
mans, who took possession of their country and destroyed 
their city. 

Egypt at length suok under their iron sceptre, awd 
became a Roman pr vince ; and after a siiccession of 
revolutions, and being overrun by the barbarous Vandals 
from Europe, and the merciless Sar'acens from Arabia, 
the rich and powerful states of Africa sunk into debase- 
ment, and became a land of pirates and robbers. 

Africa has justly been called the t:ountry of monsters. 
Every species of noxious and pre'd^tory animals reigns 
undisturbed in the vast sandy deserts of this country, 
nurtured by the heat of the climate. Even man, in t'ds 
quarter of the globe, exists in a state of the lowest bar- 

The unfortunate condition of our own species, how. 


ever, has in this country been greatly aggravated by Eu- 
ropeans and Anaericans, who, to obtain aiavts, have t e- 
qucnted the coast, and encouraged the natives to kid- 
nap and sell each other. This iniquitous traffic, the 
slave tradey has been the cause of perpetual wars, in 
-which the barbarous chiefs of the country attack each 
other'b subjects for the purpose of making prisoners, 
and selling them for slaves. But it is to be hoped, that 
a practice, so shocking to reason and humanity, will 
soon be abolished, and that the Christian world will atone 
for their crimes to a weak and ignorant people, by teach- 
ing them the benefits of civil society^ in'dustry, domes- 
tic arts, and true religion. 

[As the study of Chronology and History should follow that of 
Geography, a concise account of these sciences, fi^om Joice 
and Blair^ may with propriety be subjoined to the modern 
part of this Geography3 

Chronologt is the science which relates to time^ 
and to the division of it into certain portions, as days, 
months, years &c, and the application of these portions 
to the elucidation of history. 

The principal divisions of time are those marked 
out by the heavenly bodies, as days, nights, and seasons. 

A day. in common speech, is the time the sun re- 
mains above the horizon ; but in a philosophical sense, it 
denotes a complete revolution of the earth about its axis. 

The beginning of the day is variously reckoned by 
different nations; some reckon it from sunrise^ other* 
from suvset Most European nations compute from 
midnight ; but modem astronomers from noon. 

The Jews and Romans divided the day and night each 
into four watches ; the 1st commenced at 6 in the morn- 
ing: the 2d at 9 ; the 3d at 1*. ; and the 4th at 3 in the 
aftemoon^ The night was divided in a similar manner. 

The Greeks divided time into portions of 10 days 
oach; the Chinese ioto those of 1^ days; and the Mexi- 
cans into thote of 13 days; but the Tews, oriental na- 
tions, and other civilized people, have made use oinveeka 
of 7 (iJays each. 


Savage nations used the division of moons, which 
^re aoouc 2. | days. Civilized nations have agreed to 
reckon by the period of the revolution of the eaith round 
the sun, and call it a year ; and they again divide theso 
into 12 -nioons^ {^moo7iths or months ) 

But 12 equal moons make but 354 days, and the 
earth is 365i ^ays in going round the sun ; Julius 
Caisar, therefore, vaned the months as we now have 
them, so as lo make o^S\ days. 

This, however, was not perfectly correct, for the ac- 
tual revolution of the earth is not qui e a quarter of a 
day more than 3-35, but only 5 hours 48 minutes and 
57 seconds; consequently, 11 minutes b seconds is 
gained every year, or a whole day in 131 years. 

In 1752, the gain of 11 minutes 3 seconds per an- 
num, had carried the reckoning 1 1 days before its prop- 
er time ; the style of reckoning, therefore, was altered, 
and 11 days dropt by act cf the British parliament, the 
day after the 2d of September being called the 14th. 

It was settled also, that in every 4C0 years, three 
leap years in three centuries should be droot, so that in 
future the annual recurring year will keep pace with 
time within two or three seconds per annum. 

The year is also divided into 52 wecks^ and a day 
over ; the weeks into 7 days or rotations of the earth on 
its own axis; these rotations in^o 24 hours ; each hour 
into 6o minutes ; and each minute into 60 seconds or pe- 
riods, in which a pendulum, 39^2_ inches long, vibrates. 
The vibration of such a pendulum is, therefore, the first 
measure of time. 

The names of the days of the week are derived from 
the .names of certain Saxon objects of worship. 

Sunday, or first day, is from the Sun ; Monday, 
from the Moon ; Tuesday, from Tuis'co^ a German hero; 
Wednesday, from JVo'den, their god of battle ; Thurs- 
day, from Thor^ the god of winds and weather ; Friday, 
from Fri'ga^ the goddess of peace and plenty ; Saturday, 
from Sea' tor, the god of freedom. 

The Romans called the days after the planets ; as So- 
lis, Sun; Lunge, Moon; Martis. Mars; Mercu'rii, Mercu- 
ry ; Jovis, Jupiter ; Vcn'eris^ Venus; and Satur'ni, Saturn. 


The names of the 12 moons, or months, are derived 
from the Latin. January is from Janus^ the god of 
newborn infants ; February, from Feb'rua^ the mother of 
Mars; March from Mars^ the god of war, the first 
month of the Roman year; April, from J/ier'io, signify- 
ing to open the year, or the blossoms ; May, from iVlaia^ 
the mother of Mercuiy ; Jure, from Ju7io^ the wifci of 
Jupiter ; July, from Julius Catsar, the Roman Empe- 
ror , August, from ^z/,5'w.9/f«5 CaBsar, the Roman Em- 
peror; September, from Sefittm^ the seventh month 
of the Roman year ; October, from Octo^ the eighth 
month of the Roman year ; November, from J^Tovevi^ 
the mnth month of the Roman year ; December, from 
Decern^ the tenth month of the Roman year. 

The Romans reckon by lustra^ periods of five years, 
so called from a tax required to be jiaid every Jifih year. 

The Greeks reckoned by Olym'fiiads^ periods of four 
years, which derived their name from the public games, 
celebrated every fourth year at OlynVpin. 

Cy'cles are fixed intervals of time, composed of the 
successive revolutions of a certain number of years. 

The lunar cy'cle, or '* golden number," is a period of 
19 years, at the end of which, the sun and moon return 
to very nearly the same part of the heavens. 

The solar cy'cle consists of 28 years, when the sun 
returns to the sign and degree of the ecliptic, which he 
had occupied at the conclusion of the preceding period, 
and the days of the week coi respond to the same days 
of the month as at that time. 

The cy'cle of Roman indiction consists of 15 years. 

The Julian Period is formed by the combination of 
the cy'cles; th?t is, by mult^plyin^^ the three numbers in- 
to one another; 19 x 28 X 15=Ti80; this is the number 
of years of which the Julian Period consists, at the ex- 
piration of which, the first years of each of those cycles 
"will come together 

The first year of the Christian era corresponds, or is 
supposed to correspond, with the 4714th of the Julian 
period, which begins 706 years before the common date 
assigned to the creation of the world. 



Epochs and eras may be thus explained. An ejioch is 
a certain ;^oiw^, determined by some remarkable event, 
from which time is reckoned, and the years computed 
from that period are denominated an era. For example, 
the birth of Christ is i^eckoned an epoch ; the yCvirs 
reckoned from that event are called the Christian era. 

The most remarkable epoch is that of the creation of 
the Nvorld, which is supposed to have happened 4004? 
years before Christ. The present year, 1820, is there- 
fore 4004 + 1820 = 5824th year from the creation. 

It will readily be supposed, that owini^ to the various 
lengths of years, and the different modts of calculation 
practised by different nations, great differences of opin- 
ion have existed in regard to the date of past events. 

The great difficulty was, to fix the period of certain 
important events as a sort of land marks, from which to 
ascertain and correct others. These are 

Before Christ. Years 

The Creation 

The Deliig-e . . . - 

The Call of Abraham - - - 

Tlie Djrparture from F.g}'pt - - 

Tlie Taking" of Troy by the Greeks 

The Budding of Solomon's Temple 

T!i€ Building" of Rome 

The Death of Cyrus 

The Battle of Ma/athon 

The Death of Soc^rates 

The Death of Alex.u/der 

The Destruction of ( a'/thag"e 

The Death of Julius C3e3ar 

After Christ. 

The Destruction of Jerusalem by Tilus 

The Eastern Empire be^an at Constantino'ple 

The Death of King" Arthur 

The Flight of Ma'homet from Mec'ca 

The Death of Charlemagne' 

The Death of Alfred 

The Landing" of William I. 

The Death of Edward III. 

The Death of Tamerlane' 

The Discovery of Printing 

The Taking of Constantmo'ple by the Turks 
































- - 






TheDeathof I'lchard III. .... 1485 

The Discover}' of America - - - - 1492 

The Reformation he^SiU .... 152O 

The Spanish Arma'da Defeated - - - 1588 

The Beheading of Charles L - - - - 1649 

The English R.^volution - . - . 1688 

The Battle of Blei/heini .... I704 

The American Declaration of Independence - 1776 

The French Revolution ... - 1789 

The Bank of Eng'iand stopped pa3'ment - m 1797 

The Battle of Maren'go .... 1800 

The Crowning of Bonaparte Emperor - - 1804 

The Battle of Trafalgar .... 1805 

The Battle of Aus'terlitz - . - - 1805 

The Battle of Jena - - - • 1806 

The f^eace of Tilsit . - - - - 1807 

Tlie Taking and Burning of Moscow - - 1812 

The Abdication or Dethrone /ucnt, av\d Dani^liinent 

of Bonaparte - - • - - 1814 

His tour is a connected recital of past and present 
events i its office is to trace the progress of man from 
the savage state through the several grades of civiliza- 
tion to the nearest appioach to perfection, of which so- 
cial institutions are capable. It is a register of the ex- 
. perience of man in all ages, and a source of practical 
wisdom to legislators and governors, and of amuse- 
ment and useful information to all classes of men. 

History, with regard to the nature of its subjects^ may 
be divided into general and fiarticular ; and, with res- 
pect to time^ into ancient and modtrn. 

Ancient history commences with the creation of the 
world, as given by Moses, and extends to the reign of 
Charlema^e', A D. 800. Modern history is dated 
from that period, and extends to our own times. 

General history is divided into civil and ecclesiastical : 
ihe^rst contains the history of mankind in their various 
relations to one another ; the second considers them as 
acting, or pretending to act, in obedience to what they 
believe to be the will of God. 



THE opinions of the ancients concerning the figure 
of the earth were wild and extravagant. 

Some supposed it one extensive plain ; that the heav- 
ens, in which the sun, moon, and stars appeared to move 
daily from east to west, were at no great distance above 
it, and that hell was spread out at an equal distance un- 
der the surface of it. 

Other opinions, equally erroneous, prevailed, but by 
degrees they were at length corrected by the assistance 
of mathematical learning, and the experience of travel- 
lers, navigators, and astronomers ; by which the spheri- 
cal figure of the earth has satisfactorily been demonstrat- 

Original state of the earth. 

The earth was once in a confused and desolate state ; 
but by divine Providence, in the space of six days, it was 
reduced into a habitable world ; clothed with trees, 
shrubs, plants, and flowers, and stocked with vaiious 
kinds of animals. 

Sixteen hundred and fifty six years after the earth 
was made and inhabited, it was overflowed and destroy- 
ed by a deluge ; so that a general destruction and de- 
vastation were brought upon the earth, anrl all things in 
it, both man and beast, excepting Noali and his family, 
"who, by the special care of God, were preserved in a 
certain ark o" vessel, with such kinds of living crea- 
tures, as he took in with him 

After the waters had raged for some time upon the 


earth, they began to lessen and subside ; they retired by 
degrees into their proper channels, and caverns within 
the earth ; at length the mountains and fields began to 
appear, and the whole earth assumed its present form 
and shape. 

Thus perished the old world, and the present arose 
from the ruins and remains of it. 

Division and settlement of the earth by JVoah, 

Noah, when he came forth from the ark, settled in 
Mesopota'mi-a, and before his death divided the world 
among his three sons ; giving to Shem, Asia ; to Ham, 
Africa ; and to Japhelh, Europe. 

Shein^ and his descendants. 

The descendants of Shem settled from Me'dia west^ 
^rard, to the sea coast of A' ram or Syr'ia His sons 
were E'lam, Ash'ur, Arphax'ad, Lud, and A 'ram. 

E'lam possessed the country now called Per'sia. 
From him it had the name of Erymae and Elymais. 

Ash'ur settled on the west or northwest of E'lam in 
Assyria, called likewise after him Ash'ur, at present 

Arphax'ad peopled Chalde'a. 

Lud is supposed to have wandered as far as Lydla. 

A 'ram and his descendants inhabited Arme'nia, Meso- 
pota'mia, and Syr'ia. From his son Uz, a tract about 
Damas'cus, the stony and desert Ara'bia, was called the 
land of Uz. 

JBTam, and his descendants. 

Ham, the second son of Noah, removed into Egypt, 
which, in scripture, is often called the land of Ham. 
The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizra'im, Ca'naan, and 

Cush, his eldest son, possessed Ara'bia. 

Mizra'im and his descendants inhabited Ethio'pia, 
Lib'ya, Egypt, and the neighbouring countries. 


Canaan and his posterity settled in Phceni'cia, and the 
land ot CinuaiK lying on tne east and southeast of die 
Mediterra/.iean sea Tins was the land afterwards prom- 
ised to A'braham, which i.e and his posterity according- 
ly e-ijoyed, nd was tnen the land of Is'real and Judah. 

Phut, the you npjv'St soa of Ham. planted himself in 
the western pirts of Afiica, on the Mediterra'nean, ia 
the country of M luriia'nia, wiicnce this country was cal- 
led the region of Phut, in St. Jerome's time. 

Japhethf and his descendants^ 

The scripture leaves us very mu -h in the dark, as t© 
the country where Japheth, the eJdest son of Noah, 
settled Ail we can collect respecting it is, that he re- 
tired with his descendants to the north of the countries 
planted by the children of Shem His sons were Go'- 
mer, Ma'gog, Ma'dai, Ja'van, Tu'bal, Me'shech, and 

Go'mer, the eldest son of Ja'pheth, was the father of 
the Go'merites, called by the Greeks, Gala'tians ; who 
were the Gauls of Asia Minor, inhabiting part of Phry'- 

The families of Go'mer soon grew very numerous, 
and sent colonies into several parts of Europe. They 
first settled at the Lake Mceo'tis, and so gave the name 
of Bos'phorus Cimme'rius to the strait between it and the 
Eux'ine sea. These, in time, spreading by new colonies 
along the Dan'ube, settled in Germany, whose ancient 
inhabitants were the Cim'bri. From Germany they af- 
terwards spread themselves into GauK where they were 
originally called Go'merites, then, by the Greeks, Ga- 
la'tae, and at last Gauls. 

From the colonies of Gaul or Germany originated the 
first inhabitants of Great Britain. 

Ma'gog, the second son of Japheth, was the father of 
the Scythians; from whose descendant's, migrating over 
Cau'casus, it is supposed, the Rus'sians and Mus'covites 


Ma'dai, it is generally agreed, planted Me'dia^ and the 
Medes are called by his name in scripture* 

Ja'van settled in the southwest part oi ^Jsia Minor y 
about lo'nia and Lyd'ia. He had four children; Eli'sha, 
Tar'shish, Kii'tim, Dod'anim, 

Eli'sha peopled the most considerable isles between 
Europe and Asia ; for they are called in scripture the 
isles of Eli'sha ; and the sea itself might be called HeF- 
lespont, as if it were El'ishpont, or sea of Eli'sha. 

The descendants of Eli'^bha, pasting over into Elirope, 
were called Hel'lencs, and their coumry Hel'las, and af- 
terwards Greece. 

Tar'shish gave name to Tar'sus, and all Ciifcia, of 
which it was the capital. It seems also to have been 
the Tar'shish, to which Jonas thought to flee from the 
presence of the Lord. 

Kit'tim peopled Macedo'nia, called in scripture the 
land of Chit'tim. His posterity n igrated into Cy'firus 
and Italy. 

Dod'anim sent colonies into Rhodes. 

Tu'bal and Me'shech planted the country lying con- 
tig'uous to Mn'gog. 

Tiras led his colony into Thrace, 

These are the plantations of the sons of Noah 5 and 
after this manner wtre the nations spread over the earth 
after the flood, and the dis^^ersion of mankind. 

By this account, it does not appear that they migrated 
eastward beyond Me'dia, northward beyond the moun- 
tains of Cau'cacus, southward beyond Ethiopia or Haba- 
shia, or westwsid beyord a part of Lyb'ia and Greece, 
including Mactdo'nia. It is probable, the more distant' 
parts were not phnted immediately by these first colo- 
nies, but by their posterity afterwards. 

The earth in generaU as knoxvn to the ancients. 

The knowledge the ancients had of the earth was 
veiy imperfect. Ail they knew of it lay w^ithin a line 
suppo>ed to be drawn fiotr* theibland of Thu'le^ the Shet- 


land and Ork'ney islands, eastward through the middle of 
Nor'way and Swe'den, round Scyth'ia, including India 5 
and from ttieiicc pasoing round the island Ar'gyre, now 
denominated Suma'tra-, to the island of the Hann'oni, or 
Menu'thias, the modem Madagascar ; then pass'ng up 
within the eastern ccast of Africa, excluding Etbio'pia, 
with all the middle and lower parts of afaca, which are 
south of mount Atlas, taking in only Egypt, the coast of 
Barbary, Maurita'nia^ and Guin'ea ; crossing the Equi- 
noctial, and passing upwards again, round the Fortunate 
or Canary Islands, through the Atlantic, to Thu'le 

The earth, thus circumscribed, received many divi- 
sions; but the one most common and most generally re- 
ceived, was h)to three parts, Europ©. Asia, and Africa. 

These parts, taken together, heathen writers called 
the world. 


Europe derived its name, according to the old geog- 
raphers and historians, from Euro'pa, the daughter of 
Egenor, king of the Phoenicians, who, accoiding to an- 
cient fable, was stolen by Jupiter, and carried into the 
land of Cre'ta or Crete. 


Mountains. Alfis. Ju'ra^ Pyr^enees^ ApJennines^ Mt- 
na^ Parnas'sus^ Olym'fiusj Pin'dus, Ossa^ Pe'lion. The 
ancient and modern names of Europe'an mountains arc 
so similar, that knowing one, the other cannot easily be 
mistaken. It may be ob-^erved, that on ancient maps, 
the following words or letters denote— 

Monsj a Mountain. Ma're^ or Pon'tus^ a Sea. 

Lac, or La'cus^ a Lake, Ins. or In'aula^ an Island. 

FL or Flu'men^ a River. Pr or Prom^ a Cape. 

Fr. or Frc'tum^ a Strait. iSm, or Si'nusp a Bay. 



Rivers, The following are the principal rivers, with 
fhe modern names annexed. 




Ister or Danu'bius* 
Linger or JLi'goris, 
Via'dras or Viu'der, 


























Ancient Xarncs, Modern Aames» 

Oce'dnus Atlan'ticiis* 
Oce'dnus German'icus, 
Oce'dnus Britanicus, 
Oce'dnus Aquitan'icus, 

The Atlantic ocean. 
The G erman ocean or N. Sea. 
Brirish Channel. 
Bay of Biscay. 

SEAS, &c. 

Ancient Mimes, Modern JSfames. 

Mf/re Mediterra'neum, Medicerra'nean Sea. 
Mga'um Ma! re. Archipei'ago. 



Pon'tus Euxi'nus. 
Mao'tis Pa'lus, 
Ma' re lo'nium; 
Si'nus Jdriat'icus. 
Coda'nus Si'nus, 
Cylifie'rius Si'nus. 
Vergin'ium ov ? 

Vergin'ium Ma' re 5 
Fre'tum Gal'Ucum, 
Pre turn Hercu'leum 
Fre'tum Gadita^mcm 
St^nus Gadita'nus, 
Si^nus Ligus'ticus, 

Black Sea. 

Sea of A 'soph. 

Sea of Mar'mora. 

Southern part of the G. of Ven'ice, 

Nortneni part of the G, of Ven'ice, 

Bal'tic Sea. 

Gulf of Finland. 

I'rish Sea. 

Strait of Do'ver. 

Strait of Gibral'tai. 

Gulf of Gen'oa. 



British Islands and their subdivisions* 

Ancient Kames, 
Bri'i'an'nia ovAl'bion, 
jiugus'ta Trinohan'tum, 

Sime'ni or Ice'ni, 

Mo'na In'sula. 

HiBEn'NiAj or ler'ne, 




Ebu'dce In'&ul(£, 

Mono' da or Mo'nxk* 

Modern Kames. 
Eng'land, Scot'land, and Wales, 
Lan'erk, Dumbar'ton. 
Ross, Suth'erland. 
Corn' wall and Dev'onshire. 
Sur'ry, Sus'sex. 
Nor'folk and Suffolk. 
Lin'colnshire, Not'lingham- 

shire. Der'byshire, 8cc. 
Northum'berland andDur'ham. 
West'moreland, Cum'berland. 


Flint'shire. Montgom'ery, Sec. 
Rad'norshire, Breck'nockshire, 
and Glamor'ganshire 


Dub'lin and Kil'dare. 

King and Queen's County. 

Shet'land and Ork'nejs. 

Western Isles of Scot'land 

Isle of Man. 


Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. 

Ancient JVames. Modern Karnes, 

Baled! res or Balear'ides Insula. Iv'ica, Major'ca, 8c MU 

Cre'ta or Crete. Can'dia. 

Mel'ita, Mal'ta. 

Zacyn'thus, Zanle. 

Cefihalle'nia^ Cefdlo^nia. 

Corcy'ra, Corfu. 

Sicita^ Sica'nia^ or Trina'cria. Sic'ily. 
Sar'do^ Sardi?i^ia, or Ichnu' sa» Sardin'ia. 
Cyr^nus or Cor' ska. Cor'sica. 

Il'va. Ei'ba. 

Eutw'a. Ne'gropont. 


Scandina^na, Scan'dia, > ^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

or Baltia. 3 ^ 

Scritofin'nu Lap'lund and West Both'nia. 

Suio'nes» Swe'den Proper. 

Gu'toa & Hillevio^nes, Goth'land. 
FinJiin'gia. Fin'land. 

Chcrsone'su^ C/;«'3r/ca. Jiii'land, or Denmark Proper. 
Sarma'tia Kuro^ficB, Rus'sia in Europe. 
Hir ri & ^s'tii or Ostio'nes. l^ivo'nia and Estho'nia. 
Gal' LI A. France. 

€eVt<R, Nor'mandy, Brit'tany. 

Aquita'nu Gas'coi^re, Gui-enne', Sec. 

Allob'roges^ Cen/ro'«e5, Dau'phine and Savo/. 
Iin'gonese^JEdui^Sequa'ni Bur'gundy and Franche'* 
Lute'tia Parisio'rum. Par'is. [compte 

Fris'iL Holland and Fnez'land. 

Bata'via. U'trecAt & the isles of the Rhine. 

BeVgCB. &c« Ncth'eilands. 

Mana'fin^ Tun'grii, Dutch and Aus'trian Brabant', 
Toxan'drL Ant'wcrp, 

Germa'nia or JVa-^ 
^io'nesGermaN' iGer'many. 


Saxo'nes. Upper, Lower Sax'ony, Sec. 








Hjspan'ja or Ibe'ria. 




Helve' Ha. 




GalUia Cisal'fiina. 
Sarn'nium^ AfivHia, Caw 
fid^iia. Mar'sU i!fc» 
La'tium^ Um^bria^ Pice' 

num^ Sec. 





Spain. [cay. 

Galli^'ia, Astu'ria, and Bis'- 

Navarre' and Catalo'nia. 



B'v rn, Fri'burg, Basle. 

SchafFhau'sen, Zu'rich, &c. 


Pied'mont, Mil'an, Venice. 

Kingdom of Na'ples. 

The Pope'dom. 









Gra'cia^ or Greece, was anciently divided into Jive 
fiarts^ Peloponne'sus, Grae'eia Pro'pria, Epi'rus, Thes- 
sa'iia, and Macedo'nia ; but the Romans, having sub- 
dued these countries, included them all in two firovin^ 
ces ; viz Acha'ia^ containing Peloponne'sus and Gree- 
cia Pro'pria; and Macedo'nia^ containing Macedo'nia, 
Thessa'lia and Epi'rus, 


Natural Divisions. 

Mountains. Peloponne'sus was mountainous, although 

the mountains were not lofty. The principal were 

Cyle'ne, where, it is supposed, Mer'cury was born; M^etif^ 

dlu$^ which was frequented by the nymphs ; the woocjy 



Eryman'thuB^ famous for the wild boar slain by Her'cu- 
les ; StymfihaUtis ; the cold and woody Farrha'sius^ and 

Arca'dia has been much celebrated by the poets for 
its groves and mountains, among which Pan^ the fabled 
god of shepherds, principally resided. 

In Laco'nia, near the city LacedaB'mon, was Tayg'e* 
tU8^ now the mountains of the Manots or Maino'tes, on 
which the Laccdsemo'nian women celebrated tiie orgies 
of Bac'chus. 

Lakes. The lakes of Peloponne'sus were neither 
large nor numerous. Stymfiha'lus is memorable for the 
voracious birds StymfihaVides^ which infested it till de- 
stroyed by Her'cules. Ler'na is famous for the many 
headed Hy'dra, which Her^cules killed. 

Rivera. Pene'us^ now Belvide'ri ; Aljihe'us^ celebrated 
in fabulous history for iis passage under the sea from 
Peloponne'sus to Ortyg'ia, a small island in the bay of 
Syracuse', where it rises in the fountain of Arethu'sa ; 
and the river Euro'tas^ called also Baa^ilifiot'amos^ the 
king of rivers. 

Bays. Si'nus Corinthia^cus^ the Corin'thian gulf, 
CrisdCB'us Si'nus^ gulf of Salo'na 5 Saron'icus Si'nus^ 
gulf of En'gia ; Argol'icua Si'nus^ gulf of Napo'li ; Si^ 
nus Lacon'icusy gulfof Colokyth'ia; Measenia'cus Si'nus^ 
gulf of Co'ron ; Cyfiaris'sua Si'nus^ gulf of Arca'dia ; 
and the Cheloni'tes Si'nua, 

Islands. Mgi'na^ now En'gia, memorable in fabu» 
lous history for being repeopled by ants, transformed in» 
to men by Ju'piter at the prayer of king ^'acus, after it 
had been depopulated by a dreadful pestilence ; Cythe'^ 
ra^ BOW Ceri'go, consecrated to the worship of Ve'nus ;* 
Strofih'ades^ now Strivali, the island of the Har'pies, 
those voracious and fiUhy birds, A^hich plundered jEne'- 
as in his voyage to Italy ; Zacyn'thus. now Zante, about 
60 miles in circumference ; and Cefthalle'nia^ now Cefa- 
lo'nia, which is nearly 100 miles in circumference, and 
abounds with excellent oil and wines. 

Cre'taj Cre'te., now Can'dia, was the largest island af 
Greece, It was mouatainous and woody, vith fertlitf 


vallies interspersed. In its centre rose Mount Pda, 
where it is said Jupiter was nursed in his infancy, 
Crete was celebrated for the laws of Mi'nos, its first 
king, and for its /lundred cities^ o^ which Gnos^sus or 
Gnos'us^ GoTty'na^ and Cydo'nia were the principal. 
The inhabitants were detested for their unnatural pas* 
sions, their falsehood, their piracies, and robberies. 

The Cyc' lades were a cluster of islands, so called 
from being situated in the form of a circle round De» 
los ; the principal of which were Ceos^ now Zi'a ; Xax'* 
os^ Nax'ia ; jln'dros^ An'dro ; Me'los^ Mi'io ; Serif jihos^ 
Ser'pho ; and Pa'rosy famous for its white marble. 

The other principal islands in the M^e^an or Archi- 
pel'ago sea are Ten'edos^ Lesbos^ Lem'nos^ Chi'os^ and 
Sa'mos. and the isle of Pat'mos^ to which St. John was 
banished by the Romans, and where he is said to have 
written his Revelationa, in a cave, which is still shown 
by the Greek monks, who reside in this island, 

Ca/ies or Promontories. Scyllds'um^ now Skille'o ; 
Male'a^ now Mali'o, the navigation round which was ex- 
tremely dangerous ; Tcin'arus^ now Mat'apan, the most 
southern point of Europe, where was a temple of Nep- 
tune, and a deep cavern, whence issued a black and un- 
wholesome vapour, and which the poets imagined was 
the entrance to the infernal regions ; jicrVtas^ now Ca'- 
po Gal'lo ; Cheloni'tes^ now Ca'bo Torne'so ; and Arax*- 
«w, now Papa. 

Isthmus^ The isthmus of Cor'inth, now called Hexa- 
Mil'i, on which the Isthmian games were celebrated. 
It was about 5 miles broad, and connected Pelopdnne'- 
sus with the northern part of Greece. 


Peloponnesus was subdivided into the following king- 
doms and states. 

Subdivisions, Princifial townsy Ancient and Modern, 

Acha'ia. \ Corin'thus^ Cori'to ; Sig'yon^ Basyl'ica ; 

iPhli'usy Staph'lica; ^'gium^ Vostit'za. 


E'lis or C E'lis^ Belvide're ; Olym'fiia^ Rofe'o ; Cyl- 

Ele'a. \ le'ne^ Chiaren'za. 

Messe'nia \ ^^^^^'^^'> Mau'ra-Ma'tra; P//o«, Nar'var- 
C i"5 C'y^am'sa, Arca'dia; yl/erAo'n(?,Mo'don.. 

CSfiarta or > Misit'ra or ^ GythHuin^ 
Laco'nia. ^ Laccdce'mon \ Pa'leo-Cho'ii ; \ Colo Kylh'ia. 

L Efiidau'rus^ Malvd'sia«Vec'chia. 

. .1. 5 ^'^5"^'^5 Mok'lia; Mantine^a^ Trapoliz'za j 

Ara aia. ^ Megalo/i'olisy Leonar'di ; Phe'neos, Phonia. 

A/o.^liQ S'^^'S*^^' Ar'j^o; Myce'nc^, ; Tr^'zen^ 

AF goiis. ^ Daraa'la ; Efiidau'rus, Pidav'ra. 

Sig^yotiy the capital of- Sicyo'nia, was celebrated for 
its antiquity, being the first city established in Greece. 
It was founded B. C. 2089, and continued about lOOQ 

Cor'inth^ situated on the isthmus of the same name, 
was one of the principal cities of Acha'ia. Its situation 
between the Crissae'an and Saron'ic gulfs gave it great 
commercial advantages. Its merchants became rich, 
and its artificers were famous for their skill, especially 
for the manufacture of a brilliant metal, called Coring 
thian brass. The ceiebrafion of the lath'mian games al- 
so contributed to the importance of Cor'inth. It became 
rich and powerful ; and was the resort and patron of 
learned men. Its riches introduced luxury and its at- 
tendant vices, so that it became as remarkable for prof- 
ligacy and corruption, as it was for wealth and magnif- 
icence. Here St. Paul preached the Christian religion 
and established a flourishing church. 

Olym'fiia^ on the river Alphe'us, is memorable for the 
Olym'fiic games, which were celebrated in its neigh- 

There were among the Greeks four solemn games, 
consecrated by religion ; the Olym'fiic,, in honour of 
Jupiter Olym'pius ; the Pyth'ian^ in honour of Apol'lo 
for his victory oyer the serpent Py'thon ; the Isth'mian^ 
in honour first of Melicer'ta, but afterwards of Neptune ; 
and the JVema'an games, which were first instituted in 


honour of Archemo'rus, but afterwards consecrated to 
Her'cules for killing the Nemae'an lion. 

Of these games^ the principal were the Olym'fiic^ 
which were celebrated every fourth year. The period 
oifour complete years was called an olym'fiiad. 

The contests at all the Grecian games were very 
similar. They consisted in running, leaping, wrestling, 
boxing, chariot racing, and other exercises, which tend- 
ed to make the com'batants strong, vigorous, and active, 
and to fit them for the duties and the fatigues of war. 
The victors were rewarded with garlands of olive, pinCj 
laurel, or other leaves. 

At these games, which continued five days, were ex- 
hibited works of genius and art, as well as feats of skill 
and strength ; and immense crowds of people, not only 
from Greece, but from other countries, assembled to 
attend them. 

Mantine'a is famous for the victory of the The'bans 
over the Lacedaemo'nians, in which Epaminon'das, the 
Theban general, lost his life. 

Mease' ne or Messe'na was the capital of Messa'nia. 
Its inhabitants rendered themselves famous for their 
valour in the Spartan war, which however terminated in 
their ruin. 

Laceda'mon or Spar^tay the capital of Laco'nia, was 6 
miles in circumference. It was situated on the river 
Euro'tas. about SO miles from its mouth, and was the 
most powerful city of ancient Greece. The inhabitants 
rendered themselves illustrious by their courage, their 
love of honour and liberty, and by their aversion to sloth 
and luxury. They were inured to hardships from their 
youth, and were educated for the profession of war. 
They obtained the superiority in the affairs of Greece* 
and continued it 500 years. 





Mountains. In jit'tica the principal mountains were 
Hymei'tus^ famous for producing honey and marble ; 
Fentel'icua^ for its marble quarries ; Lau'riua^ for its 
silver mines ; Ica'rius^ Far'nea^ or Parne'thuay Sec. 

In Bao'tia the mountains were Helicon and Pim'tila^ 
sacred to the Muses, and mount Citha'ron^ on which 
were performed the or^giea or sacred rites of Bac'chus. 

In Pho'cia was the celebrated Mount Parnaa'sua^ one 
of the highest in Europe. It was sacred to the Muses, 
to Apol'lo, and Bac'chus. 

In Loc'ria was mount CE'ta^ between the foot of which 
and the Ma'lian gulf was the celebrated pass or atraic 
of Thermofi'yU, hot more than 25 feet wide, where Le- 
on'idas at the head of 300 Spartans successfully resisted, 
for three days, the whole Persian army, consisting of 
several millions, under Xerxes ; but at length being be- 
trayed, the brave Spartan and his associates fell a sac- 
rifice to the cause of Greece, after having slain an in- 
credible number of the enemy. 

Lakea, Co'fiaia Lafcua^ now Lim'ne, was a spacious 
lake in Boeo'tia, and the only one of note in Grae'cia Pro'- 
pria. Its waters are said to pass under a mountain, and 
by numerous rivulets to communicate with the sea. 

Rivera, The Ilia'aua and Cefihis'aua in At'tica, which 
united in the Phale'rean marshes below Athens, and pass- 
ed into the sea. There were other rivers in Greece, 
called Cephis'sus, the largest of which was in Bceo'tia, 
and flowed into the lake Co'pais. The other principal 
rivers were Aao'fiua^ Achelo'ua and E-ve'nua^ now call- 
ed Fida'ri. 

Bay a, Ofion'tiua Si'nua ; Saron'icua Si'nua<f and Co* 
rinthiu! cua Si'nna, 

Straita, The Euri'fiua^ between Beeo'tia and the 
island Eubce'a, into which it is said Afistot'le threw him- 
self, because he was unable to ascertain the cause of the 
ebbing and flowing of the tide. The atrait of Thep- 
mop'ylee, between mount (E'ta and the Ma'iian gul^ hate 
been noticed above-. 


Islands. Euh<z'a^ now Ne'gropont, was the largest 
island, excepting Crete, in tiie iEge'an sea It was 150 
miles long *ind about 40 wide. The principal towns 
were Chal'cis^ now Egri'po or Egri'vo ; Ere'tria^ Gray 
alnais; Orc'ua^ On'o; and Artemis'ium. 


Gne'cia Pro'firia was divided into 7 parts ; viz. 
Subdivisions. Frincifial iownsj jincierit and Modern. 

. C Athe'nce^ Set'ines ; Eleu^sis^ Lessi'na ; Mar'- 

At tica. ^ athon<^ Acar'nae ; Rham'nu^^ Oro'pus. 

Meg'aris. Mag'ara^ - 

f The'b(Z^ Thi'va ; Plata*a^ Coc'la ; ClKzrone'a; 
B'jeo'tia. X An! lis, Meg'alo-Va'thi; Zewc^ra, Livados'- 

(^tro ; Tan'agra^ Scami'no. 

p, , . J Del'phU Cas'tri ; Elate^a^ Tur'co-chori'o ; 
i^no CIS. ^ Antic' yra^ As'pre-Spi'tia. 

Loc'ris. J^ary'cia^ -— ; Amfikissa. Salo'na. 

Do'ris. Erin'eon^ Bci'oii^ Pindus^ CytinHum^ 

jEto'lia. J^aufiac'tusy Lepan'to ; Thermus^ Col'ydon, 

Every part of Grae'cia Pro'pria was highly important 
and interesting. 

Athens was the capital of At' tica. It was founded 
1556 years before Christ, by Ce'ciops, an Egyptian, and 
became the most famous city in the world, as the school 
of polite learning, arts and sciences. It was adorned 
with magnificent temples and other edifices, with gar- 
dens, groves, and pleasure grounds, for ihe resort of phi- 
losophers, and men of leisure and curiosity. It was en- 
riched with marble statues, and various monuments of 
art and refinement. 

Athens is the place, v/hich St. Paul visited in his 
journey through Greece, and where, in the midst of 
Mars-Hill^ a celebrated court of justice, called also Are» 
o^j^'a^as, he reasoned with the philosophers concerning 
their superstition, and taught them, that the true God 



who alone was to be worshipped, had appointed a day, in 
which he would raise the dead, and judge the world in 
righteousness. • 

Mar'athon is celebrated for the defeat of the Per'sians 
by Milti'ades, about 490 years before Christ. In this 
battle, 10 or 11 thousand Greeks defeated ihe Persian ^ 
army, which consisted of more than 100 thousand. 

Thebes^ the capital of Bao'tia^ was built by Cad'mus, 
a Phoenician, who first introduced letters into Greece. 
This city gave birth to the poet Pindar, and to the cele- 
brated generals, Pelop'idas and Epaminon'das, under 
whom it became for a short time the most powerful 
city in Greece. 

Plata'a is celebrated for the defeat of 300 thousand 
Pev'sians under Mardo'nius, by a much smaller number 
of Lacedasmo'nians and Athe'nians under Pausa'nias and 
Aristi'des. The Per'sians after this defeat, which was 
about 480 years before Christ, never attempted to invade 

Leitc'tra is famous for the defeat of the Lacedasmo'ni- 
ans by Epaminon'das. By this defeat they lost their pre- 
eminen^^e among the Grecian states, which they never 
after recovered. 

ClKsrone'a was the birth-place of Plutarch, the celebrat- 
ed biographer. It is memorable for the defeat of the 
Athe'nians, The'bans, and other Greeks, by Philip, king of 
Macedo'nia, which put an end to the liberties of Greece. 
Delfihi is famous for the temple and oracle of Apollo, 
which stood on an eminence above the town at the foot 
of mount Parnas'sus^ and near the Casta^llan fountain. 
In the middle of this temple was a small chasm in the 
ground, whence issued a vapour, which threw such as 
breathed it, into violent convulsions. The oracle was 
frequently consulted in difficult emergencies, not only by 
the Greeks, but also by neighbouring nations, and the 
temple was enriched with an incredible number of the 
moot valuable presents of those, who repaired to it lor 

EPIRUS. . 1/3 



Mountains. Acrocerau^nii^ the Cerau'nian mountains ; 
and Mount Pindus, which consists of several ridges, run- 
ning between EfiHrua TliessaHia^ and Macedohiia, 

Rivers, The rivers in Epi'rus were A'fihas or A*vas^ 
Ar'etkon or AracHthus^ and the celebrated Ach^eron and 
Cocy'tus, which the poets have placed among the rivers 
ef the infernal regions. 

Islands. Echi'nas or Echin'ades^ now Curzola'ri, at 
the mouth of the river Achelo'us^ which is now called 
As'pro-Pot'amo, or the White river. 

1th' aca^ now Thea'ki, is a rocky and mountainous isl- 
and, celebrated for being part of the kingdom of Ulys'ses. 
Levfcas or Leuca^dia^ now St. Mau'ra, is remarkable for 
the promontory Lcuca'ta or Leu'cas^ which projected far 
into the sea, and terminated in a perpendicular white 
rock, from the top of which was the famous Lover^s 
Leap., whence, it is said, Sap'pho, the celebrated poetess^ 
©f Les^bos, and others in a state of violent passion, threw 
themselves headlong, and put an end to their lives. Cor* 
ci/ray now CorTu, was celebrated for the shipwreck q£ 
Ulys'ses, and for the gardens of Alcin'ous. 


Epi'rus was divided into 4 parts, viz. 
Subdivisions. Principal towr.s, Ancient and Modern. 

Ararna'nia S ^'^"'^a^, St. Mau'ra ; Ac'tium^ Az'io; 

^ Anacto^rium^ Voni za ; Stratus^ » 

Thespro'tia. Ambra'cia^ Ar'ta ; Burthrd tum^ Butrin'tOi* 

Molos'sis. Dodo'na^ ; Passaro^ • 

Chao'nia. Or'iciun^ Panor'mus^ Antigone'a. 

Ac^tium is famous for the naval victory, which Au- 
gustus obtained over An't/^ony and Cleopa'tra, 31 years 
before Christ, in honour of which he built the town of 
Mcop^olisy and instituted games. 




^lountainB, Olym'fius^ now La'cha, supposed by the 
ancients to touch the heavens with its top, on which they 
place the residence of the gods, and the court of Jupi- 
ter ; Mount Pin^dus-i sacred lo the Muses and Apollo; 
O'tfirys ; the residence of the Cen'taurs, an imaginary 
race of beings, half man and half horse ; CE'ta^ now Ba- 
ni'na, upon which Hercules burnt himself, and between 
the foot of which and the gulf of Ma'lia was the cele- 
brated strait of Tliermoji'yU ; and mount Os'sa^ which, 
as the poets say, the giants, in their wars with the gods, 
placed upon mount Pe'llon^ that with more facility they 
might scale th:i battlements of heaven. 

Rivers, Sfierchi'us in the southern part, and in thfi 
northern Afiid'anus^ now Salampria ; Onoch'onus^ Enifi'' 
eus^ and Pamisus^ all which unite in one stream, called 
the Pe'neus^ along the banks of which, between Olym'^ 
pus and Os'sa^ was the beautiful vale of Tem'fie^ so much 
admired by the poets for its cool shades, verdant walks, 
and romantic scenery. 

Bays. Pelas'gicus Si^nus^novr the Gulf of Vo'lo ; 
and Malta' cus Si'nus^ the Gulf of Zi'ton, 

Islands. Scia'thus^ now called Skia'^ho ; Halonne*' 
sus^ now Dro'mo, Pefiare'thus^ Scandi'la^ and Scy'ros^ 
now Sky'ro or Sy'ra, the ancient seat of Lycome'des, 
with whom AchiFles lived in disguise, when he was dis- 
covered by Ulys'ses. 


Subdivisions, Princifial townsy Ancient and Modern. 

Pi^fK- 'i' S Heracle'a^ Trachin'ia or Tra'chys^ Zei'ton^j 
l-mnio tis. I La'mia, Lari^'sa, Cremas't^e, The'be. 

Magne'sia. Magne'sia^ Meliba% Phe'rce, Phe'res. 

Pelasgio'tis. Larissa^ Gon'nusy A'trax^ Azo'ruS. 


Thessalio'tis or 7 Phar^salus,T?.x'^?^y Melit^'a. 
Thessa^ia Prop. 5 ' 

The piains of Fharsa'lia in the vicinity of Phar'salue^ 
are celebrated for the memorable defeat of Pompey by 
Juhus Caesar 

The women of Thessaly were famous for their skill 
in magic, and the men for skill i\\ horsemanship, 

Thessaly is every wheie surrounded by mountains. 
The plam country is said to have been anciently covered 
by water, there being no passage for the rivers into the 
sea ; but it is supposed a channel, between Olym'fius 
and Os'sa, was opened by an earthquake, which gave 
vent to the waters, and drained the country. 



Mountains* Cambu'nii^ Stym'fihc^ Tom'arus^ now 
Tomerir ; and Mount A'thos^ now called Mon'te San'to 
or A gios O'ros, on which are several cities and towns. 
This mountam is 150 miles in circumference, and pro- 
jects 70 or 80 miles into the sea. It is remarkable for 
the salubrity of the air, and for the longevity of its in- 

Rivers, Haliac'mon^ now the Platem'one; Jstra'usy 
the Vistri'za ; Ax'ius^ the Vada'ri ; and the river Stn/- 
mon^ now called Jemboli, which separated Macedo'nUi 
from Thrace. 

Bays, Therma'icus Si'nus^ gulf of Saloni'ca or 
Thes'saloni'ca ; Torna'icus Si'nus^ gulf of Cassan'dra ; 
Strymon'icus Si'nus^ gulf of Cortes'sa ; and Mel'ania 
SUnus^XhQ gulf of Sa'ros. 

Islandfi. Pefiare'thus was a small island on the coast 
ef Macedo'nia, which abounded with excellent olives 
and wines. 


Subdivisions, Princifial towns^ Ancient and Modern, 

We' ia ^Di'um^ Stan'dia; Herac'leum^ Heracle'o^ 
\Pyd'najK\Xfvo\ Metho'ncy^QiXxint. 


Bottiae'a or C PeVla^ Pelati'sa ; Edes'sa^ Mogle'na; Bt' 

Ema'thia. \ ra'a^ Ca'ra Veri'a ; Gortyn'ia^ Gor'tyn. 

Mygdo'nia f Therma^ afterward Thesaaloni'ca^ Salo» 

and Am- < oi'chi ; Antigo'nia^ Idom'ene^ and An'the- 

phaxltis. (^ mus. 

{Potidce'cj afterwards Cassan'dria^ Cass- 
an'der; AfitioLunia^ Poli'na; Sta^i'ra^ Stau'- 
rosj O/yn'Mw*, near Agioma'ma; Chal'cis. 

Edon'icaand C Ainfihifi' oli^ JamboL ; JVeafi'olis^ Cava'le ; 
Sin'tica. \ Philifi^iiU and Herac'lea-Sin tica. 

The limits of Macedo'nia were different at different 
periods, and in the estimation of different authors ; the 
extent and boundaries of the subJivisions are also un- 
cerrain, and it is not precisely ascertained to which 
some of the particular towns belonged. 

The western or inland part of Macedo'nia, called 
Macedo'nia Superior, was cold, rough, and mountain- 
ous, anrl inhabi ed by various tribes, as the Lynces'tse, 
Helimio'tse and Eor'di* Eordae'i. 

il'lyris Grae'ca, formerly a part of lUyr^icumj was af- 
terwards included in Macedo'nia. 

Among the principal towns in Il'lyris Grae'ca, J/iol- 
io'nia was distinguished for Greek literature. Hither 
Julius Caesar sent his nephew Augustus to complete his 
education. Near this place was a rock, called Nym- 
phse'um, which emitted flames ; and below it were 
springs, from which issued hot bit'umen. 

Dyrrhach'ium^ formerly called Efiidaii'rus^ but now 
Duraz':50, is celebrated for the warlike preparations of 
CaBsar and Pompey, a short time before the memorable 
battle of Pharsa'liaf which proved fatal to Pompey and 
his party. 

Pel la was the capital of Macedo'nia, and the birth- 
place of Philip, and his son Alexander. 

At Pyd'na^ Pei-'seus, the last king of Macedo'nia, 
was defeated by Pau'lus iEmil'ius, the Roman general. 

Thes'saloni'ca was the residence of Cicero, while in 
banishment. To the Christians of this city, St. Paul 
-^^ote his two epistles to the Thessalo'nians. 


Sia^'ira was the native place of the celebrated philos- 
opher Aristot'le ; hence he is called the Stag^irite, 

Metho'ne was the town, at the siege of which Philip 
lost his right eye. During the siege, a man by the name 
oi As'ter^ who had been provoked by Philip, seeing him 
©ne day from the walls, shot an arrow at him, with this 
inscription on it; ^^ To the right eye of Philifi.^^ The 
arrow was returned with this inscription ; '^Philifi will 
hang Aster when he takes the city^^ which he really diJ, 

Philip! fii^ so called from Philip, who fortified it against 
the incursioits of the barbarians of Thrace, is memora- 
ble for the defeat of Brutus and Cassius, by Anthony and 
Augustus, 42 years before Chiisl. This battle forever 
put an end to the Roman Republic. 

Macedo^nia was the last of the Grecian states that 
rose to power. It was founded by Cara'nus, about 800 
years before Christ, This country, till the reign of Phil- 
ip, father of Alexander the Great, remained in compar- 
ative obscurity, though the inhabitants v/ere hardy and 
brave. This king, at an early age, ascended the throne, 
reduced his subjects to dis'cipline, taught them the arts 
af war, subdued the neighbouring barbu ans, who des- 
pised and ridiculed his youth, and extended his power, 
till the other states of Greece trembled before him. 
His success continued, till finally, at the battle of Chse- 
rone'a, the independence of Greece was extmct. Phil- 
ip was great among great mati, though unfortunately 
not good. He was a sagacious, artful, prudent, and 
intriguing monarch ; be was brave in the field of battle, 
eloquent and dissembling at home, and possessed the 
wonderful art of changing his conduct according to the 
disposition and caprice of mankind, without ever alter- 
ing his purpose, or losing sight of his ambitious aims. 

After the subjection of the other states of Greece, 
he formed the design of invading Asia, and caused him- 
self to be appointed general of the Grecian armies ; but 
in the midst of his preparations, he was stopped in hii:> 
career, and met the fate that often attends the ambitious 

15« ITALIA. 

and unprincipled, in being assassinated, as he was en- 
tering the theatre. 

His son Alexander immediately ascended the throne, 
and punished the murderers of his father. By his pru- 
dence and moderation he ij^aincd the affection of his sub- 
iects, conquered Thrace and lilyi^icum, and destroyed 
Thebes. He was then chosen commander in chief of 
the Grecian forces, and executed the designs of Philip, 
by declaring war against the Persians. He marched in- 
to Asia with about 40,000 men, and in three great bat- 
tles subdued the Persians under Dari'us their king ; took 
Tyre and made himself master of Egypt, Me'dia, Syr'- 
ia, and all Per^sia. He extended his conquests east to 
the river Indus, vanquished Porus, king of the country, 
invaded Scyth'ia, visited the Indian Ocean, and returned 
to Bab'ylon, where by riot and excess he put an end to 
his life, in the 32d year of his age, after a reign of 12 
years and 8 months of brilliant and continued success, 
323 years before Christ. Here ended the gloiy and 
power of Greece ; and at the same time an empire still 
greater was rising in the w^est. 



Mountains, jil^fies^ /tips; Jtipenrd'nus^ Ap'ennines ; 
PausiVyfiUB^ Pausilip'po ; Vesu'vhis, 

The jiltis^ which separated Italy from Germany, 
Switzerland, and France, have always been celebrated 
for their height, perpetual snows, and romantic scenery. 
In different parts they were called Mariti'may Bheti'ca^^ 
Ju'li(R^ Sec. 

The Ali'cnnines is a ridge of high mountains, which 
runs through the whole extent of Italy* and gives rise 
to the numerous brooks and rivers, which water this 
fertile country. 

VeBii'vnis^ now called by the Italians So'ma, is a v©l- 
canic mountain in Campa'nia, celebrated for its fieiy 
erupiicns. I^i A. D. 79, this mcuntam first broke cut 

Italia. 159 

7iito a volcano. The eruption was attended by an earth- 
quake, which ruined several cities, particularly Pomfie'ii 
and Hercula'neum. Pliny, the naturalist, lost his liic in 
venturing too near the mountain, to ascertain the cause 
of the phenom'enon. Since that time the eruptions have 
been frequent, and sometimes fatal to the neighboring 
inhabitants. The mountain continually emit^ smolce> 
and sometimes ashes, stones, and flames. 

PaiisWyfiusy Pausilip'po, is a mountain near Naples^ 
on which is shown the tomb of Virgil ; but it is not cer- 
tain he was buried here. Through this mountain is a 
subterraneous passage, near half a mile in length, and 
sufficiently wide to accommodate carriages, and foot 

Lakes, There were many fine lakes in Italy, although, 
not remarkable in extent. The principal were 

















It was near the lake Verba'nus^ that Han'nibal firsi 
defeated the Romans, and near Thrdsymefnus^ that he 
defeated them the third time. 

Cela'no was remarkable for the transparency of its 
waters, which Ju'lius Csesar attempted to drain, and af- 
ter him Clau'dius, %ho for 1 1 years employed 30 thou- 
sand men to dig a passage through a mountain to carry 
the water into the river Li'risy now Gari^lia'no, but 
without success. 

Albu'nea was a small lake or fountain near Ti'bur in. 
La'tium, the waters of which had a surphurous smell, 
and the singular quality of covering every thing it touch- 
ed with a hard, white, stony substance. 

Fivers. The rivers in Italy were numerous and 
much celebrated in ancient times, although most of them 
were small The most noted were, 







Tib'eris, "1 

^ Rugo'ne, or 
I Fiamisi'no. 

TVbris^ or K 
Ti'ber. J 





At he' sis. 










Pa'diis, or^ 




Er id anus j 

















Tan'ager^ or ? ^, , 




> iMegro. 

The Trt'bia was a branch of the Po, and celebrated 
for the second defeat of the Romans by Han'nibal. which 
took place near it. The R/ie'nus is remarkable for the 
meeting of An'thony, Lep'idus, and Augustus on one of 
its islands after the battle of Mu'tina^ to divide the prov- 
inces of the Roman empire among themselves. On the 
Velino is one of the most remarkable cat'aracts in the 
-world 5 the river rushes down a prec'ipice of 300 feet. 
The river Gale^sus was famous for the delicate race of 
sheep, which fed on its banks, and which v/ere covered 
with skins to preserve their fleeces. The Tanagcr^ 
now Ne'gro, after a course of about 20 miles, loses itself 
in the earth by several horizontal ap'ertures, and after 
running two miles under a hill, breaks forth with a great 
noise in a spacious cave, called la Perto'sa^ 



Tyrrhe'nwn^ or i- Mediterra'nean Sea. 

In'ferum Moire, J 

Hadriat'icus^ or 
^u fic.rum Ala'reyOV 
Si'nus Adriat'icus 

Ligus'ticus Si'nus. Gulf of Gen'oa. 


The Gulf of Ven'ice- 




Pasta' nus Sifnus. 
La'us Sifnus. 
Terinoi'us Si'nua. 
Scyla'cius Si'ntis, 
Tarentinus Si'nua. 
ITrias Si'nus. 
Tergeat^nus Siinus, 


<^ulf or bay of Na'ples, 
Gulf of Saler'no. 
Gulfof Policas'tro. 
Gulf of Euphe'mia, 
Gulfof Squiriace. 
Gulf of Taren'to. 
Gulf of Manfredo'niao 
Gulf of Tri-este'. 

Sica'nia^ or 
JEoHia or 
IV V a or 


> Lip'ari'. 




Sandalio'tisj or I Sardin'iar. 

Jchnu'sa* J 

Cor^aicu or ] 


JDiome'dia:* Tremi'ti» 


Si^'ily is the largest and most important island in the 
Mediierra'nean sea. On account of its fertility it was 
called one of the granaries of the Roman empire. A- 
mong its first inhabitants were the Cyclo'/ies or Cyclops, 
a savage race of men of gigantic stature, famed by the 
ancient poets for having but one eye, and that in the 
middle of their forehead. From their vicinity to JEt'na^ 
a vast volcanic mountain, they were supposed to be the 
v/orkmen of Vulcan^ the fabled god of blacksmiths, and 
to fabricate the thunderbolts of Jupiter. 

Mt'na^ now mount Gibel, is remarkable for its volca- 
no, and for its height, which is two miles perpendicular. 
The top of this mountain is covered with perpetual 
snow, while its sides enjoy a delightful climate, and 
from its fertile? soil, exhibits a rich scene of cultivated 
fields and vineyards. The poets pretend, that Mt'na 
was the prison of the giants, who rebelled against Jupi* 

i62 ITALIA. 

ter, and that the noise and shaking of the mountain was 
occasioned by their groans and struggles. 

Si^'ily was of a triangular form, hence called Trina'" 
cria. The ca/ies at the angles are, 

Pelo'ris or ^ Pelo'ro or ^ Pachy'nus^ Passa'ro. 

Pelo'rus, 3 Ter'ra del Fa'ro. 5 Lilyba'um^ Marsa'la. 
To^ivns, The principal towns in Sic'ily were, 
Messa^na^ Messi'na, Syracu^sa, Syi''acQs^. 

Fanoi-^musy Paler'mo. Drefta'num^ Trapa'ni, 

Ge7a, Terrano'va; Cata'na^ Cata'nia. 

Leonti'ni ov^ X «v • ^ • /. CGrieen'ti 

Leontmm, 5 ' ^ Vec'chiOi 

Near Messa'na were ScyFla and Charyb'dis^ so much 
celebrated by the ancient poets. Scytla was a rocky 
point on the Italian, and Charyb'dis a vast whirlpool on 
the Sicil'ian side of the Fre'tum Sic'ulum^ or strait of 
Messa'na, so situated as to render the navigation of the 
strait very dangerous. The poets pretend, that ScyVla 
was a female monster, confined in a cavern under the 
prom'ontory, and that she drew ships upon the rock$, 
that she might devour those on board. Nothing more, 
however, is to be understood by this, than the fancies 
ef the poets to describe the noise of the whirlpool and 
the danger oi passing the strait. 

Mel'ita^ now Mal'ta, was the island, to which St. Paul 
escaped from the shipwreck in his voyage to Rome. 

The Lip'ari or -^o'lian islands were so called from 
M'olus^ the fabled god of the winds, who, it was said, 
resided there. 

Sardin'ia was remarkable for its fertility, although 
the air was unhealthy. Neither wolves nor serpents, it 
is said, were ever found there, nor but one poisonous herb, 
and that of so singular a quality, that when eaten, it 
produced a fever, which was attended with fits of laugh- 
ter, and which terminated in dcafh. 


Cor'sica was mountainous ; its inhabitants were sav- 
age, and addicted to robbery. They fed on honey, and 
lived to a great age. 

Il'va^^ now El'ba, was for a time made remarkable by 
the residence of the celebrated Napoleon Bonaparte. 

The Sirenni^sa were three small rocky islands, near 
the gulf of Paesta'nus, the abode of the ^ilrens^ or sea- 
nymphs, who were fabulous women, that by their mu- 
sic were supposed to decoy thither unwary mariners 
to shipwreck and destroy them. 

Capes or Prorn'ontories. The principal capes of Italy 
were PalinuWum fir, Palinu'ro, which takes its name 
from Palinu'rus. the celebrated pilot of jEne'as, who in 
his sleep fell into the sea near it, and was drowned. 
Leucofi'etra pr. Cape Piat'taro ; Her^culis fir. C. Spar- 
tiven'to ; Jafiyg'ium pr. Cape de Leu'co 5 and Garga^4 
man fir. Garga'no. 


Ita'lia^ now Italy, was at different periods called Sat* 
ur^nia^ Auso'nia^ CEno'tria^ Hespe'ria^ and Tyrrhe'nia, 
At first it consisted of many petty states and kingdoms ; 
but in after ages, when the Gauls had settled in the 
western, and the Greeks in the eastern provinces, it was 
divided into three parts ; Gal'lia CiaaVpina^ Ita'lia Pro'- 
firia^ and Mag'na Gra'cia^ These were subdivided ill* 
to the following states. 


States, Principal towns, Ancient and Modern. 

Ligu'ria. Gen'ua, Gen'oa ; A/c^'a, Nice. 

Tauri'ni. Angus' ta Taurino'rum, Turin' or Turin'o. 

In'subres. Mediolalnum^ Milan ; Tici'num^ Pa' via. 

Cenoman'ni. i^n^c'ia, Brescia; Cremo'na^Man'tua^An'^ 

Euga'nei. Tridentum^ Trent ; Vero'na^ [des, 

Ven'eti \ Pata'via, Pad'ua ; Fo'rum Ju'lii^ Friu'li ; 
C Aqutle'ia. 






Tergeatcj Tri este'. 
Raven'na^ ■ 

La'tium. < 


C jBono'nia, Bolo^-'na ; Mu'tina^ Mode'na ; 
iJ^ar'ma^ Placenftia. 


Phncifial towns^ Ancient and Modern. 

Pi'stf^ Pisa; Florc^tia^ Flor'enge ; Por* 
tus Her'culis. or Libur'ni^ Leghorn'. 

{Arim'inum^ Rimi'ni ^ P/5au'rwm,Pesa'ro ^ 
Urbi'numy Urbi'no ; Sfiole'tium^ Spole'to ; 
Interamnuy Ter'ni ; J^ar'jiia^ Nar'ni. 

Asco'li ; An'con^ or Anco'na^ 
San Feri'no ; Marru^viunij 

Ro'mc^ Rome ; Ti'bur^ Tivo'li ; Prams'- 
te, Paiestri'na ; Tus'culum^ Fresca'ti ; AH- 
ba Lon'gc^ Palaz'zo ; Gabii^ Ostia^ Ar'- 
dea Ccri'oli^ A/i'/iii Fc/rum^ Tres Taber'' 
\jix^ Three Taverns. 

num^ Cu'ma^ Hercula'ne* 
JSTeafi'olis^ Na'ples ; Pute'' 

^ — ^, — — ^ 

r A8'culu?n, J 
< Corjin'iuin^ 
(^ San Benedei 

J , — -— » 

f As'culum^ As'coli ; Canu'.n 
< Venu'sia^ Veno'sa ; Ba'riur 
{^/?i, rea'num^ Sala'fiia^ Can'n 

Beneven'tum^ Beneven'to ; Cau'dium, 

Canu!ftiuni^ Cano'sa ; 
m, Ba'ri ; Ar- 

{Brundu'sium^ Bnindi'si ; Cas'trum^ Cas^- 
tro ; Hydrun'tum^ Otran'to ; Taren'tumy 

^ Pas! turn, Pes'ti, ^warfn'.^wm, Policas'tro ; 
\ Metafion'tum^ Sib'aris^ Herac'lea, 
C Consen'tia^ Cosenza . Rhe'gium^ Reg'io; 
I Cro'toriy Croto'ne ; PetU'ia^ Strongo'li. 
The southern part of Italy was anciently called Mag*- 
na Gra'ch^ but this name yas not long retained. 



ITALY. r65 

Italy was on all sides surrounded by water except 
the noi'th, which was bounded by the Alfis, in its shape 
it somewhat resembles a man's leg, to which it has often 
been compared. It seems by nature to have been sup- 
plied with whatever might contribute to the support, the 
pleasure, and the iHxuries of life ; and it has descip- 
tively been called the garden of Europe, and the mother 
of arts and arms. Its monuments of eloquence, poetry, 
and taste, are universally known. 

The ancient inhabitants of Italy called themselves 
aborig'ines^ offspring of the soil ; but the country early 
became settled by col'onies from Greece. 

Cities, Rome was the capital of Italy, and of the 
whole Roman empire. It was situated on the banks of 
the TVber 12 or 16 miles from the sea, and was one of 
bhe most magnificent cities in the world. In its great- 
est prosperity, it is supposed to have contained about 4 
millions of inhabitants. 

Ti'bur^ now Tivo'li, was situated on an eminence near 
the river jin'io^ and overlooked the villas of A'drian, Cae- 
sar, Crassus, Augustus^ Mecoe'nas, and other illustriou3^ 

Tus'culum^ now, from the coolness of its air, called 
Fresca'ti, was formerly a celebrated city, but it is now 
still more so for the magnificent villas in its vicinity. 

Arfiiliium was the native city of Ma'rius and Cic'ero. 

Al'ba Lon'ga was situated at the foot of mount Alba'- 
nits^ . on which were celebrated the Latin hoFydays, and 
sometimes extraordinary triumphs. 

Os'tia^ so called from its situation at the mouth of the 
Timber, was the ancient port of Rome. 

Ai-'dea^ Ardi'a, the capital of the Ru^tuli, was famous 
lor the exile of CamiKlus. whence he brought an army 
for the relief of his ungrateful country. 

Cafi'ua^ the capital of Campa'nia, is said to have ri- 
valled even Rome in opulence. The pleasures and lux- 
uries of this city, and the softness of its climate, first ener- 
vated the soldiers of Hah'nibal, and rendered them unfit 
for war and conquest. 

Casiifnum is remarkable for the extreme famine; 

i6Q iTALX- 

Avhich it endured while besieged by Han nibal, and whieh 
was so great, that a mouse was sold lor 200 dena'rii, 
which is equal to about 35 dollars, and three quarts of 
grain for the same price. The seller perished with han- 
ger, but the buyer lived. On the surrender of the city, 
Han'iiibal spared the lives ot its defenders, 

JYec/i'oliisj Nappies, is remarkable for its delightful sit- 
uation. It is built on a gentle declivity, in the form of 
an amphitheatre, at the head of a beautiful bay of the 
same name, anciently called Puteoia^nus, 

Hercula'neum and Pomfie'ii were once considerable 
cities, and are remarkable for having been overwhelmed 
by an eruption of Vesuvius A. D. 79. These cities 
were buried, one to the depth of 24, the other, of 12 feet 
and remaiiiei undiscovrered till the last century, 


Cannes is famous for the fourth and greatest victory 
of Han'nibal over the Romans. The plain, on which 
this battle was fought, is called "rAe^f/rf of blood,''* 

No' la is memorable for the death of Augustus, and 
for the defeat of Han'nibal by Marcel'lus, which first, 
gave the Romans hope, that Han'nibal was not invir/cible. 

Brundu' sium^ Brundi'si, was remarkable for the ex- 
cellence of its harbour, till in the I5th century the prince 
of Taren'to sunk ships in the channel to prevent his en- 
emies from entering the port. The sand and sea-weed, 
collecting round the vessels, soon closed the passage and 
entirely ruined the harbour. From this place and also 
from Hy'drus or Hydrun'tum^ the Romans usually cross-' 
ed the Jdriat'ic for Greece. 

Taren'tumy situated on a bay of the same name, was 
long independent, and maintained a superiority over a 
number of the neighbouring cities. The people were 
indolent and voluptuous, and having insulted the Romans, 
they were at length reduced to their subjection. The 
people still retain their former character of idleness and 
effem'inacy. Taren^tum was celebrated for oil and hon- 
ey, and for a purple dye, obtained from the shell-fish 
Mu^ejt and Pur'fiura, 

Rhe'gium^ Reg'io, the town in Italy at which St. Pa^l 

ITALY- 167 

tirst landed in his memorable voyage thither. It was 
surrounded by a delightful country, covered with orange, 
citron, olive, mulberry, and palm trees, and all kinds of 

Cro'ton or Cro'to^ Croto'ne, is memorable for being 
the residence of Pythagoras, for his school of philoso- 
phy, and for the birth of the celebrated Milo, of whose 
strength so many wonderful instances are recorded. 

ManUua^ or rather An'des^ a neighbouring village, was 
the birth-place of Virgil; Sul^mo^ Suimo'na, of Ov'id ; 
Venu^siGy Veno'sa, of Hor'ace ; and V'ero^fiay that of Cal- 
lus Nepos, Catul'lus, and Plin'y the elder. 

The history of ancient Italy is mostly involved in that 
of Rome, the capital of the Roman empire. This city 
was founded 753 years before the christian era, by Rom- 
ulus, from whom k derives its name. Rome was at first 
but a small castle on mount Palatine, and in order to give 
it the appearance of a nation, Rom'ulus made it an asy- 
lum for every criminal, debtor, and murderer, who fled 
from his native country to avoid the justice due to his 
crimes. A numerous and desperate body was soon col- 
lected, which successfully attacked the neighbouring 
states, and after conquering, admitted them to all the 
privileges of the city. The number increased so fast, 
that in a few years the city was spread over seven hills, 
the Paratine^ Av'entine^ Es quiline^ Janic'ulum^ Vim'inaly 
Qui'rinal^ and mount C<z'lius. Besides these there were 
the Cafi'itoline or Tarfie'ian mount, on the side of which 
Was the Tarfie'ian rock^ from whence condemned crimi- 
nals were thrown ; CoVlis Hortulo'rum, and the Vatic'ian 
mount, now the most remarkable place in Rome ; where 
are St. Petet^^s church^XhQ Pofie^s Palace, called the Vat^ 
ican^ and the castle of St. An'gclo. The city was from 
15 to 20 miles in circumference, surrounded by a high 
wall, on which were 644 watch-towers. It had 37 gates, 
and was watered by 7 aq'ueducts, which brought the water 
Lomthe distance of many miles. These aq\ieducts were 
'^rried over vallies supported on brick arches reared at 
^reat expense. 'Bom-e of them conthme to t^lu^ day, and 


supply Rome with water. The monuments, which stiil 
remain, show with what magnificence the temples, thea- 
tres, amphitheatres, baths, and other public places 
were built. 

The first government of Rome was monarchical, 
which continued 244 years, under a succession of 7 kings. 
After the expulsion of Tar'quin the Proud, the last of 
these kings, the government became republican, which, 
under various forms, continued about 480 years, when 
Octa'vius Angus' tus Caesar made himself master of the 
Rouian world, which then included all the important 
parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

The reign of Augus^tus was moderate, wise, and suc- 
cessful, and so great was his patronage of learning and 
learned men, that this period has ever been called the 
Augustan age. 

He was succeeded by a set of monsters, called Em^ 
/lerorsy the most cruel, a few of them exceptedj that 
ever disgraced the annals of history. 

Under these men commenced the decline of the i?o- 
man em/iire. The morals of the Romans became cor- 
rupt, which prepared the way for the fate which awaited 
them. At length this proud and magnanimous people, 
who had conquered and given law to the world, sunk into 
the most abject slavery, thit ever degraded a nation. The 
barbarous nations from the north, whom they had long 
despised, poured in. and overwhelmed them, and the 
Roman Catholic religion completed their degeneracy 
and ruin. 

The period which succeeds this deplorable state is 
justly called the dark ages of the world. 


Hisfian'ia^ called by the poets Ibe'ria and Hesjie'ria^ 
was at first divided by the ilomrais into Hisfia'nia Ctt^e^ 
rior and Ul'terior, but afierwards into three province^. 


Provinces* Principal towns^ Ancient and Modei-n. 

Rho'dun Ro'ses; J^Vua Carif/ia'^o,Carthage'. 
Emfio'ricB^ Ampu'rias. ller^da^ Leri'da. [na, 
Bar'etnoj Barcelo'na. Sego'via^ Sego'via. 
Tar'raco^ Tarrago'nia. Tole'tum^ Tole'do. 
Sagun'tu7n^'^oY\iQ'ciVO Calle^ Opor'to. 


Valentia^ Valen'cia. Astu^rica > a ctorVa 
^/^cTw/^eVojPanipelo'na. Augusta^ \ ^ 

- ,.. 5 His'palis, Seville', Ga'desy Ca'diz. 

Lusia ma, C Em^ ita ^ j^^^.,^^^ ^^^^^ ^ Lis'hon. 
For tugal. ^ Augusta^ 5 

Mountains, Pyren'm, Pyr'enees, the northern boun* 
dary of Spain ; and Cal'fie, the Rock ol Gibral'tar, which 
was opposite to mount Ab'yla on the African side of the 
Fretum Hercu'leum^i\oyf the strait of Gibral'tar. These 
two mountainous rocks were> according to tradition, 
once united, and Her'cules^ in order to open a communica- 
tion from the Mediterranean sea to the Atlantic ocean, 
rent them asunder ; hence they are called the Colum'na 
Hcrculis, the pillars of Hei^cuies. 

Rivers, Ide'rus, E'bro ; Du'rius, Dou'ro ; A'nas^ 
Guadia'na ; BoB'tis^ Guadalquiv'er ; Mfnus, Min'ho ; 
and the Ta^gus^ Ta'jo. 

Islands, The BalecJres^ Ma'jor and Minor, now 
Major'ca and Minor'ca ; and the Pityu'sce In'sulce, which 
were Ebu'sus,, Iv'ica ; and Qphiu'sa, Formente'ra. The 
inhabitants of these islands were remarkable for their 
piracies, and for the use of the sling and bow. 

Cafies. Promonto'rium Sa'crum ; Cape St. Vin'cent; 
ir'tabrum or Ner'iuvi, Cape Fin'isterre ; Charide'muniy 
Cape Gata^ 

Towns. Sagun'tum was remarkable for the siege of 
Han'nibal, which occasioned the second Punicy or 
Carthage'nian war. 

J\''umcnUia was celebrated for the defeat, and suc- 
cessful resistance, which it several times made with a 
small number of men, against the Roman armies. It 
was at last taken by Scip'io Africa'nus. 

170 FRANCE. 


Cor'duba^ the birth-place of Lucan and the two Sen^- 
ccas, is remarkable for a mosque 510 feet long, and 420 
broad, supported by 800 pillars of alabaster, jasper, and 
black marble, which is now converted into a cathe'draL 

Ital'ica was the native place of Tra'jan and A'drian. 

Ga^des^ now Ca'diz, the great emporium of Spanish 
commerce, was first peopled by a colony from Tyre. 

The first inhabitants of Spain, as well as of Gaul, 
Germany, and Britain, were probably the Cel'tcB, The 
Phaeni'cians afterwards possessed several places on the 
sea coast. At length, the Carthage'nians, attracted by 
the gold and silver mines, which abounded in this coun- 
try, conquered the greater part of it ; but they were soon 
expelled by the Romans, who kept possession ol it dur- 
ing the existence of their empire. 

Under the government of Rome, the Spaniards paid 
great attention to learning and commerce, Quint il' Han ^ 
Sen'eca^ SiL'ius^ Ltican^ Pomfio'niua Mela, and other 
learned men were natives of this country. Corn, wine, 
oil, and honey were articles of its commerce ; but wool 
"Was the principal commodity. 

Upon the fall of the Roman empire, Spain was con- 
quered by the Goths and Vandals and other barbarous 
nations from the north of Europe, who overran the Ro- 
man empire, and completed the degradation of that 
haughty people, who but a few years before were mja^- 
t^rs of the world. 


Gaul was called by the Romans Gal'lia TransaVjiina 
ot UlUetiory and by the Greeks Gala'tia, Besides 
France, it comprehended Flanders, Holland, Swit'zer- 
land, and a part of Germany. 

Mountains. Pyren' ei^ Pyr'enees ; Al'fies, Alps. 

Lakes, Lema'nua, or Lausa'niusj Gene'va ; Brig' 
anti'nusj Ven^etusy Jcro'nius or Cons tan Hen' sis, lake 

Rivers. Rhod'unusj Rhone ; ^Var, Saone ; Atu'rus, 
Adour' ; Garum'na^ Gar-onne' j LUger or Liglriss 
Loire ; Seg^uuna, Sejne 5 Rhe'nus, Rhine. 



Straits^ Bays, Isfc, Fre'tum GaVlicxim, the strait of 
Do'vcr ; Oce'anus Britan'icus, British Channel ; Oce'- 
anus AquitavHcus^ Bay of Bis'cay j GaVlicua Si'nusy 
Gulf ctf Ly'ons. 

Islands. Smc'ades, Hieres ; Ulia'rusy OPeron, Vin* 
dilia, Belle Isle ; Uxaimis, Ushant' ; Casare^ay Jer'sey ; 
Sar^nia^ Guern'sey ; Ridu'nay Arderney. 

Gallia was inhabited by three great nations ; the Cel- 
t(B, who were the principal ; the Aquita'ni, and Bel'gse ; 
all differing in their customs and language. About 100 
years before the Christian era, the Romans, under pre- 
tence of assisting the people of Marseilles, and their al- 
lies, carried their arms into Gaul, and took possession 
of a territory on the southern part of the Rhone, to 
which they gave the name of Provin'cia. Julius Caesar, 
about 60 years after, conquered the whole country. 

Augustus divided Gaul into ybwr fiarts ; Provin^cia^ 
or Gal' Ha JVarbonen'sisy Aquita'niay Cel'ticuy or Lugdu" 
nen'sisy and Bel'gica. 

Divisions. Ancient, 



Provin'cia, or Arau'sio. 
Gal'lia Narbo-^ Arela'tum. 
nen'sis. j Ave'nio. 










J JVar^bo Mar^iius. Narbonne. 
[^Tolo'sa. Toulouse'. 

\ Burdeg'ela* 
j Iculis'na, 

f Vinda'na, 

I Condivie'num* 

Lugdunen'sis. I j . / 
^ I Lugdunum, 




Bourdeaux' (do'.) 

Orle'ans. . 




. <^ jiugus'ta Treviro'rum, 








Each of these general divisions comprised several 
small independent states or nations, differing in lan- 
guage, institutions, and laws. Their government was 
generally democratic ; but some of them were governed 
by kings, who w^re elective, and limited in their author- 

Among these small nations were the Ilelve'tUy who 
inhabited the country now called Switzerland. They 
were remarkable for their in'dustry, bravery, and love 
of liberty. 

In Gaul the more respectable part of the community 
were divided into tivo classes, the Dru'ids and Eqfuitesy 
to which some have added a third class, the Bar da or 
Poets. The Dru'ids took care of the religious con- 
cerns, educated the youth, decided controversies, and 
punished offenders ; the Eq'uites or nobles were mostly 
engaged in war. 

The common people were held in no estimation, and 
were treated little better than slaves. 


The island of Great Britain was anciently called Al- 
bion ; the name Britan'nia being common to all the isl- 
ands belonging to Great Britain. The northern part was 
called Caledo'riid^ now Scotland, and was inhabited by the 
Fi(/ti or Picts, so called because ihey painted their bodies. 

Mountains, The only mountains mentioned by the 
Romans were the Mon^tes Grafn'fiiiy now called the 
Gram'pian Hills. 

Rivers 8c Bays. T/iam'esis^ the TAames ; Sabri'na^ 
the Sev'ern ; A'bus^ the Hum'ber ; Bodot'ria Si^nus, 
Frith of Forth ; Meta'ris Mstua'riiim^ the Washj ^5- 
tua'rium Itu'nce^ Solway Frith ; Glo'ta^ the Clyde ;.and 
the Se'nusy now the river Shan'non in Ireland. 

Qceansn Seas, &c. Oce'anus German'zcusj and Ger- 


man ocean or North sea ; Oce^anua Oc'cidentaUis^ the 
Western or Atlan'tic ocean ; Ma! re Hiber^nicum^ or 
Vergin'ium Mare^ the Irish Sea, or St. George's Chan'- 
liel ; and the Fre'tum Britan'nicum^ or Gal'licum^ the 
strait of Do'ver. 

Islands around Brit'ain. Hiber'nia^ now Ire'land, al- 
so called by the ancients, Fris^ ler^ne^ Ju-ver'na^ and 
Britan'nia Par'va ; Tec'^/^, the Isle of Wight ; Cas^sU 
ter'ides^ and the S9il'ly islands ; Me^na^ Ang^'lesea, the 
seat of the Druids ; Mona'bia or Mona'da^ Isle of Man ; 
Hebvldea^ the Heb'rides or Western isles of Scotland ; 
Or^cddesy the Ork^neys ; and the Ul'tima Thu'lcj gener- 
ally supposed to be the Shetland islands. 

Cafies or Promontories. Bole'rium Promonto' rium^ 
Land's End ; Oeri'num Prom, Liz'ard Point j Or'cas 
Prom. Dungs'by Head. 

Britain was divided into a number of states ; the fol- 
lowing are the principal. 

States^ Anc. i^ Mod, Towns^ Anc. Isf Mod. 

Can'tium^ Kent. Duro-ver'num, Can'terbury. 

BeVga, Hampshire, r^wra^e/^a'rwm, Winchester, 

Reg'ni, Surry, Sus'sex. 

Durot'riges, Dorsetshire. /^wrTzoi/a'nwTw. Dor'chester. 
Bun^^nii. \ D-o-t;;-- U.'ela. Ex'eter. 

Trinoban'tes, Mid'dlesex. Londi'num, Lon'don. 

^ , . S Nor'folk. ,, - ^ . , 

^^' ^-'- I Suffolk. ^"^ '^- ^^is ter. 

Atreba^tes, lierk'shire. ■ Readying. 

Silu'res. S. Wales. Maridu'num. Caermarthen. 

Ordov'ices. N. Wales. Segovltium, Carnai^von. 

Brigan'tes, York'shii e. Ebor'acum, York. 

Little is known of ancient Britain before the invasion 
of it by the Romans under Julius Caesar, about 55 years 
before the Christian era. 

At that time it was divided into a number of inde- 
pendent states, each governed by a king or chief mag- 
istrate, whose principal office Wiia to command in war, 
which was always done in person, whether the sovereign 


were king or queen, for in succession to the crown there 
was no distinction of sexes. 

The authority of the king was greatly controlled by 
the priests, called Dru'idsy who vere not only ministers 
of religion, but also possessed the right of making laws, 
and explaining and executing them- 

The power of the Dru'id*i, and consequently the hon- 
our paid ihem, were incredibly great They were con- 
sidered as the interpreters of the gods, were exempt 
from all taxes and military duty, and their persons were 
hcid sacred and inviolable. 

The ancient Brit'ons were brave and warlike ; they 
had many flocks, and lived mostly on milk and fish, 
without corn ; they had no clothing but the skins of beasts, 


Ger'many extended from the Rhine to the Vis'tula, 
^nd from the Dan'ube to the Baltic sea. 

Mountains and Forests, Among the natural fea- 
tures of ancient Ger'many its forests were remarkable. 
The Ilerct/niany Ccs'sian. and Black forests were the 
principal ; and the Hercy'nii Mon'tes were the principal 

Rivers. The Rhe'nus^ now Rhine j Visur'gis^ We'- 
ser 5 M'bis,, Elb«^ ; Via'drus^ O'der ; Ami'sus^ Ems ; 
Ma^nusy Mame ; and Is'ter^ now the Dan'ube. 

Seas, Ma'rc Sue'vicum or Coda'nus Si'nus^ the Bal- 
tic sea; and the Oce'anvs German^icus^ now the North 

Germany was inhabited by many different nations, 
among which were the Fri'si, Bruc'teri, Ca'/tj, U'bii, 
Sicam'bri, and Marcoman'ni, along thcR/nne* whose ter- 
ritory was afterwards occupied by the Aleman'ni : far- 
ther east were the Haru'des^^ JVaris'ci^ and Hermtinduri ; 
between the rivers Ami'sia and Al'bis were the Chau'ci 
and Cherusci ; farther north were the jin'gli and Fosfi 
or Sax ones ; along the Baltic were tlie Lon^ohar' d\^ 
Ven^dili or VandaHii^ Bur'gundio'nes^ Gotho'nes^ &c. the 
Sue'vij who were divided into a number of tribes, occu- 
pied the interior. 

THRACE. 1/5 

Not'icum and Vindelk' ia included that part of modern 
Ger'many, which lies south of the Dan'ube. 

North of Germany were the Chersone'sus Cim'brica^ 
nowDEN'MARK,and Scan'diaox Scaridina'via^ now Nor'- 
WAT, Swe'dbn, and Lap'land, which were inhabited by 
the Cimfbri^ and Teu'tbnnes 

The following countries were east of Ger'many, and 
north of Greece and the Adriai'ic sea. 

Countries. Principal towns* 

Panno'nia, Sir'mium^ Seges'ta^ JsTaupor* turn, 

Mlyr^icum, Se'nia or Seg'nia, Jade'ra^ E/iidau'ru9. 

McB'sia. JVes'sus, now Nis'sa. 

Da'cia, Zuroba'ra, Ulpia, Traja'na, Albia Ju'lia. 

^Inhabited by the ^s'tii. Ven'edi, Aga- 
J thyrsi, Budi'ni, Gelo'ni, Bastar'nae, 

bar ma tia < Ro^ola^ni, Hamaxo'bii, Jazy'ges, Tau'- 

£«ro/i^ a, i^^.^g^^ ^^^^ ^^^ CrimaB'ans. 

Gaul, Ger'many, and all the northern parts of EuTope, 
abounded with forests, mountains and romantic scene- 
ry. The inhabitants did not build large towns and cities, 
but lived a wandering, unsettled life. They were hardy 
and ungovernable, and extremely fierce in war, although 
simple and void of artifice. 


Thrace^ now Roma'nia or Rumelia, was east of Mac- 
edo'nia on the confines of Asia^ separated from it only by 
the Bos'phorus and the Dar'danelks' 5 it was a rough and 
barren country. 

Mountains. Its principal mountains were HcB'mus^ 
now Eminch-Dag, which separated it fromMoe'sia on the 
north ; Rho'dope ; Panga'us^ now Casta^nas; and Ts'- 
marus. From the top of Ha'mus, it is said, the Eux'ine 
and the Adriat'ic seas were both visible. 

Rivers. He'brus^ now Mari'za, remarkable for its ra- 
pidity, and for the coolness and purity of its waters ; A>s'- 
tus or Mestusj now Mes'to ; and the Lis'sus, which, it 
is said, was not sufficient to supply the army of Xerx'es 
with water. 

176 THRACE. 

Gulfsj Seas^ Straits^ ^c. Me'laa or Metanes Si'tiua^ 
a gulf west of the Chersoiie^sua. Hel'lea Pon'tus or the 
Sea of Hel'le^ so called from a Theban princess of this 
name, who is said to have been drowned in crossing it 
with her brother. This strait, now called the Dar'da^ 
fielles'^ is about 60 miles long in a winding course, and at 
a medium about 3 miles broad ; but where narrowest, less 
than one mile over- Here stood Ses'tos on the Europe- 
an side, opposite to Aby'doa in Asia, famous for the loves 
of Hero and Leander. Near this place Xerxes made a 
bridge of boats to transport his army. 

The Projion'tis^ now sea of Mar'mora, was connected 
by the Bos^phorus^ with the Euxi'nnsn now the Black sea. 

Islands, Tha'sos or Thasusj now Thap'so, was cele- 
brated for its fertility, its marble quarries, and its gold 
and silver mines. 

Zem'was, now Sta'lime^ne, was sacred to Vulcan, and 
was remarkable for two horrible massacres ; owe, of the 
women in killing their husbands; the other^ in the slaugh- 
ter of children, 

Samothrol cia or Samothra'cey now Samothra'ki, is fa- 
mous for a deluge, which inundated the whole country, 
and is said to have risen to the tops of the highest moun- 
tains. Im'bros^ now Em'bro, in the jEge'an sea ; and 
Proc^onne'sus, now Mar'mora, in the Propon'tis, cele- 
brated for its marble. 


Ancient. Modern. 

Byzan'tmm, Constantino' pie, IstambduV, or the Porte. 

Adriano' polia. Adriano'ple or Hae'drine. 

Philifi'clis Philippop'oli or Phiii'ba. 

Atiollo'nia. Sozop'olis or Siz'ebo'li. 

Nicofi'oUs. Nicop'oiis. 

CaUifi'olis. G allip'oli. 

Abd/ra^ which still preserves its ancient name, was 
tlie birth-place of Democ'ritus, who was called the laugh- 
ing philosopher, because he used to laugh at the follies 



of mankind. It also gave birth to several other great 
men, although it is said, the air of the city was thick, and 
rendered the inhabitants dull. 

Ad'riano'ple was the capital of the Turks in Europe., 
before they took Con'stantino'ple. 

The Thra'cians were a barbarous, cruel, and warlike 
people, addicted to drinking and forbidden pleasures, 
subsisting mostly on plunder, and the milk and flesh of 


Mia is the grand division of the earth, that was first 
]»eopled. Here Adam and Eve were placed in the gar- 
den of Eden^ disobeyed the command of God by eating 
the forbidden fruit, and were driven from Paradise to 
get their bread by the sweat of their brow, and to suffer 
the consequences of their disobedience. 


Mountains. Tau'rus was the principal range of 
mountains in Asia. It commenced in the western part 
of A'aia Minor^ and in various branches of different de- 
nominations, extended eastward through the whole of 
Asia. The principal branches known to the ancients, 
besides Tau'rus, were An'titau'rua^ Cau^cdsus^ Ama'nus^ 
now Mon'te Ne'gro, and Ima'iis^ 




Ancient, Modern, Ancient, Moden:. 

Eu/ihra'tes. Euphrates. In'dus. 

C Basilen'sa, or Sin'dus^ or 

\ Bare'ma. Sin' thus, _ 

Gi'hon. Hydas'fiea, Shantrou'. 

\ Sir, or Gran'icus* Ousvo'la. 

[ Si'hon. Maan'der, Mein'der. 

Oron'tes. El Asi. Gan'ges. Gan'ges. 

Pucto'luB, . 




Oce'aiius Infdicus. 
Ma' re Mediterra'neumm 
Ma' re JEge'um. 

Bos'fihorus Thra'cius, 
Pon'tus Ruxi'nuB, 
Bos'fihorus Cimme' rills, 
Pa'lus Maoris. 
Ma' re Cas'pium. 
Si'niis jlrab'icus. 
Si! nils Per' sicus* 
Prythae'um Ma're, 
Si'nus Ganget'icus. 
Ma^re jEo'um, 


Invlian Ocean, 

Mediterra'nean Sea. 

-^ge'an Sea, or Archiperago. 

Sea of Hel'le, or Dar'danelies', 

Sea of Mai'^mora. 

Strait of Con'stantino'ple. 

Eux'ine or Black Sea. 

Strait of Caf 'fa. 

Sea of A'zof. 

Cas'pian Sea. 

Ara'bian Gulf, or Red Sea* 

Per'sian Gulf. 

Arabian Sea. 

Bay of Bengal'. 

Chinese Sea. 


Cyprus^ Rho'dua^ now Rhodes ; Path^mos or PaV» 
mos^ Sa^moaj Chi'os^Les'bosy Ten'edos^ and /c«'na, now 

Ancient JVames, 

A'sia Minor, 
Ibe'ria^ Col'chis ^ 
and Jllba'nia, 5 
Arme'nia Ma'jor. 
Arme'nia Mi' nor t 

Syr'ia Palmyre'ne^ 
Phani'cia^ Juda 
Babylo'niay or Chaldce'a. 



Modern Kamea. 

'ne, > 
e'a. 5 

Geor'gia, Gangea, 1 
and Dages'tan. \ 
Turcoma'nia & Geor'gia* 

Syr'ia and Palestine 



5 Balk, Sublus'tan, and 
\ Candahar', 


Susia'na, Chuses'tan or Susis'tan, 

Par^thia. Irak A'gem. 

Sarma'tia JaiatHca* As'tracan. 

Scyth'ia, Siberia. 

Si'na. Chinese' Tartary. 


Mountains, Mount Tau'rus^ the largest mountain 
of Asia, as to extent, spreads its branches under ditfer- 
ent names through this country. 

Rivers, The rivers in Asia Mi'nor were the Gran'i" 
cus, now Ousvo'la, where Alexander first defeated the 
Persians ; the PactdLus^ said by the ancients to have 
flowed over golden sands ; the Maan'der^ celebrated for 
its winding course ; and the Ha'lys^ whose waters were 
of a saltish bitter taste. This river was famous for the 
defeat of Cra'sus^ king of Lyd'ia, who v/as deceived by 
the ambig'uous meaning of this pr'acle, '• If Crce'sus 
fiass over the Ha'lys^ he shall destroy a great emfiireJ* 
The empire was his own. 

Islands, In the east part of the Mediterra'nean is 
the island of Cy'firus. The principal cities were Pa'* 
fihos^ now Ba'fo, and Sal'amia^ now Conslan'tia. Pa'- 
phos was the place, where EPymas the sor'cerer, at the 
preaching of St. Paul, was struck blind, when attempt- 
ing to corrupt the faith of Sur'gius Pau'lus, the deputy 
or governor of the country. 

Rho'dus^ now Rhodes, near the coast of Ly'cia, is said 
to have risen from the sea. It was remarkable for the 
celebrated brazen statue of Apollo, called Colos'sus^ one 
of the seven wonders of the world. Its feet were placed 
one on each side of the entrance to the harboui*, so that 
ships passed full sail under it. It was more than 100 
feet high ; and every part in equal proportion. It was 
demolished by an earthquake, after having stood almost 
a century. The brass, which composed it, was suffi- 
cient to load 900 camels. 

Path'mos or Pai'mos^ Ica'ria^ or Ica'ros^ Sa'mos^ CW* 


©5, Lem^nosj and Ten'edos^ are in the ^ge'an sea or Ar'J 
chipel'ago, some of which have already been mentioned 
under Eu'rope, although they are generally called Asiat'- 
ic islands. 

Cafies, Opposite the island of Sa!mos^ was the prom'- 
ontory of Myca'le^ near which was fought a celebrated 
battle, in which about 100 thousand Persians were de- 
feated by a much less number of Greeks, on the same 
day that 300 thousand Persians, under Mardo'nius, were 
defeated in the battle of Platse'a. in Greece, by a much 
smaller number of Lacedemo'nians and Athe'nians, un- 
der the command of Pausa'nias. 


Subdivisions, Towns^ Ancient and Modern. 

Mys'ia. CyzHcus, 

Tro'as. ^ '^^^'J^ ^^' Il'iuniy Troy ; Adramyt'tium^ 

\ Adramit'ti. 
JEo'lia. EWa, lale'a ; Gryn'ium. 

lo'nia. \ Phoca'ay Fochi'a ; Smyr'na, Is'mi ; Cla- 

\ zom'ence^ Vour'la : Eph'esus^ Aiosoluc. 

r 5ar'rf^5, Sart ; Mag7ie'sia^ Gu'zel-hi'zar ; 
Lyd'ia. •< Thy'ati'ra^ Akhisar ; Philadelphia^ A'lah 

(.Sber; Atta'lia^ Italah. 

Ca'ria. HaUcarnae'aus, Bodroun' ; Cnfdus^ . 

T«^'-o KXan'thua^ Ek'senide': Pa'tara, Pa'tera ; 

^y^ ^^- I My'ra, ; Limy'ra, — 

Pisid'ia Sc f ^^^'^c?Ka'ra-his'ar;^fz^20 V/zza, Ak-Shehr ; 
Pamphyl'ia. \ 5e/^uVia,Eushar ; A.^p^-n'^-^^c^ 
I?eu'rica& \Ico'nium^ Koni'eh ; Der'be^ A'lah-dag; 
Lycao'nia. \ LyaUra^ ■■ 
Cillc'ia \Par^usy Tar'sous or Teras'so; Is'sus, 

jAiVse; mcop'olis^ Kenisat-asoud. 
Cappado'cia aad 5 C^t/^rV^ra, Bus^ereh j Meiite^ne^MsL- 
Arme'nia Minor. \ lari'a. 

i Ami'susj Samsoun ; Amas^ia^ Amasi'eh ; 
Pon'tus. < Trape'zusy TreVisond ; Eupato'ria^ Tchfc - 



Paphlago'nia. Sino'fie^ Si'nub ; Caram'bis^ Kerem'pi. 

T3- u /• ^Pru'sa. Bui^'sa; Jfiame^a^ Moiula'nia » 

Bithyn la. ^ Mca'a, Is- Nik ; Libya' sa, Gebi'se. 

Gala'tia. Ancy'ra^ Angou'ra ; Ta'vium^ Tchoroum, 

i'Hrygia. ^ Gor'c/^M^>i, Gor'dm- come ; Pes'sinus. 

Tro'ja or Troy, the capital of Tro'as^ was built on a 
^mall eminence near mount Ida, at the distance of about 
four miles fiom the sea. It is celebrated for the mem- 
orable siege of ten years, which it sustained against the 
Greeks, who at length, by treachery, got within the 
walls, set fire to the city, put the greater pnrt of the in- 
habitants to the sword, and carried the remainder away 
captive. This was what is called the Trofan war^ which 
forms the subject of the epic poems of Homer and 

Eph'esus was famous for a temple of the goddess 
Dia'na, which is mentioned in the 19th chapter of the 
Acts of the Apostles, and was considered one of the 
seven wonders of the world. It was 425 feet long and 
200 broad. The roof was supported by 127 colunans 
60 feet high. It is said this temple was 220 years in 

Mile'tAiB was the principal city in lo'nia. It was the 
birth-place of Thames, the father of philosophy, and of 
Anaxmian'der, the inventor of dials, and of maps. 

Iconiuvi^ Lys'tra and Der'be are the" cities mentioned 
in the Acts of the Apostles, xiv. 19, where St. Paul 
preached the Gospel, and where he was stoned. 

Tar' sua was the birth- place of the Apostle Paul, and 
was remarkable for the attention of its inhabitants to phi- 
Ioso])hy and the sciences. 

Kic(£'a^ Nice, is celebrated for the first general ec- 
clesiastical council, which was held there. Gor'dium is 
famous for the Gor^dian knot^ v^hich Alexander cut witl; 
his sword, instead of fairly untying it. 

A'sia Mi'nor was principally settled by coronics from 
Greece, became the field of battle between the cor^r 
tending powers of Europe am! Asia-, ant! was of co\irse 

182 SYRIA. 

subject to many revolutions. It was likewise the placci 
where the Apostles particularly exerted themsches to 
establish the Chpistian religion. Here were the seven 
churches of Asia, which St, John addressed in the Rev- 


These countries, bow Geor'gia, including Mingre'lia, 
Imaret'ta. and part of Circas'sia, were situated between 
the Eux'ine and Cas'pian seas. They are mountainous, 
but extremely fruitful. 

Pha'sis was the capital of Col'chis, and celebrated 
in fable for the expedition of the Ar'gonauts from Greece 
in search of the goiden Jieece^ by which is understood 
the rich productions of the country. 


Arme'nia Ma'jor^ now Turcoma'nia, is a mountainous 
country. Here are T'awVz^s, ./fwrzYaz/'rwff,Nepha'tes, &c. 
and according to some, Mount Ar^arat^ where Noah's 
ark first rested. 

The rivers TVgris and Eiifihra^tes take their rise in 
this country. 

The principal towns were Ty'granocer^ta and fdr- 


Syr'ia once extended from Cilic'ia and mount Araa^mi^ 
to Ara'bia and Egypt, and from the Mediterra'nean to the 
Euphra'tes. It was divided into five parts. 

Subdivisio7i8. Princifial towns* 

Commage'ne. Samosa^ta^ Sem'isat ; Zeug^ma^ Zeg'mc. 
^ Antio' chia^ An'tioch 5 Ben^a^ Alep'po ; 

Seleu'cis, or 
Syr'ia Pro'pria.'^ 

Hel\ofJoli8s Ba Fbec ; 
Alexan'dria^ Alexai^dret'ta or Scandc- 


^ , r, ,. . C Damas'cus, Dem'esk : Palmy'ra, Tad- 
Coe'le Syi^ia. J ^^^ 

Phoenicia. [ ^'^^rlp'oH^'''' ^''''°"' ^'^'^^^ ^'■'^'°'"' 
Judas^a, or C Hierosol'tma^ Jeru'salem, -Sefi^- 

Palaesti'na. \ lehem^ Beth' el^ E'phraim^ Sec. 

Palaesti'na, called also the Holy Land^ the Land of 
Ca^naan^ of UraeU and of Jic'dah^ was again divided 
first into twelve tribes 5 afterwards into the kingdoms of 
Jvldah and Is'rael^ and at last by the Romans into sev- 
eral districts. 

Districts. Principal 1 010ns. 

f Ca'na, Cliora'zin, Caper'naum, Jez'reel, Ti- 
CW] f J be'rias, Mount Girboa, BetlVlehem, Naz'- 
uaiilSB a. <; ^^,^^^^ ^^.^^, jy^^^p^^ Ta'bor, Na'in, Zab'ulon, 

LPtoiema'is, now A'crc. 
Sama'ria. Saina'ria, Caesare^a, Jop'pa. 

fJeru^scUem^ the capital, was built on four 

} hills, called Si'on^ A'cra^ Mori'ah^ and Be- 

j , , J ze'tha ; Jer'icho, Beth'el, Gil'gah E'phra- 

JUa^a. -^ im, He'bron, Mam'rcj Beth'lehirm^ the 

I birth place of our Saviour ; Em'maus, 

l^Ra'ma, Gib'ia 

Phir 'ftp 5 ^^'^^' Gath, As'calon, Azo'tus or Ash'dod, 

^^ ^' ^ and Ek'ron. 
■g , r Ra'moth-Giread, Ash'taroth, and Decap'- 
riK 1 J ^^^^' which was a confederacy of ten cit- 

IduTuae'a.^ \ ^^'^^' The'man, and Boz'ra. 

Mountains. A chain of mountains pervades Syria 
from north to south. The highest and most remarka- 
ble are Lib'anus or Leb'anon, Sha'ron, Ta'bor, Ne'bo. 
Pis'gah, Car'mel, Seir, Scc« 

Lakes or Seas» Genes'areth^ or Tibe^rias^ and As- 
fihaVtites^ or Ma're Mor'tuum, which, fi'om its stagnant 
waters, is now called the Dead sea. This lake' is so 
salt, that neither animals nor vegetables live in it. It is 

184 ARABIA. 

nearly 100 miles in extent, and is supposed to occupy 
the place where the cities of Socl^om and Gomor'rah 
once stood. 

The principal rirer was Jorda'nesj or Jor'dan, which 
connected the above lakes together. 

PalUstine^ or Juda'a^ was the principal scene of the 
various revelations of God, and of the wonderful work 
of the redemption of man. It was s'ituated along the 
eastern shore of the Mediterra'nean sea ; extending about 
180 miles north and south, between 31 degrees and 33 
degrees and 40 minutes north latitude 5 and was about 
80 miles in breadth. 

This was a country of mountains and vallies, and of 
hills and plains. The climate was generally hot, al- 
though agreeably moderated by refreshing breezes from 
the mountains. The soil was fertile, pioducing plenti- 
fully grass for cattle, and herb for the service of man, 
and wine and oil, th^t maketh glad the heart, and bread 
that giveth strength. It was a land flowing with milk 
and honey. 

The ancient inhabitants were numerous, and extreme- 
ly addicted to idolatry, superstition, and gross wicked- 
ness, for which they were driven out and destroyed by 
the Jews, who in their turn became as degenerate and 
sinful, notwithstanding the miraculous dispensations of 
God to reclaim and instruct them. In consequence of 
which they likewise, although the once favoured people 
of God, were driven from this land o^ /2ro?nisey and are 
at tliis day dispersed among all the nations ot the earth. 
They however still look with longing eyes to their na- 
uve land, and sigh for a return ; and we have the assur- 
ance of Scripture, that the day is approaching when this 
wonderful people shall again revisit their ancient inheri- 
tance, and shall tjiien worship and serve the God of therr 


Ara'bia was divided into three parts. 

Divisions* Princifial to*iuns. 

Ara'bia Deser'ta. Thap'sacus, 

ARABIA. 185 

{Pt'tra. Krac ; Berenilce^ more ancient- 
ly E'zion Ge'her^ Pha'ra^ or Pa'rany 
and Jirsin'oe now Su'ez. 
Ara'bia Fe'lix. Saba'tha, Sanaa ; Mart' aba. Ma'reb. 

Jira'bia Ft'lix was the southern part of Ara'bia, and 
remarkable for its fertility. 

Near the northern part of the Si'nus Arab'icus, now 
the Red sea. were the mountains SiWi and HCreb, 
On Mount Si'nai the law to the lsr<i elites was given to 
Moses amidst an awful and mkaculous display of the 
majesty of God^ 

Baby Id ma and Chalda'a^ now Eyra^co. or Iri'ca Ar'« 
abic, was north of the Persian gulf on the river Eu- 

Bab'ylon^ the capital, was one of the most ancient ciV 
ies in the world, and celebrated for its haagnificence and 
extent It was 60 miles in circumference, surrounded 
by a wall 50 feet thick and 200 feet high, and had 100 
brazen gates. 

Mesoiiota'mia^ now Diar'bec, was between the rivers 
Euphra'tes and Tigris. 

The principal towns were JVisHbis^ Selevlcia^ now Bagh- 
dad, Bat'TKB and Edes'se. 

Some have supposed the Garden of Eden was in 

Jlssyrioy now Curdis'tan, was east of the river Ti'gris. 

The principal cities were JWnns or JVin'e-ve^ Jirbt'^ 
la^ and Ctes^i/ihon. 

MeUiia extended along the Caspian sea. Its chief 
town was Ecbat'ana,, now Ham^adan. 

Of Per^sis and Susia'na^ now Per'sia, the principal 
:owns were Persefi'olis^ Su'sa^ and FAyma'is, 

The countries east of Pei-'sia were little known to the 
ancient Romans, and therefore seldom mentioned, ex- 
cept in the history of Alexander the Great, w^ho extend. 
ed his conquests to the river In'dusi 

)86 AFRICA, 



Mountains. Jit'las is the principal mountain in Afri-^ 
ca, that was anciently known. It runs across the des'ert 
from Egypt to the Atlantic ocean, and is so high that the 
ancients imagined the heavens rested on its top. 

Rivers, The M'lus or Nile is the largest and most 
celebrated river of Africa. Its sources were unknown 
to the ancients, as were also the causes of its annual in- 
undations, to which Egypt owes its extraordinary fertil- 
ity. It is now ascertained, that this river rises in the 
Mountains of the Moon in Abyssin'ia, and that its inun- 
dations are caused by the periodical rains, which for sev- 
eral months annually prevail in that country. It runs 
northerly through the whole extent of Egypt. At the 
town of Cercaso'rum it divides itself into several streams^ 
and falls into the Mediterra'nean sea by seven mouths* 


Ancient. Modern-. 

Oce'dnus Jltlanticus, Atlantic O'cean. 

Oce'dnus In'dicus. In'dian O'cean. 

Ma're MediterrolneutiU Mediterra'nean Sea, 

Si'nus Jlrab'icus. Ara'bian Gulf, or Red Sea. 

Fre'tum Hercu'leutn. Strait of Gibraltar. 


Ancient. M:jdern. 

Maurita^nia Tingita^na^ Moroc'co. 

Maurita'nia Cxsarien'sis. Algiers-. 

JSTumid'iay Aprica Fro'firict, Tu'nis. 

Trifi'olita'na, Trip'ol?. 



Cyr^na'icaj LWya Sufie'rior. 


Lib'ya Inferior^ G<£tu'lia. 



Mth%(^t^i(B ^ Lih'yiB jiars, 

JEfhio^flice pars. 




Za'ara or the Desert. 


Upper Ethio'pia. 

Lower Ethio'pia. 


Divisions. Princifial tonvns. 

r Mcm^phis^ near the place where Granrf 
f-Syptus I ^^.j.^ ^^^ g^^j^^^ . 7'A/^^, Thebes ; Cop!^ 
Supe r lo r. ^ ^^^^ Acan'thus, Jirsin'o'e, Sye'ne. 

^gyp'tus C Pelu^siu7n, D^tmiet'ta ; Cono'fius^ near 
In'ierior or -< which is now Roset'ta ; Sa'is^ JVau' cratis ^ 
the Del'ta. \^Alex<in'dria, 

In the east of Lower Egypt was the land of Go^ahen^ 
where the children of Israel dwelt. 

Egypt was one of the most celebrated countries in 
the world. In ancient times it was esteemed the school 
of learning ; and the most illustrious men m Greece re- 
sorted thither for instruction* 

No country exhibits such wonderful productions of 
art and labour, as Egypt. One of the most useful of 
these works was the celebrated lake Mce'ris^ which was 
more than tOO miles in circumference, and is said to have 
been dug by an ancient king of the same name. It was 
intended as a res'ervoir of the superabundant water dur- 
ing the inundation of the Nile. After the river had sub- 
sided, the waters of the lake were drawn off by canals 
in various directions to supply the country, as it very sel- 
dom or never rains in Egypt. 

The pyr'amids are another stupendous work of the 
Egyptians. It is supposed, they were designed to be 
the burial places of the ancient kings. The largest gov- 

188 EGYPT. 

ers about to acres of ground, and is more than 500 feet 
in perpendicular height. 

Near the pyr'amids are subterra'nean vaults of prodi- 
gious extent, in which were deposited the embalmed bod- 
ies of the Egyptians, commonly called mum?nies, Some 
of these bodies are still perfect and entire, although they 
have been kept more than 3000 years. The art of em- 
balming the bodies ot the dead in this manner is now lost. 

The Lib'yrinth was another wonderful production of 
the Egyptian kings. It consisted of 12 palaces, and 3000 
houses built of marble, under ground, or covered over, 
communicating whh each other by innumerable wind- 
ing passages, so intricate and perplexhig, that to escape 
from it was almost impossible. 

Another remarkable work was the famous light tow- 
er on the island of Pha'ros, raised so high, as to be seen 
at the distance of 100 miles. 

These are some of the wonders of Egypt, which show, 
that their knowledge of mechanics must have been ve- 
ry great* if not superior to what is now possessed. 

The country from Egypt to the Atlantic, now called 
the coast of Ba»/bary, for the space of near 2000 miles, 
borders all the way on a barren sandy desert, called Za^- 
ara or Sa'hara^ which sometnnes approaches within a 
few miles of the Mediterra'nean. 

In Marmor^ica stood the temple of Ju'piter Am'mon, 
in the middle of a sandy desert, through which travel- 
lers were guided i^y the stars. 

Cyrena'ica was in the northern part of Africa ; its 
capital was Cyre^ne ; the other cities were Bar'ce^ PtoV- 
'^maHs^ Bereni'ce^ &c. 

Lefi'tis^ Oe'a^ and Sab'rata were the principal cities in 
the Re'gio Syr'tica^ or Trip'olita'na. 

The capital of Africa Pro'pria was Cartha'.^o^ or Car- 
thage It was built by a colony from Tyre 8 or 9 hun- 
dred years before the Christian era ; it flourished 7 or 8 
hundred years, and its greatest population was no less 
than 700 thousand inhabitants. It maintained the mem- 

EGYPT. 189 

orable wars with the Romans, called the Pu'nic wars^ 
in the third of which Car'thage v/as totally destroyed by 
the second Scip'io Afiica'nus, 147 years before Christ. 

About 15 miles east from Car'thage was Tu'nes, now 
Tu'nis. at the mouth of the river Bai^'radas near which 
the army of Reg'ulus, the Roman general, destroyed an 
enormous serpent with their engines of war, after it had 
killed a great number of the soldiers. The sktn, which 
is said to have been 120 feet in length, was carried to 
Rome, and long preserved there. 

HedrumeUum^ Thaii'aua^ and U'tica were in this part 
©f Africa. 

J\umid'ia was divided into two kingdoms, Massy' U 
and Massa'sili. Masinis'sa was the most celebrated king 
of the former and Sy'phax of the latter. 

The principal towns were Tab'raca, Hifi'fio Re'giua^ 
Ru'ficade', Cir'ia^ and Za'ma^ wliich was famous for the 
defeat of Han'nibal by Scip'io. 

Maurita'nia^ now Fez and Moroc'co, extended to the 
western coast of Africa, and was bounded south by Gae- 
t^'lia and the Atlas mountains. 

The principal towns were Ccesare^a^ and Tin'gis^ row 
Tan'gier, south of the Fre'tum Hercu'leum, now the 
strait of Gibraltar. 

West of Gatu'lia were the Insu'lm Portundtos^ or 
For'tunate Isles, now the Cana'ries. They were repre- 
sented as the abode of the blessed, and the residence of 
virtuous souls after this life. 

North of these were the In'suloe Purfiura'rioe^ now the 
Madeir'as ; and south of them were the In'sulce Hesfier^m 
ides of the ancients, supposed by some to be the Cape 
Verd Islands. 

Ethio'pia was situated south of Egypt, and extended 
along the Red Sea southward, to parts of Africa unknown 
to the ancients. It probably comprehended the countries 
now called Dongo'la, Senna'ar, Abyssinia, and part of A- 
(^el or Zei'la. 

190 EGYPT. 

The most usual name of Ethio'pia was Abasse'ne j 
but in Scripture it was called the land of Cush. 

The principal nations, that inhabited this country, were 
the BUrn'my-es^ fabled to have had no heads, their mouth 
and eyes being fixed in their breasts. This story might 
perhaps have proceeded from their having very short 

The Troglod'ites were a very savage nation, that lived 
in caves, and fed on serpents, lizards, Sec. Their lan- 
guage had no articulate sounds, but resembled the 
shrieking of bats. The Pig'mies lived in a province 
near the Troglod'ites, and were extremely short, black, 
and hairy. 

The metrop'olis of this country was Jiuxuhne, The 
principal river was tlie Mle^ which took it's rise among 
the mountains of the Moon, 


Having given ageograjihical outline of the different partn 
of the earthy both ancient and modern^ it may be prop* 
er to mention the different forms of government^ the 
principal empires which have existed^ and the different 
kinds of religion which have prevailed. 


An empire consists of several large countries, subject 
to one sovereign, called an emperor, 

A kingdom is generally a less extent of country, sub- 
ject to one sovereign, called a king. 

A dutchy or principality is a still less extent of coun- 
try, governed by one, who himself is subject to the su- 
preme power. 


A statd is alarge society of men, united under one gov- 
ernment for their common security and welfare. 

The constitution of a state is the body of fundamental 
laws, which secures the rights of the people, and regu- 
lates the conduct of their rulers. 

The sovereignty of a state is the power, that governs it. 

Every regular government consists of three branche§^ 
the legislative^ the judic'iary^ and the exec'utive. 

1 The legislature or leg'islative power^ makes the 
laws for the government of the people. 

The legislative power is generally composed of three 
©thers, which, in the government of the United States, 
are the President^ the Sen'ate^ and the House of Repre-^ 
sentatives ; and when assembled, they are called the 


In the individual states the legislature consists of a 
Governor^ Sen'ate and House oj Refireacn' tativea. These. 
Tvhen convened, are in some of the states called the Gen- 
eral Assembly f in others, the General Courl, as in Mas* 

In Enf^land the legislature is composed of the Kiiig^ 
and tvro sepa>«ite bodies of men, «alle4 Lords and C'oyn- 
mons. The Lords are the A^obility ; the Commons are 
chosen by the people. When these branches are assem- 
bled to make laws, and to deliberate on national affairs, 
they are called the Far'l^ament. 

2. The judic'iary is that branch of a regular goven> 
mcnt, which explahis the law, and hears and determines 
all complaints. It is vested in several^wc^g-e*, who form 
a court. 

3. The executive flower sees that the laws are put in 
execution. It is vested either in a governor^ fire sidcnty 
king^ or emperor. 

The Jor7n oJ' government is the particular maaner, in 
which it is exercised. 

There are thsee kinds of government, which, under 
various modifications, constitute all others ; mon'archy^ 
aristoc'racy^ and democ'racy, 

1. A mon'archy is where the sov'ereignty^ or supreme 
ponver^ is vested in tiie hands of one individual, called a 
mon'archy whethe> a king or an emfieror. 

A limited mon'aichy is w^here the power of the sove- 
reign is limited by law. 

An arbitrary or absolute mon^archy is where the sove- 
reign is not limited by law ; but he disposes of the lives 
and property of his subjects at his pleasure. 

In an ab^ solute government th* re are no laws, but the 
-will 01 the sovereign. If he exercise his power with se- 
verity and abuse, he is called a desfiot or tyra-nt. 

An elective mon'archy is where the sovereign is ap- 
pointed by the suffrages or votes of the people. 

A hereditary monarchy is Vv^hcre the supreme author- 
ity, honours, and titles, descend from one sovereign to 
another by right of inheritance, established by law, a" 
from father to son« 


2. An aristoc^racy is where the supreme power is vest- 
ed in a council of select membersj sometimes cailed the 

3. A Democ'racy is where the supreme power is exer- 
cised by the whole body of the people. 

A refiublic is where the supreme power is intrusted by 
the people to councils, composed of members, chosen for 
a limited time, and where there are several independent 
states united in one general government. 

The government of the United States is a refiublic^ 
and it is the only one that now exists. 

Amixed government partakes of monarchy^ aristoc^ra" 
cy, and democ'racy^ as is exemplified in the British gov- 


The Babylo'nian or Assyrian empire, th€ first called 
universal^ is supposed to have been founded by Nimrod 
2217 years before Christ. It continued about 1450 

Cyrus conquered the Babylo'nians, and on the ruin of 
their empire established that of the Medcs and Persians^ 
the second universal empire, 438 years before Christ. 

Alexander tjte Great conquered the Per'sians undei? 
Dari'usy their last king, and established the Grecian, 
which was the third universal empire, 330 years before 

After the death of Alexander, his conquests were di- 
vided among bis generals; the principal of which v/ere, 
Ptol'emy in Egy/it^ Seleu^cus in Jsia^ <ind the descen- 
dants of Antig'onus in Macedo'nia. 

All these kingdoms were subdued by the Romunsj 
who established the fourth universal empire, and extend- 
edit over all the important parts of Europe, Asia, and 

The Rorvan empire was overturned, in the West^ By 


the Got ha and Van' dais ^ and other barbarous nations iVora 
the North, in the fourth and fifth centuries, whose descen- 
dants now possess some of the finest and richest coun- 
tries in Europe; in the East, first by the followers of 
Ma'homet, under the name of Sar'acens ; and finally by 
the Turks^ who still keep possession of their conquests. 
The most distinguished empires of the present time are 
the French, the Rus'sian, and the British. 


Religion is a system of divine faith and worship. 

There ^vefoiir kinds of Religion, the Pagan or Hea- 
then^ the Jeivish^ the Christian^ and the Mahometan^ or 
more propeily Moham^ medan» 

Pdganism is the worship of false gods, such as idoh 
or images^ made by men's hands ; or natural objects, as 
the sun, moon, and stars, rivers and sometimes ferocious 
beasts, or other objects. 

Judaism is the worship of tlie one true God, as re- 
%^ealed in the Old Testament ; but it rejects the New 

Christian'ity is the worship of the true God, as reveal- 
ed in both the Old and New Testaments ; and as taught 
by Jesus Christ and his disciples and apostles. 

Alaho'n'etanism^ or Is' lamism^ is a system of faith and 
worship composed of Pa' ganis m^ Ju' daism,'dr)d Christian' » 
ity, Ma'homet or MohanVmed, a celebrated impostor of 
Arabia, was the author of this system. His followers 
are called Mahom'etans^ or Mus'sulmen^ and the book, 
containing their religion, is called the Koran or Alcoran. 
The Christian religiqn is divided into various sects or 

The Roman Catholic religion, or Pofiery^ professes to 
be the Christian religion, and differs from other de- 
nominations principally in the beliei" of the infallibility 


and supremacy of the Pope^ in Latin iiaiiay signifying 

By the infallibility of the Pope, is understood, that 
the Pope cannot err in ecclesiastical matters ; and by his 
supreviacy is meant, his power or authority over ail the 
churches, the kings, and princes of the earth. This pow- 
er of the Pope was, for ages, actually exercised to a won- 
dcriul extent ; but for many years past it has been di- 

In consequence of the corruptions and abuses of pope- 
ry, a schism or rupture was, in the sixteenth century, 
made in the church of Roine or popery. 

The Protestants are those, who separated themselves, 
and protested against the authority and decrees of the 
Pope and his adherents. 

Ail denominations of Christians, v/ho reject the Cath- 
olic religion, are called Protestants and reformed ; but 
by the Roman Catholics they are called herpetics. The 
separation itself is called the r^or7?ja^/o7z. 

The Protestants are again divided into various sects. 

The Cavinists and Lutherans are those, who em- 
brace the opinions of the two most eminent reformers, 
Cal-viii and Luther, 

Episcopacy^ or the Church of England^ does not differ 
materially in doctrines, or articles of belief, from Cal- 
vinism, but prmcipally in its discipline and form of wor- 

The Church of England maintains a diversity of rank 
among its pastors or teachers, the chiet of whom are 
called bishops and archbishops. This form of church 
government is sometimes CdWcdpreVacy or hi'erarchy. 

The Presbyte'rians are generally Calvinists, and al- 
low no superiority among the ministers of religion, who 
are c^M^dipres'byters^ The church is governed by meet- 
ings, cM^d presbyf eries ov syn^odsy consisting of minis- 
ters and lay members, called ruling elders. 

When a religion is sanctioned by law, and its teach- 
ers supported^ by the public, it is called the established 


religion^ or church ; as EfiUcofiacy in England, and Pres* 
byte^rianiam in Scot4and. 

Those who differ from the established church are cal- 
led dissenters, noncon for' mists, disi'sideiits^ sece'ders, 
sec'taries^puWitans. &c. If these are allowed openly to 
profess their religion, they are said to be tolerated. 

Baj2 lists are those who deny the efTicacy of infant bap- 

Indtfien' dents or Congrega! iionalists are those, who 
assert that there is no authority in Scripture for a national 
or established religion. 

Those who adhere to Calvinism, or the establislii-d 
church, are called or'thodox ; those who do not, het'ero^ 

Delists are those, who profess to believe in the exis- 
tence of a Supreme Beings but deny all revelation. 

Atheists ^tx\y the existence of the Supreme Being, and 
reject all religion. 



The following' is a general summary of the different nations 
In the four principal divisions of the earth, showing, at one view, 
the capital, population, religion, revenue, and government of each. 



Chief Cities. 



J\\ America. 

United States 

Spanish Do- 

British Pes 

S. America, 

Spanish Do- 






Bata'via or 

German stat. 


Turkey in Eu- 



Italian Rep. 
Pope's StatesRome 
Naples Naples 

Portug-al Lisbon 

Spain Madrid 

Great Britain, -. 
& Ireland 1^^^^^^ 

Rio Janeiro 4 Roin. Cath. 



Rom. Cath. 

Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Cath. 







36 Greek Church 
Protestant & 
Rom. Cath. 


I 3; Protestant 

I 8 Protestant 
Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Cath. 

Protestant & 
Rom. Cath. 

Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Catii. 
Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Cath. 
Rom. Cath. 









Spanish Vice- 

British Con- 

Spanish Vice- 






7 jDes'potism. 
25 Mon'archy. 

1 Aristoc'racy, 







Limited mon'- 

i are^hy. 








Chief Cities. 








Greek Church 


— - Mon'archy. 



Bir'man Em- 

Pekin and 










Mec'ca and 

10 Mahom'etan 
10 Mahom'etan 

10 Mahom'etan 




































Abyss in' ia 






Summary of the population of the Worlds and of the 
principal Religious Denominations. 

jEwro/iff contains - - - . 166,932,000 

jisia 387,884,500 

4frica 61,137,200 

America 11^621,410 

The World 732,575,110 

Guthrie makes the world to contain - 953,000,000 

The medium may be - - - 800,000,000 

Christians 170,000,000 


Jews 9,000,000 

Mahometans 140,000,000 

Pa'gans 481,000,000 

Total 800,000,000 

Subdivisions among Christians may be thus : 

Protestants 50,000,000 

Greeks and Arme'nians - - - - 30,000,000 

Cath^olicsjkc, 90,000,000 

Total 1 70,000,000 

Hence it appears, that about one fifth part only of the 
human race have yet embraced the Christian religion in 
any of its forms. 


Of the Earth; its Internal Structure ; its Ccves^ and 
Subterra^neous Passages. 

When a curious survey of the surface of our globe 
is taken, a thousand objects offer themselves which, 
though long known, still excite curiosity. The most 
obvious beauty that strikes the eye is the verdant cover- 
ing of the earth, v/hich is formed by a happy mixture of 
herbs and trees of various magnitudes and uses. It has 
been often remarked, that no colour refreshes the eye so 
much as green; and it may be added, as a further proof 
of the assertion, that the inhabitant;? of those places, where 
the fields are continually white with snow, geneially be- 
come blind long before the usual decay of nature. 

The beauty, which arises irom the verdure of the 
fields, is not a little improved by their agreeable inequal- 
ities. There are scarcely two natural landscapes, that 
offer prospects entirely resembling each other ; their 
risings and depressions, their hills and vallies are never 
entirely the same, but always offer something new to en- 
tertain and enliven the imagination. 

To increase the beauties of the face of nature, the 
landscape is greatly improved by springs and lakes, and 
intersected by rivulets. These lend a brightness to the 


prospect, give motion and coolness to tlie air, and fur 
ni^h the means of subsistence to animated nature. 

Such are the most obvious tranquil objects, that every 
where offer themselves ; but there are others of a more 
awful and magnificent kind ; the mountains, rising above 
the clouds, and topt with snow ; the river, pouring d:)wn 
their sides, increasing as it runs, and losing itself at 
last in the ocean ; the ocean, spreading its immense 
sheet of waters over more than half the globe, swelling 
and subsiding at well known intervals, and forming a 
communication between the most distant parts of the 

If we leave those objects, that seem natural to our 
earth, and which keep the same constant tenour, we are 
presented with the great irregularities of nature. 1 he 
burning mountain ; the abrupt precipice ; the unfathom- 
able cavern ; the headlong cataract, and the rapid whirl- 

In descending to the objects immediately below the 
surface of the globe, we rind wonders no less surprising. 
For the most part the earth lies in regular beds or layers 
of various substances, every bed growing thickei in pro- 
portion as it lies deeper, and its contents become more 
dense and compact. 

We shall find in almost all our subterranean inquiries 
an amazing number of shells, that once belonged to 
aquatic animals. Here and there, at a distance from 
the sea, are beds of oyster shells, several yards thick, 
and many miles over. These, which are dug up by the 
peasants in every country, are regarded with little cu*- 
riosity, because they are so common But it is other-* 
wise with an inquirer into nature ; he finds them, not on- 
ly in shape, but in stibstance, every way resembling those 
that are bred in the sea, and he is, therefore, at a loss how 
to account ibr their removal. 

Yet not one part of nature alone, but all her pro- 
ductions, and varieties b'ecome objects of the philoso- 
pher's inquiry ; every appearance, however common, 
affords matter for his contemplation. He inquires how. 


and xvliy the surface of the earth has come to have those 
risings and depressions, which most men call natural ; 
he demands in what manner the mountains were formed, 
and in what their uses consist ; he asks from whence 
springs arise ; and how rivers flow ronnd the convexity 
of the globe ; he enters into the examination of the eb- 
bings and flowings, and the othei wonders of the deep ; 
he acquaints himself" with the irregularities of nature, 
and endeavours to investigate their causes, by which, 
at least, he will become better acquainted with their his- 
tory. The internal structure of the globe becomes an 
object of his curiosity, and though his inquiries can reach 
but little way, yet his imagination will supply the rest. 
He will endeavour to account for the situation of the 
marine fossils, that are found in the earth, and for the 
appearance of the different beds, of which it is composed. 
These inquiries have of late years employed men of 
splendid talents, indefatigable in their pursuits, zealously 
attached to the investigation of truth, and whose well 
directed industry merits applause and gratitude. 

Men have penetrated to very small depths below the 
earth's surface. The deepest mine, w^hich is that at 
Cot'teburg in Hungary, reaches not more than two thirds 
of a mile, a very small distance, v/hen compared with 
four thousand miles, the distance from the surface to the 
centre of the earth. A bee, who darts his sting into an 
ox or an elephant, does more in proportion towards dis- 
covering the internal structure of those animals, than 
man has yet done in his endeavours to penetrate the body 
of the globe. 

Upon examining the earth where it has been open- 
ed to any depth, the first coat, that is commonly found at 
the surface, is that light coat of blackish mould, which 
by some is called garden earth, which has been probably 
formed from animal and vegetable bodies, decaying and 
turning into this substance. This coat serves as a store- 
house, from whence animal and vegetable natures are 
renewed ; and thus are the blessings of life continued 


with unceasing circulation. This external covering sup- 
plies man with all the true riches he enjoys. He may- 
bring up gold and jewels from greater depths, but they 
are merely the toys of a capricious being, things upon 
which he has placed an imaginary value, and for which 
the unwise alone part with the more substantial blessings 
of life. 

The earth, says Plin'y> like a kind mother, receives 
us at our birth, and sustains us when born. It is this 
alone of all the elements around us, that is never found 
the enemy of m^an. The body of waters deluges him 
with rains, oppresses him with hail, and drowns him 
with inundations ; the air rushes in storms, prepares the 
tempests, or lights up the volcano ; but the earth, gen- 
tle and indulgent, ever subservient to the wants of man, 
spreads his walk with flowers, and his table with plenty ; 
returns with interest every good committed to her care ; 
and though she produces some poisons, she also furnish- 
es antidotes. 

If from this external surface we descend deeper, and 
view the earth cut perpendicularly downwards, the lay- 
ers will be found regularly disposed in their proper or- 
der, though they are different in different situations. 
These layers are sometimes very extensive, and are of- 
ten found to spread over a space of some leagues in cir- 
cumference. But it must not be supposed, that they are 
unifo-mly continued over the whole globe, without any 
interruption ; on the coi^trary, they are, at small inter- 
vals, interrupted by perpendicular fissures ; the earth 
resembling, in this respect, the muddy bottom of a pond,* 
from whence the water has been dried off by the sun, 
and thus opening in several chinks, which descend in 
a direction perpendicular to its surface. These fissures 
are many times found empty, but more frequently closed 
with adventitious substances, which the rain, or some 
accidental causes, have conveyed to fill their cavities. 
The openings are not less different than their contents, 
some not being above hajf an inch wide, some a foot, and 


some several hundred yards asunder. These last form 
those dreadful chasms, that are to be found in the Alps, 
at the edge of which the traveller stands^ dreading to 
look down into the unfathomable gulf below. 

But the chasms to be found in the Alps are nothing 
to what may be seen in the i^ndes. These amazing 
mountains, in comparison with which the former are 
but little hills, have their fissures in proportion to their 
magnitude. In some places they are a mile wide, and 
deep in proportion ; and there are others that run under 
ground, and resemble in extent a province. 

Of this kind also is the cavern called EUen Hoky la 
Derbyshire, in England which was sounded by a line 
two thousand eight hundred feet in length, without find- 
ing the bottom or meeting with water ; and yet the 
mouth at the top is not above forty yards over. This 
unmeasurable cavern runs perpendicularly downward ; 
and the sides of it seem to tally so plainly, as to show 
that they were once united. Those who visit the place 
generally procure stones to be thrown down, which, 
striking against the sides of the cavern, produce a sound 
that resembles distant thunder, dying away, as the stone 
goes deeper. 

Besides these fissures, we frequently find others that 
descend but a little way, and then spread themselves of- 
ten to a great extent below the surface. Many of these 
caverns may be the production of art and human indus- 
try, for retreats to protect the oppressed, or shelter the 
spoiler. The famous labyrinth of Candia is supposed 
to be the work of art. The stone quarry of Maes'tricht 
is evidently made by labour ; carts enter at its mouth, 
and load within and return, then discharge their freight 
into boats, that lie on the brink of the Maese. This 
quarry is so large, that forty thousand peopk may take 
shelter in it ; and it in general serves for this purpose^ 
when armies march that way, becoming then an impreg- 
nable retreat to the people, that live in the neighbourhood. 
Nothing can be more beautiful than this cavern, v/hen 
lighted up with torches; for there are thousands of 


square pillars' in large level walks, about twenty feet 
high, and all wrought with much neatness and regulari- 
ty.^ To add to its beauty, there are also in various parts 
of it little pools o-f water, for the convenience of men and 

The salt mines in Poland are still more spacious 
than these. Some catacombs in Egypt and Italy are 
said to be very extensive, but no part of the world has a 
greater number of artificial caverns than Spain, which 
were made to serve as retreats to the Christians from 
the fury of the Moors, when they conquered that coun- 

There is scarcely a country in the world without irs 
natural caverns, and many new ones are discovered eve- 
ry dnj. In England they have Oakley Hole and Pen- 
park Hole. The former lies on the south side of Men'- 
dip Hills, within a mile of the town of Wells To con- 
ceive a just idea of this, we must imagine a precipice of 
more than a hundred yards liigh on the side of a moun- 
tain, which shelves away a mile above. In this is an 
opening, into which you enter, going along upon a rocky, 
uneven pavement, sometimes ascending and sometimes 
descending. The roof in some places is fifty feet from 
the floor, and in others it is so low that a man must stdop 
to pass. From every part of the floor there are formed 
sparry concretions of various figures that have been 
likened to men, lions, &c. At the farthest part of this 
cavern rises a stream of water well stored with fish. It 
is large enough to turn a mill, and discharges itself near 
the entrance. 

But of all the subterranean caverns now known, the 
grotto of Antiparos is die most remarkable ; it is thus 
described by a person who actually visited it. ** Having 
walked about four miles, through ihz midst of beautiful 

J)lains and sloping woodlands, we at length came to a 
ittle hill, on the side of which yawned a most horrid cav- 
ern, that with its gloom at first struck us with terrour, 
and almost repressed curiosity. When we had recov- 
ered our surprise, we proceeded ; we found a sparry 


Ct)nci'elion, formed by the water dropping from the roof 
of the cave, and by degrees hardening into a figure that 
the natives had been accustomed to look at as a giant* 
As we proceeded, new wonders offered themselves ; the 
spars, formed into trees and shrubs, presented a kind of 
petrified grove ; some white, some green, and all re- 
ceding in due perspective. They struck us with the 
more amazement as we knew them to be mere produc- 
tions of nature, who, hitherto in solitude, had in her 
playful moments dressed the scene, as if for her amuse- 

**We then descended into a spacious amphitheatre, 
in which we lighted our flambeaux, and when the place 
was completely illuminated, never could the eye be pre- 
sented with a more glittering or a more magnificent 
scene. The roof all hung with solid icicles, transparent 
as glass, yet solid as marble. The eye could scarcely 
reach the lofty and noble ceiling ; the sides were regu- 
larly formed with spars and the whole presented the idea 
of a magnificent theatre, illuminated with an immense 
profusion of lights. The floor consisted of solid marble ; 
and in several places, magnificent columns, thrones., 
altars, and other objects appeared, as if nature had de- 
signed to mock the curiosities of art. Our voices, upon 
speaking or singing, were redoubled to an astonishing 
loudness ; and upon the firing of a gun, the noise and 
reverberations were almost deafening. In the midst or 
this grand amphitheatre arose a concretion about fifteen 
feet high, that in some measure resembled an altar, frona 
which, taking the hint, we caused mass to be celebrated 
there. The beautiful columns that &hot up round the al- 
tar appeared like candlesticks ; and many other natural 
objects represented the customary ornaments of this sa- 

On another account the grotto Del Cane, near Naples, 
deserves notice. It lies on the side of a hill, near which 
a peasant resides, who keeps a number of dogs for the 
purpose of shewing the experiment to the curious. 
Upon entering this place, which is a littk eave, the ob- 


server can see no visible marks of its pestilential vapour 5 
only, to within n foot of the bottom, the wall seems to be 
tinged with a colour resembline^ that, which is given by 
stagnant Avaters. When the dog, this philosophical 
martyr, as some have called him, is held above this mark, 
he docs not seem to feel the smallest inconvenience, 
but when his head is tlirust down lower, he for a moment 
struggles to get free ; but, in the space of four or five 
minutes, he appears to lose all sensation, and is taken 
out seemingly without life. But after being plunged in- 
to a neighbouring lake, he quickly recovers, and runs 
hc^mc without the smallest apparent injury. 


In those countries, which consist only of plains, the 
smallest elevations are apt to excite wonder. In Hol- 
land which is entirely fiat, a little ridge of hills is shown 
npar the sea side, which Boerhaave generally pointed out 
to his pupils, as mountains of ro small consideration. 
What would be the sensations of such an auditory, could 
they at once be presented with a view of the heights and 
precipices of the Andes and the Alps ! Even in Eng- 
land, they have no adequate idea of a mountainous pros- 
pect ; their hills are generally sloping from the plain, and 
clothed to the very top with verdure ; they can scarcely, 
therefore, lift their imaginations to those immense piles, 
whose tops peep up behind intervening clouds, sharp, 
and precipitate, and reach to heights, that human curi- 
osity has never been able to attain. 

Mountains are not without their uses. It has been 
thought, that the animal and vegetable part of the crea- 
Vion would perish for want of convenient moisture, were 
it not for their assistance. Their summhs are supposed 
to arrest the clouds and vapours, which float in the 
regions of the air ; their large inflections and channels 
are considered as so maoy conduits, prepared for the 
reception of those thick vapours and impetuous rains, 
wliich descend into them^ The huge caverns beneath 


are so many magazines of water for the peculiar ser- 
vice of man ; and those orifices, by wiiich the water is 
discharged upon the plain, are so situated as to cniich 
and render them fruitful, instead of returning through 
subterraneous channels to the sea, after the performance 
of a tedious and fruitless circulation. 

It is ceriain, that almost all our great rivers find their 
source among mountains ; and, in general, he more 
extensive the mountain, the greater the river. Thus the 
river Amazon, the greatest in the world, has its source 
among the Andes, which are the highest mountains oa 
the globe : the river Niger travels a long course of sev- 
eral hundred miles from the raouiAains of the Moon, the 
highest in Africa ; and the Dan'ube and the Hhine pro- 
ceed from the Alps, which are probably the highest 
mountains in Europe. 

The traveller, as he ascends a mountain, finds the 
grass become more mossy, and the weather more mod- 
erate. Higher up, the air is colder, and the earth more 
barren. In the midst of his dreary passage, he is often 
entertained with a little valley of surprising verdure, 
caused by the reflected heat of the sun. collected into a 
narrow spot on the surrounding heights. But it more 
frequently happens, that he sees only frightful precipi- 
ces beneath, and lakes of amazing depth, from whence 
rivers are formed, and whence springs derive their or- 
igin. Near the summit vegetation is scarcely carried 
on ; here and there a few plants of the" most har.iy kind 
appear. The air is intolerably told ; the ground wears 
an eternal covering of ice, and snow seems constantly 
accumulating. Upon emerging from ti^is scene, he as- 
cends into a purer and serener region, where vegetation 
has entirely ceased ; where the precipices, composed 
entirely of rocks, rise perpendicularly above him ; while 
he views beneath him all the combat of the elements ; 
clouds at his feet, and lightnings darting upward from 
their bosoms below. A thousand meteors, which are 
never seen on the plains, present them.selves; circular 
rainbows, mock suns, the shadow of the mountain pro- 


jected upon the body of the air ; and the traveller's owo 
image reflected, as in a looking glass, upon the opposite 
clouds. Such are, in general, the wonders that present 
themselves to a traveller in his journey either over the 
Alps or the Andes. 

To enumerate the most remarkable mountains, ac- 
cording to their size, we must begin with the Andes, of 
which the following is extracted from an excellent de- 
scription, given by Ulloa, who went thither by command 
©f the King of Spain. 

" After,'* says he, " having travelled upwards of three 
days through boggy roads, in which the mules at every 
5tep sunk up to their bodies, we began at length to per- 
ceive an alteration is the clim^tte; and having been long; 
accustomed to heat, we now began to feel it grow senai- 
J£)Iy colder. 

" At Tarigua'gua we often see instances of the ef- 
fects of two opposite temperatures, in two persons hap- 
pening to meet 5 one of them leaving the plains below, 
and the other descending from the mountain. The for- 
mer thinks the cold so severe, that he wraps himself up 
in all the garments he can procure ; while the latter 
finds the heat so great, that lie is scarcely able to bear 
any clothes whatever. The one thinks the water so cold, 
that he avoids being sprinkled by it ; the other is so de- 
lighted with its warmth, that he uses it as a bath. This 
difference only proceeds, from the change naturally felt 
at leaving a climate, to which one has been accustom- 
ed, and coming into another of an opposite temperature* 
" The ruggedness of the road is not easily described. 
In some parts the declivity is so great, that the mules 
san scarcely keep their fooling, and in others the accliv- 
ity is equally difficult. There are some places where 
the road is so steep, and yet so narrow, that the mules 
are obliged to slide down, without making the least use 
of their feet. On one side of the rider, in this situa- 
tion, rises an eminence of several hundred yards ; and 
^n the other, an abyss of equal depth ; so that if he in 

JifOUxXTAINS. 209 

tlie least check his mule, they must both unavoidably 

« After having travelled nine days in this manner, 
slowly winding along the side of the mountain, we be- 
gan to find the whole country covered with frost. At 
length, after a journey of fifteen days, we arrived at a 
plain, on the extremity of which stands the city of Qui- 
to, the capital of one of the most charming regions upon 
earth. Here, in the centre of the torrid zone, the heat 
as not only very tolerable, but in some places the cold 
also is painful. Here they enjoy all the temperature 
and advantages of perpetual spring ; their fields being 
always covered with verdure, and enamelled with flowers 
of the most lively colours. However, although this 
beautiful region be higher than any country in the world, 
and although it took so many days of painful journey, in 
the ascent, it is still overlooked by tremendous moun- 
tains ; their sides covered with snow, and yet flaming 
"with volcanoes at the top. These seem piled one upon 
the other, and rise to a most astonishing height. How- 
ever, at a determined point above the surface of the sea, 
congelation is found to take place in all the moun- 
tains. Those parts, which are not subject to a con- 
tinual frost, have growing upon them a sort of rush, very 
soft and flexible. Higher up, the earth is entirely bare 
of vegetation, and seems covered with eternal snow. 
The most remarkable mountains are the Cotopax'i. 
Chimbora'zo, and Pachin'cha. The first is more than 
three geographical miles above the surface of the sea : 
the rest are not much inferior. On the top of the b.itter 
I suffered particular hardships from the intenscness of 
the cold and the violence of the storms The sky around 
was, m general, involved in thick foi^s, which when they 
cleared away, and the clouds by their gravity moved near- 
er to the surface of the earth, appeared surrounding the 
foot of the m-ountain, at a vast distance below, like a sea, 
encompassing an island in the midst of it. When this: 
happened, the horrid noises of tempests were heard tvm; 


beneath, discharging themselves on Quito, and tne 
neighbouring country. I saw lightnings issue from the 
clouds, and heard the thunders roll far beneath me. All 
this time, while the tempest was raging below, the 
mountain top, where I was placed, enjoyed a delightful 
serenity 5 the wind was abated, the sky clear, and the 
pays of the sun moderated the severity of the cold. How- 
ever, this was of no long duration, for the wind returned 
with all its violence ; and my fears were increased by 
the dreadful concussions of the precipice, and the fall of 
enormous rocks, the only sound that was heard in this 
dreadful situation." 

If we compare the Alps with the Andes, we shall 
iind them but little more than half their height. The 
Alps are but about a mile and a half, whereas the Andes 
are more than three miles in perpendicular height from 
the surface of the sea. The highest mountains of 
Asia are Mount Tau'rus, Mount Cau'casus, the moun- 
tains of Japan and of Thibet' ; of these, none equals the 
Andes in height, except those of Thibet', which, accor- 
ding to modern travellers, greatly exceed them. In Af- 
rica, the mountains of the Moon, famous for giving 
source to the Niger and the Nile, are more celebrated 
than accurately known. Of the Peak of Teneriffe' we 
have no certain information. It was visited by a com- 
pany of English merchants, who travelled up to the 
top, when they observed its height, and the volcano 
on its very summit. They found it a heap of mountains, 
the highest of which rises over the rest like a sugar loaf, 
and gives a name to the whole mass. 

The difficulty and danger of ascending to the tops ot 
Bnountains, have been supposed to proceed from the thin- 
Dess of the air ; but the more probable reason is the rug- 
ged and precipitate ascent. In some places they appear 
like a wall of six or seven hundred feet high; in others, 
there project enormous rocks, that hang upon the brow 
of the steep, and every moment threaten destruction to 
the traveller below. 
In this mannisr, almost all the tops of the higliest 

RIVERS, 211 

mountains are bare and pointed, which proceeds proba- 
bly from their being; so continually assaulted by thunder 
and tempests. All the earthy substances, with which 
they might have been once covered, have for ages been 
washed away from their summits, and nothing is left le- 
maining but immense rocks, which no tempests have 
hitherto been able to destroy. 

Nevertheless, time is every day and every hour mak- 
ing depredations ; and huge fragments are seen tum- 
bling down the precipice, either loosened by frost, or 
struck by lightning. Nothing can exhibit a more ter- 
rible spectacle, than one of these enormous rocks, com- 
monly larger than a hotise, falling from it3 height, with 
a noise louder than thunder, and rolling down the side 
of the mountain. 

In the month of June, 1714, a part of a mountain in 
the district of Valais', in France, suddenly fell down be- 
tween two and three o'clock in the afternoon, the weath- 
er being calm and serene. It was of a conical figure, 
and destroyed fifty five cottages in the fall. Fifteen per- 
sons, together with about a hundred beasts, were also 
crushed beneath the ruins, which covered an extent of 
nine square miles. The dust it occasioned instantly 
overwhelmed all the neighbourhood in darkness. The 
heaps of rubbish were more than three hundred feet 
high ; they stopped the current of a river, that ran along 
the plain, which is now formed into several new and deep 
lakes. In the same manner, the entire town of Pleurs, 
in France, was buried beneath a rocky mountain, at the 
foot of which it was situated^ 


All rivers have their sources either in mountains or el- 
evated lakes; and it is in their descent from these, that 
they acquire that velocity, which maintains their future 
eurrent- At first the course of a river is generally rap- 
id ; but it is retarded in its journey, by the continual 
friction a^inst fhe banks, by the many obstacles it 

212 III VERS. 

meets to divert its stream, and by the surface of the earfii 
generally becoming more level, as it approaches the 

The largest rivers of Europe are, first, the Wol'ga, 
which is about 2000 miles in length, extending from 
Res'chow to As'tracan. 

The next in order is the Dan'ube; the course of vrhich 
is about 1400 miles, from the mountains of Switzerland 
to the Black Sea. The Donor Tan'ais is 1200 miiles 
from the source of that branch of it called the Sof 'na, to 
its mouth in the Eux'ine Sea. The Nfeper rises in 
Mus'covy, and runs a course of more than 1000 miles 
to empty itself into the Black Sea. The Dwi'na, which 
takes its rise in a province of the same name in Russia, 
runs a course of 900 miles, and falls into the White Sea, 
a little below Archan'gel. 

The largest rivers of Asia, are the Ho'ang Ho, in Chi- 
na, which is 2500 miles in length ; the Enissey of 
Tar'tary, about 2400 miles in length ; the Oby of 15C0 
miles, running from the lake of Kila into the Northern 
Sea. The Amour, in Eastern Tav'tary, is above 1700 
miles from its source to its entrance into the sea of 
Kamtschatka. The Kiam, in China, is about 1500 miles 
in length. The Ganges, one of the most noted rivers in 
the world, is about 1650 miles long. It rises in the 
mountains, which separate India from Tartary ; and 
running through the dominions of the Great Mogul, dis- 
charges itself by several mouths into the Bay of Bergal. 
It is not only esteemed by the Indians for the depth and 
pureness of its stream, but for a supposed sanctity, which 
they believe its waters possess. It is visited annually by 
several hundred thousand pilgrims, who pay their devo- 
tions to the river, as to a god : for savage slm.phcity is 
always known to mistake the blessings of the Deity for 
the Deity himself. 

Next to this may be reckoned the still more celebrat- 
ed river Euphra'tes. Nor must the Indus be forgotten. 

The largest rivers in Africa, arc the Senegal, whose 
course is said to be 3000 miles in length, and the cclc- 


biated Nile, >vWch frOm its source a'moiig tlie moun- 
tliins 01 the Moon, in Upper Ethio'pia, to the Mcditerra'- 
nean, is thought to extend as far. The annual over- 
flowings of this river arise from a very obvious cause, 
which affects ahnost all great rivers, that have their 
source near the equator. The rainy season, which is 
periodical in those climates, floods the rivers ; and as 
this always happens in our summer, so the Nile is at 
that time overflowed. From these inundations the in* 
habitants of Egypt derive plenty and happiness. 

But of all parts of the world, America, as it exhibits 
the most lofty mountains, so it suppliiss the largest rivers. 
The principal of these is the great river Am'azon, which, 
according to some, pei forms a course of nearly 4000 
miles. The breadth and depth of this river are answer- 
able to its vast length, and whei^ its width is most con- 
tracted, its depth is augmented in proportion. So great 
is the body of its waters, that other large rivers are lost 
in its bosom. It proceeds after their juaction, with its 
usual appearance, without any visible change in its 
breadth or rapidity, and remains great without estenta- 
tion. In some places it displays its whole magnificence, 
dividing into several branches, encompassing a multi- 
tude of islands ; and at length discharging itself into the 
ocean, by a channel, which is an hundred and fifty mile? 


The Nile has its cataracts. The Veli'no in Italy lias 
one more than a hundred and fifty feet perpendicular. 
Near the city of Got'tenburg in Sweden, a river rushes 
down from a prodigious precipice into a deep pit, with a 
terrible noise, and such dreadful force tliat those trees, 
designed for the masts of ships, which are floated down 
the river, are usually thrown over endwise in their fall, 
and often shattered to pieces, by falling sideways, and be- 
ing dashed against the surface of the water in the pit ; if 
they fall endwise, they dive so far below the stirface, as 


to disappear for a quarter of aft hour ot jpore. The pit^ 
into which they are thus plun^d, has been sounded wiih 
a line of several thousand yards, but no bottom has hith- 
erto been found. 

Of all the cat'aracts in the world, that of Nia'gara in 
Canada is the greatest and most astonishing. This 
amazing fall of water is made by the river Nia'gara, in 
its passage from lake E'rie into lake Onta'rio. The out- 
let from this latter forms the Saint Law'rence, one of 
the largest rivers in the world, and the whole of its 
waters are here poured down a fall of an hundred 
and fifty feet perpendicular. It is not easy to bring the 
imagination to correspond with the greatness of the 
scene ; a river extremely deep and rapid, and that serves 
to drain the waters of almost all North America into the 
Atlantic ocean, is here poured precipitately down a 
ledge of rocks, that rise, like a walK across the whole 
bed of the stream. The width of th€ river, a little above, 
is nearly three quarters of a mile ; and the rocks, where 
it grows narrower, are 400 yards over. Their direc- 
tion is not straight across, but hollowing inwards like 
a horse shoe ; so that the cataract, which bends to the 
shape of the obstacle, rounding inwards, presents a kind 
of theatre the most tremendous in nature. Just in the 
middle of this circular wall of waters, a little island, that 
has braved the fury of the current, presents one of its 
points, and divides the stream at top into two, but it 
unites again, long before it reaches the bottom. The 
noise of the fall is heard at several leagues distance ; and 
the fury of the waters at the bottom of their fall is incon- 
ceivable. The dashing produces a mist that rises to the 
very clouds, and that produces a most beautiful rainbcw 
when the sun shines. It may be easily conceived, that 
such a cataract wholly destroys the navigation of the 

Thus to whatever quarter of the globe we turn, say 
Goldsmith, we shall find new reasons to be satisfied with 
that part, in which we ourselves reside. Our rivers fur- 
nish all the plenty of the African stream, without its in* 

OCEANS. 215 

undations ; they have all the coolness of the i^lar rivu- 
l<?t with a more constant supply^ they want the terrible 
magnificence of huge cataracts, and extensive lakes, but 
they are more navigable^ and more transparent ; though 
less deep and rapid, than the rivers of the torrid zone ; 
they are more manageable, and only wait the will of man 
to take their direction. The rivers of the torrid zone, 
like the monarchs of the country, rule with despotic ty- 
ranny, profuse in their bounties, and ungovernable in 
their rage. The rivers of Britain, like its kings, are the 
friends, not the oppressors of the people ; bounded by 
known limits, abridp;ed in the power of doing ill, and oh- 
ly at liberty to distribute happiness and plenty. 


If we look upon a map of the world, we shall find that 
the waters occupy considerable more space, than the land* 
Although the ocean is but one extensive sheet of water, 
t:ontinued over every part of the globe without interrup- 
tion, yet geographers have distinguished it by different 
names, as the Atlantic, the Northern, Southern, Pacif*- 
ic, and Indian oceans. 

In this vast receptacle, almost all the rivers of the 
earth ultimately terminate ; nor do such great supplies 
seem to increase its stores. It is neither apparently 
swollen by their tribute, nor diminished by their failure ; 
it continues the same. What, indeed, is the quantity of 
waters of all the rivers and lakes in the world, compared 
to that contained in this great receptacle ! If we should 
offer to make a rude estimate, we shall find, that all the 
rivers in the world, flowing into the bed of the sea, with 
a^ continuance of their present stores, would take up at 
least 800 years to fill it to its present height. 

In the temperate climates the sea is never frozen* but 
the polar regions are embarrassed with mountains of ice 
that render them impassable ; the tiemendous floats of 
diftcrent magnitudes, sometimes rising more tl^an a 
thousand feet above the surface of the v/ater ; sometimes 
diffused into plains of -some hundred miles in extent. 

a^¥6 OCEANS. 

They are usually divided by fissures ; one piece follow- 
ing anothei' so close, that a person may step from one 
to the other. Sometimes mountains are seen rising 
amidst these plains, and presenting the appearance of a 
variegated landscape, with hills and rallies, houses, 
churches, and towers. 

It is said that there are two sorts of ice floating in 
these scds ; the flat ice, and the mountain ice. One is 
formed of sea water, the other of fresh. The flat, or 
driving ice, is entu'ely composed of sea water ; which, 
upon dissolution, is found to be salt ; and is readily dis- 
tinguished from the other by its whiteness and want of 
transparency. This ice is much more terrible to mari- 
ners, than that which rises up in lumps. A ship can a- 
void one, as it is seen at a distance ; but it often gets 
among the other, which sometimes closing, crushes it to 

The mountain ice is often incorporated with earthy 
stones, and brushwood, washed from the shore. On 
these also are sometimes found, not only earth, but nests 
with bird's eggs, at several hundred miles from land. 
These mountains are usually seen in the spring, and 
after a violent storm, driving out to sea, where they at 
first terrify the mariner, and are soon after dashed to 
pieces by the continual washing of the waves, or driven 
into the warmer regions of the south to be melted away. 
In the ocean there are many dangerous whirlpools. 
That called tlie Maei-stroom, upon the coast of Norway, 
is considered as the most dreadful and voracious in the 
world. A minute description of the internal parts is not 
to be expected, since none, who were there, ever return- 
ed to bring back information. The body of the waters 
that form this whirlpool, is extended in a circle about 
thirteen miles in circumference. In the midst of this 
stands a rock, against which the tide in its ebb is dashed 
with inconceivable fury. At this time it constantly swal- 
lows up every thing, that comes within the spliere of its 
violence ; trees, timber, and shipping. No skill in the 
mariner, nor strength of rowing, can woik an escape 5 
the sailor at the helm finds the »hip at firs-t go in a cur^ 

WINDS. 217 

rent opposite to his intentions ; his vessePs motion 
though slow in the beginning, becomes every moment 
more rapid ; it goes round in circles still narrower and 
narrower, till at last it is dashed against the rocks, and 
instantly disappears. Nor is it seen again for six hours ; 
till, the tide flowing, it is thrown forth with the same vio- 
lence, with which it was drawn in. The noise of this 
dreadful vortex still further contribules to increase its 
terror, which, with the dashing of the waters, and the 
dreadful valley, caused by their circulation, makes one 
of the mobt tremendous objects in nature, 


If we ascend above the surface of the earth, we find 
a thin, invisible fluid, v/hich every where surrounds it, 
and which we cannot perceive but by its motion, or by 
our own through it ; yet it is so thick and heavy as to bear 
up the winged tribes of the earth, and allow them to 
sport above the reach of man. 

This fluid is called the air or atmosphere, which, put 
in motion, is wind. It is what we breathe, and is the 
support of both animal and vegetable life, and also of fire. 
It is the habitation of storms, lightning, and thunder, and 
the furious hurricane, which so often desolates many 
parts of the earth. 

Wind is supposed to be caused by heat and electricU 
ty^ which, as they prevail in any part of the earth, cause 
the air to rush towards them. 

The velocity of wind varies from the slowest motion 
to that of fifty or sixty miles an hour. 

The winds are commonly divided into three classes ; 
general^ fieriodicaU and variable winds. 

Genrral or fiermanent winds blow always nearly in 
the same direction. In the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
under the equator, and to the distance of 28 degrees on 
each side of it, the winds are almost always from the east, 
following the course of the sun. These, by navigators, 
are called trade winds, 


Periodical winds, also called monsoons', are those 
which blow six months in one direction, then change, and 
blow six months in the opposite direction. From April 
to September, these winds blow from the southward over 
the whole length of the Indian ocean between the 28th 
degrees of north and south latitude, and from October 
to March ihey blow from the northward. 

For some days before and after they change, there 
are calms, variable winds, and tremendous storms, with 
thunder and lightning. 

There are, in many countries, especially between the 
tropics, what are called land and sea breezes* They 
change daily, and blow during the morning and forenoon 
from the land to the water ; and during the afternoon 
and evening, from the water to the land. 

The -variable winds are those, which blow in every 
possible direction, and whose irregularity and change 
are not the subject of calculation or prediction. 

There are several other winds of a peculiar character, 
which are singular, and worthy attention. 

The Herrnatftan is a very singular wind, which blows 
periodically from the interior of Africa towards the At- 
lantic ocean. It continues sometimes only a day or two, 
at other times two or three weeks. It is attended by a 
thick fog or haze, which obscures the sun, except a short 
time in the middle of the day, when he appears of so 
xnild and faint a red, that the eye can view him without 
pain. This fog produces a whitish appearance on the 
leaves of trees and the skins of the negroes. The wind 
is so extremely dry, that vegetables are withered by it, 
and the grass becomes like hay. The human body does 
not escape its parching effects. The eyes, Ups, palate, 
&c. are rendered dry and uneasy ; and though the air is 
cooL it frequently causes the outside of the skin to crack 
and peel off from the hands and face, and sometimes from 
the whole body. This wind however is conducive to 
general health ; it stops the progress of many diseases, 
and effectually cures others. 

The wind called Siroc^co or Sirocc^ in Italy, and Ze- 


t^ant' in France, resembles the Harmat'ta7ii\\ some of its 
effects, but it is extremely hot and unhealthy. During 
its continuance all nature appears to languish ; vegeta- 
tion withers and dies ; the beasts of the field droop, and 
the animal spirits are too much exhausted to admit of 
bodily exertion. 

The wind, called Samiely which sometimes blows in 
the deserts of Bag'dad^ is of all others most dreadful ia 
its effects. It produces almost instantaneous death, and 
so mortifies the limbs of the body, that they easily come 
asunder. Camels seem to have almost an instinctive 
notice of its approach, and are so well aware of it, that 
they make an unusual noise, and to avoid breathing it 
cover their noses in the sand. Travellers, to escape its 
effects, throw themselves close to the ground, and wait 
till it has passed by, which is commonly in a few min- 

In the sandy deserts of Africa, there is a singular 
wind, known by the name of Simoom^ It in some meas- 
ure resembles the Sirocc and SamieU It is preceded by 
extreme redness in the air, and other unusual appear- 
ances. There are in these deserts remarkable whirl- 
winds, which raise the dust in such a manner, that they 
appear like vast moving pillars of sand, whose tops reach 
filmcst to the clouds. Several of them sometimes ap- 
pear in company at no great distance from each other* 
At the rising of the sun, when his rays pass through 
them, they appear like pillars of fire, and strike the spec- 
tator with wonder and terror. 


Ineluding a brief View of the Universe. 

Having thus gone through a particular description 
of the earth, let us now pause for a moment, to contem- 
plate the great picture before us. The universe may 
be considered as the palace, in which the Deity resides, 
and this earth as one of its apartments. Those great 


outlines of nature, to which art cannot reach, and where 
our greatest efforts must have been ineffectual, God 
himself has finished with amazing grandeur and beauty. 
Our beneficent Father has considered these parts of na- 
ture as peculiarly his ov/n ; as parts which no creature 
could have skill or strength to amend ; and therefore 
made them incapable of alteration, or of more perfect 
regularity. The heavens and the firmament shew the 
wisdom and the glory of the Workman. Astronomers, 
who are best skilled in the symmetry of systems, can 
find nothing there, that they can alter for the better. 
God made these perfect, because no subordinate being 
could correct their defects. 

When, therefore, we survey nature on this side, noth- 
ing can be more splendid, more correct, or amazing. 
We then behold a Deity residing in the midst of an uni- 
verse, infinitely extended every way, animating all and 
cheering the vacuity with his presence ! We behold 
an immense and shapeless mass of matter formed into 
worlds by his power, and dispersed at intervals, to which 
even the imagination cannot travel. In this great thea- 
tre of his glory, a thousand suns, like our own, animate 
their respective systems, appearing and vanishing at the 
divine command. We behold our own bright luminary 
fixed in the centre of its system, v/heeiing its planets in 
times, proportioned to their distances, and at once dis- 
pensing light, heat, and motion. The earth also is seen 
with its twofold motion, producing, by the one, the 
change of seasons, and by the other, the grateful vicissi- 
tudes of day and night. With what silent magnificence 
i% all this peiforiTied ! With what seemmg ease! The 
works of art are exerted with an interrupted force ; and 
their noisy progress discovers the obstructions they re- 
ceive ; but the earth, with a silent, steady rotation, suc- 
cessively presents every part of its bosom to the sun ; 
at once imbibing nourishment and light from that parent 
of vegetation and felicity. 

But not only provisions of heat and light are thus 
supplied, but its whole surface is covered with a trans- 


parent atmosphere, that runs with its motion, and guards 
it from external injury. The rays of the sun are thus 
broken into a genial warmth ; and while the surface is 
assisted, a gentle heat is produced in the bowels of the 
earth, which contributes to cover it with verdure. Wa- 
ters also are supplied in healthful abundance, to support 
life and assist vegetation. Mountains arise to diversify 
the prospect, and give a current to the stream. Seas 
extend from one continent to the other, replenished with 
animals, that may be turned to human support, and also 
serving to enrich the earth with a sufficiency of vapour. 
Breezes fly along the surface of the fields, to promote 
health and vegetation. The coolness of the evening in- 
vites to rest ; and the freshness of the morning invigo- 
rates for labour. 

Such are the delights of the habitation, that has been 
assigned to man ; without any of these, he must have 
been wretched ; and none of these could his own indus- 
try have supplied. But while many of his wants are thus 
kindly furnished on the one hand, there are numberless 
inconveniences to excite his industry on the other. This 
habitation, though provided with all the conveniences of 
air, pasturage, and water, is but a desert place, without 
human cultivation. The lowest animal finds more con- 
veniences in the wilds of nature, than he who boasts him- 
gelf their lord. The whirlwind, the inundation, and all 
the asperities of the air, are peculiarly terrible to man, 
who knows their consequences, and at a distance dreads 
their approach. The earth itself, where human art has 
not pervaded, puts on a frightful, gloomy appearance. 
The forests are dark and tangled, the meadows over- 
grown with rank weeds, and the brooks stray without a 
determined channel. Nature, that has been kind to eve- 
ry lower order of beings, has been quite negligent to- 
wards man ; to the savage, uncontriving man, the earth 
is an abode of desolation, where his shelter is insuffi- 
cient, and his food precarious. 
A world, thus furnished with advantages on one side 


and inconveniences on the other, is the proper abode of 
reason, and the fittest to exercise the industry of a free 
and thinking creature. These evils, which art can rem- 
edy, and prescience guard against, are a proper call for 
the exeitJon of his faculties, and they tend still more to 
assimilate him to his Creator. God beholds with pleas- 
urethat being which he has made, converting the wretch- 
edness of his natural situation into a theatre of triumph ; 
bringing all the headlong tribes of nature into subjec- 
tion to his will, and producing that order and uniformity 
upon earth, of which his own heavenly fabric is so bright 
an example. 

To convey some idea of the immensity of creation, 
and the omnipotence of its Author, w^e subjoin the fol- 


When the shades of night have spread their veil over 
the plains, the firmament manifests to our view its gran- 
deur and its riches. The sparkling points, with which it 
is studded, are so many suns suspended by the Almighty 
in the immensity of space, to worlds which roll around 

The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firma- 
ment showeth his handy work. The royal poet, who 
expressed himself with such loftiness of sentiment, was 
not aware, that the stars he contemplated were in reality 
suns. He anticipated these times, and first sang that 
majestic hymn, which future and more enlightened ages 
were to chant forth in p^'aise to the great Creator. 

The assemblage of these vast bodies is divided into 
different systems, the number of which probably surpass- 
es the grj\ins of sand, which the sea casts on its shores. 
Each system has for its centre a star or sun, which 
shines by its native, inherent light ; and round which 
several orders of opaque globes revolve, reflecting, with 
more or less brilliancy, the light they borrow from it, 
and which renders them visible. 


What an august, what an amazing conception does 
this give of the works of the Creator- ; thousands of thou- 
sands of suns, multiplied without end, and ranged all 
around us, at immense distances from each other, at- 
tended by ten thousand times ten thousand worlds, all in 
rapid motion ; yet calm, regular, and harmonious, invari- 
ably keeping the paths prescribed them ; and these 
worlds, doubtless, peopled with myriads of beings, form- 
ed for endless progression in perfection and fertility I 

From what we know of our own system, it may be rea- 
sonably concluded, that all the rest are «vith equal wis- 
dom contrived, situated, and provided with accommoda- 
tions for rational inhabitants. Let us, therefore, take a 
survey of the system to which we belong, the only one 
accessible to us ; and from thence we shall be the better 
enabled to judge of the nature and end of the other sys- 
tems of the universe. 

Those globes which we perceive, as wandering among 
the heavenly host, are the planets ; the primary or prin- 
cipal ones have the sun for the common centre of their 
periodical revolution ; while the others, which are called 
secondaries, or moons, move round their primaries, ac- 
companying them as satellites in their annual revolu- 

The earth has one sat'ellite, Jupiter four, Saturn seven, 
and the Geor'gium Si'dus, or Herschel, six. Saturn is 
also encompassed by a luminous and beautiful broad ring. 

We know that our solir system consists of twenty 
nine planetary bodies ; we are not certain, but there may 
be more. Their number has been considerably aug- 
mented since the invention of telescopes ; more perfect 
instruments, and more accurate observers, may further 
increase their number. The discovery of the Geor'gium 
Si'dus, or the Herschel and his sat'ellites, and the still 
more recent discoveries of the small planets, Ce'res^ 
PalUasy Ju'no^ and Ves^ta^ called jis'teroids^ may be 
considered a happy presage of future success. 

Modern astronomy has n^t only enriched our heavens 


wth new planets, but it has also enlarged the boundaries 
of the solar system. The comets, which f on k their fal- 
lacious appearance, their fiery trains, theii beard, the di- 
versity of their directions, their sudden appearance and 
disappearance, have been considered as meteors, lighted 
up in the air by an irritated power, are found to be a spe- 
cies of planetary bodies, whose long routes are now cal- 
culated by astronomers. They also foretel their distant 
return, determine their place, and account for their ir- 
regularities. Many of these bodies at present acknowl- 
edge the empire of our sun, though the orbit i they trace 
round him are so extensive, that many ages are neces- 
sary for the contemplatioR of a revolution. 

In a word, it is from modern astronomy, that we learn 
that the stars arc innumerable, and that the constellations, 
in which the ancients reckon but a few, are now known 
to contain thousands. The heavens of Tha'les and Hip- 
par'chus were very poor, when compared to those of la- 
ter astronomers, of Tycho Brahe, Flamstead, de la Gall- 
ic, and Herschel. The diameter of the great orbit, 
which our earth describes, is more than 190 millions of 
miles ; yet this vast extent vanishes into nothing, and be- 
comes a mere point, when the astronomer wishes to use 
it as a measure, to ascertain the distance of the fixed 

How great then is the real bulk of these luminaries, 
•which are perceptible by us at such an enormous dis- 
tance I The sun is a million of times greater than the 
earth, and 539 times greater than all the planets taken 
together. If the stars are suns, as we have every rea- 
son to suppose, they must be either equal to or exceed 
it in size. 

Proud and ignorant mortal I lift up now thine eyes to 
heaven, and answer me, if one of those luminaries, which 
adorn the starry heaven, should be taken away, would 
the nights become darker ? Say not then, that the stars 
are made for thee ; that it is for thee, that the firma- 
ment glitters with effulgent brightness. Feeble mortal I 
thou wert not the sole object of the liberal bounties of 


the Creator, when he appointed Sir'ius, and encompass- 
ed it with worlds. 

Whilst the planets perform their periodical revolu- 
tions round the sun, by which the course of their year is 
regulated, they turn round their axes ; a motion by which 
they obtain the alternate succession of day and night. 

But by what means are these vast bodies suspended 
in the immensity of space ? What secret power retains 
them in their orbits, and enables them to circulate with 
so much regularity and harmony? Giavity, or attrac- 
tion, is the powerful agent, the universal principle of this 
equilibrium, and of these motions. It penetrates inti- 
mately all bodies. By this pov/er they tend towards each 
other in a proportion relative to their quantities of mat- 
ter and distance from each other. Thus the planets 
tend towards the sun, the centre of the system, into 
which they would soon have been precipitated, if the 
Creator, when he formed them, had not impressed upon 
them a projectile or centrifugal force, which continually 
keeps them at a proper distan e from it 

The planets, by obeying at the same instant each of 
these m.otions, are made to describe a curve. This curve 
is an oval of different eccentricity, according to the com- 
bination of the active powers. 

Thus the ^atne force, which determines the fall of a 
stone, is the ruling principle of the heavenly motions. 
Wonderful mechanism ! whose simplicity and energy 
give us unceasing tokens of the profound wisdom of its 

Our earth or globe, which seems so vast in the eyes 
of the emmets, who inhabit it, and whose diameter is 
above 8000 miles, is yet nearly a thousand times smaller 
than Jupiter, who appears to the naked eye as little more 
than a shining atom, 

A rare transparent and el istic substance surrounds 
the earth to a certain height. This subtance is the 
air or atmosphere, the habitation of the windi, an im- 
mense reservoir of vapours, which, when condensed Id 


to clouds, either embellish our sky by the variety of theiv 
figures, and the richness of their colouring, or astonish 
us by the rolling thunder or flashes of lightning, that es- 
cape from them ; sometimes they melt away ; at oth- 
ers, are condensed into rain or hail, supplying the defi- 
ciencies ^of the earth with the superfluity of heaven. 

The moon, the nearest of all the planets to the earth, 
is likewise that, of which we have the most knowledge. 
Its globe always presents to us the same face, because 
it turns round upon its axis precisely in the same space 
of time, that it revolves round the earth. 

It has its fi/ia'ses, or gradual and periodical increase 
and decrease of light, according to its position in respect 
to the sun, which enlightens it, and the earth, on which 
it reflects the light, that it has received. 

The face of the moon is divided into luminous and 
obscure parts. The former seems analogous to land, 
and the latter to resemble our seas. 

In the luminous spots, there have been observed some 
parts, which are brighter than the rest; these project a 
shadow, whose length has been measured, and their 
track ascertained. These parts are mountains, much 
higher than ours, in proportion to the size of the moon, 
whose tops may be seen gilded by the rays of the sun, 
at the quadratures of the moon, and the light gradually 
descending to their feet, till they appear entirely bright. 
Some of these mountains stand by themselves, while in 
other places there are long chains of them. 

Mr. Herschel, with his telescope, discovered several 
luminous spots in the moon, which for several days reg- 
ularly increased in splendour, and the» gradually disap- 
peared. They were in his opinion burning mountains. 

Venus has, like the moon, her phases or changes of 
increase and decrease, her spots and mountains The 
telescope discovers to us also spots in Mars and Jupiter; 
those in Jupiter form belts ; considerable changes have 
been seen among these, as if of the ocean's overflowing 
the land, and again leaving it dry by its retreat. 

Mercury, Saturn, and the Geor'gium Si'dus, are com- 


paratively but little kno^vn ; the first, because he is too 
near the sun ; the two last, because they are so remote 
from it. 

Lastly, the sun himself has spots, which seem to move 
with regularity, and whose size equals, and very often 
exceeds our globe itself. 

Every thing in the universe is systematical, all is com- 
bination, affinity, and connexion. 

From the relations, which exist between all parts of 
the world, and by which they conspire to one general 
end, results the harmony of the world. 

The relations, which unite ail the worlds to one anoth- 
er, constitute the harmony of the universe. 

The beauty of the world is founded in the harmonious 
diversity of the beings, that compose it ; in the number, 
the extent, and the quality of their effects, and in the 
sum of happiness, which it is capable of affording. 

2Ei-^g £= 6 ^ ^ <^ ^ -^ o 

^ S 

^■^^ a^^®K)*ocO^^^^^^" >^ 

, .^'^^l* ^ 

c^ -^ 00 1 ^g i- 

i-o'^Ko rf». "b o »- "^ "^ to o^ to to ;i:J^ 3 ^2. 


"boooo o 'b^coobo ?g"B^ ^S* 

ooooo o ooccoo £"«» ^aa 

OOOOO O O ooooo 3CC^ ^00 

obbbb b occbbb ^§g S^ 

oocoz^ o o ooooo :?--S*>^k*j 

o c o o o ^o o o oo_o_o y P w § CI 

i £• 

CO o^»-o»i^t^ o^'C^i* 

— , 




































?- ^9^ a 


*^03 ^ »^ oxbop S&.^a 

CO *^ ^ 

ocij!'' ,- o^ooio ►-. H§^ 

■M~4G3 -vc OOo^tOOOQ^ SK'.IS 

C0CAO3 O O^Crt,fs.->|» CrqB ^ 

->l O lO r^ ,-j O «r^ 

00'— "f*- Q^ i'^SsS^ 


•-^ I— « 09 ^~ *" >^ 

o — o ot lo o 03 ? 

K^- ^ 


0>tO OtOOOi 00-,^ S* 

OO «£3CXO» lO-SiB ^ 

o 2 ^o 

" ^ o o o * "^ ^" 

*^ ^ 

-.Q C 

cn^ooooi^O O ->i^*0O03O o^ 

to ot ot ifi.onr^ i;^ GO ^ '^^w o 

000>0> O OOOoOOtO 'X"3 r^ 3 

O ua 


Prefatory to the use of the Globes. 

A right or straight line is the shorU 
est distance between two point's. 


A curve line is continually 
changing its direction. 

Parallel lines are always equal- 
ly distant from each other. 

Oblique lines change their dis- 
tance, so as on one end to ap- 
proach, and on the other to re- 
cede from each other* 


X fierfiendicular line Stands on 
aTiother, or on a surface^ so as not 
to incline on either side. 





A tangent is aline, that touch- 
es a circle, or part of a circle, 
without cutting it when produc- 

An angle is the opening of 
two lines, having different direc- 
tions, and meeting in a point. 

A right angle is that, which is 
made by a line perpendicular to 

An oblique angle is one, that 
is either greater or less than a 
right angle. If greater it is an 
obtuse angief if less it is an acute 

A circle is a figure bounded 
l>y a curve line, called the cir^ 
cumjerence^vrhich is every where 
equally distant from the centre. 
But a circle more frequently 
denotes the circumference itself. 

Every circle, whether a great or less circle, is, for 
the purpose of measuring distances between places on 
flie earth, and bodies m tiie heavens^ divided into 360 



equal parts, called degrees; each degree is subdivided 
into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. 

These divisions are marked by the following charac- 
ters, placed over the right hand of the last of each; a 
small ° denotes degrees, ' minutes, and " seconds. Thus 
24° 15' 35'', reads 24 degrees, iS minutes, 35 seconds. 

The filane of a circle is the space, that lies within the 
circumference, and exactly even or level with it. This 
may be illustrated by drawing a silk handkerchief over 
a wire circle, and it will represent the plane. 

The diameter of a circle is a 
straight line drawn through the 
centre from one side of the cir- 
(^umference to the other. 


A semidiameter^ or radius^ is / 

half of the diameter, or a straight [ 

line drawn from the centre to the 


A semicircle h half a circle. 


A quadrant is a quarter of a J — ■ 
circle. \ 

An arc of a circle is any part / 
of a circle, either less or more f 
than a quadrant. \ 

All angles are nd^asured by arcs of circles, or by the 
number of degrees they contain. This may easily be 
understood by drawing several angles, so as to unite in 
the centre of a circle. It will then appear, that a right '^ 
angle is always equal to a quadrant^ or 90^, and that ev- 
ery smaller angle must contain a smaller arc> or less 
portion of the circumference, and of course a less num- 
ber of degrees. 

The axis of a circle is an imaginary right line pass 
ing through its centre perpendicularly to its plane. 

TliQ poles of a circle are the extremities of its axis. 


An arti/icial globe is a round body, whose surface is 
every where equally distant from its centre. Half a 
globe is called a hemisphere. 

There are tv/o kinds of globes, the terrestrial and 
'he celestial. 


The terrestrial globe shows an exact delineatioii or 
picture of all parts of the sea and land, m their just pro- 
portion and situation as they are in nature. 

The celestial globe shows an exact delineation ©r pic- 
ture of all the visible stars in the heavens, their relarion, 
distances, and magnitudes, and the images or figures of 
the constellations, into which these stars are arranged* 

Each globe consists of several parts. 

The axis ot the globe, or earth, is an imaginary line^ 
passing through its centre from north to south, around 
which it performs its diurnal or daily revolution, in 24 
hours from west by south to east, which causes the heav- 
enly bodies to afifiear to move round the earthy in the 
same length of time from east to west. 

The fioles of the earth are the extremities of its ax- 
is, terminating at the earth*s surface. One is the nprth 
fiole^ the other the south pole. 

The axis of the earth extended to the heavens, is the 
axis of the heavens, and the extremities of it are the 
poles of the heavens. 

Artificial globes are surrounded by several circles, of 
which there are two kinds, great circles and less circles. 

Great circles divide the globe into two equal parts ; 
these are the equator or equinoctial,^ the horizon^ the mc" 
ridiana, the ecli/aic, and the two colures. 

Less circles divide the globe into two unequal part?. 
Tliey are the two trofilcs^ and the two polar circles. 

The equator is an imaginary great circle, passing 
round the centre of the globe from east to west, and di- 
viding it into northern and southern hemispheres. 

The equator is divided into two equal parts, of ^ 80^ 
each, by the principal meridian, which on our globes is 
generally the meridian of London. 

The horizon is an imaginary great circle, encom- 
passing the globe round the middle, and dividing it into 
upper and lower hemispheres. 

The horizon is divided into four equal parts of 90^ 
each, by the four cardinal points^ east^ tvest^ north^ and 



A line passing perpendicularly through the centre of 
the horizon is called its axisj the extremities of which 
are the fioles of the horizon. 

The upper pole of the horizon, or the point exactly 
over head, is called the zenith; and the lower pole, 
which is opposite, and under our feot, is called the na- 

The horizon is represented on the globe by a broad 
wooden circle, in which the globe stands or turns. The 
upper surface of the horizon is divided by circles into 
three principal parts ; the inner, expressing the 32 ppints 
of the mariner's compass ; the middle one shows the i2 
signs of the zodiac^ divided into 30 degrees each ; and 
the outer part shows the months in the year, divided in- 
to days, and their correspondence with the signs. 

There are two horizons ; the real and rational horizon, 
which encompasses the globe in the middle, and divides 
it into upper and lower hemispheres ; and the sensible 
horizon^ which is an imaginary great circle, touching the 
surface of the earth, and dividing the visible part of the 
heavens from the invisible. This is the circle, which 
From an eminence we &ee around us, where the heavens 
and tli€ earth appear to meet. 

There are drawn on the artificial globe 12 meridians, 
which divide it into 2* equal parts, each containing 15*^, 
and oeing so much of the earth's surface, as revolves in 
one hour ; so that those, who live as far east and we^t 
of each other, as from one of these meridian lines to 
another, have a variation of one hour in time. 

The brass circle which represents the firinci/ial me- 
ridiim on the artificial globe, divides it into eastern and 
itjesterri hemisfiheres. It is graduated or divided into four 
equal parts of 90° each, two numbered from the equator 
to the poles, and two from the poles to the equator. 

The eclifitic is an imaginary great circle in the heav- 
ens, in the plane of which the earth performs her annual 
revolution round the sun. 

The eclifitic is drawn on the artificial globe obliquely 
to the equator, and crosses it in opposite points, so as t^ 


make angles of 23« 28'. It is divided into 12 equal 
parts called signs ^ and at the beginning of each is placed 
the character, denoting ihe sign. The signs aro divid- 
ed into thirty degrees each. 

This circle is called the ecliptic, because all the 
eclipses of the sun and moon necessarily happen, when 
the moon is either in, or near it. 

The zodiac is a space in the heavens 1 6° broad, 8© 
on each side of the ecliptic, and contains those 12 con- 
stellations or clusters of stars, which are called the 12 

The divisions of the zodiac and the ecliptic are the 

The names and characters of the 12 signs, and the 
time of the sun's entering them, are as follows. 

1. Aries ^ the Ram j March 20th. 

2. Taurus 8 the Bull ; April 20th. 
^J S.Gemini n the Twins; May 21st. 

'C/3 ] 

S / 4. Cancer 95 the Crab ; June 21st. 




5. Leo St the Lion ; July 23d. 

6. Virgo 7\ji the Virgin ; Aug, 23d. 

7. Libra :& the Scales ; Sept. 23d. 


g ^ 8, Scorpio ITL the Scorpion ; Oct. ^^ka 

p I 9. Sagittarius S the Archer ; Nov. 22d 

<1 10. Capricomus V3 the Goat ; Dec. 22d. 

5 > 11. Aquarius ^cy the Waterman 5 Jan. 20th. 
? J 12. Pisces X the Fishes ; Feb. 19th. 

These si,^ns^ the six first of which are called north* 
erny and the six labt southern signs^ refer to constellations 
or clusters of stars, among which the sun in his annual 
course seems to pass. 

The two colures are two meridians, passing, one 
through the equatorial fioints^ which are in the first de- 
grees of Aries and Libra, called the egwnoctial colure ; 
the other passing through the solstitial points^ which are 


Jn the first degrees of Capricorn and Canccfi and there- 
fore called the solstitial colure. 

The two colures are drawn only on the celestial 

The two trofiics are less circles, drawn parallel to 
the equator at the distance of 23° 28' on each side of it. 
The northern^ from passing thr6ugh the beginning of 
Cancer, is called the trojiic of Cancer ; the southern^ 
from passing through the beginning of Capricorn, is 
called the trofiic of Cafiricorn, 

The iwo fiolar circles are less circles, described round 
the poles at the distance of 23° 28'. The northern^ from 
passing through the constellation Arctos, or the Bear, is 
called the arctic circle ; the southern*^ from its being op- 
posite to it, is called the antarctic circle. 

The hour circles are described round the poles, and 
divided into twice twenty-four hours. They are some- 
times expressed by a brass circle round the poles, at- 
tached to the meridian, and sometimes described on the 
globe itself. 

The quadrant of altitude is a thin slip of brass, di- 
vided into 90°. corresponding exactly in extent with 
those on the equator. It is for the purpose of measur- 
ing the distance from one place to another. 

The mariner'' s co77ifiass^ which is frequently fixed un- 
der the globe, is a box, containing a magnetic needle, 
and the 3^2 points of the compass. 

Each degree of the circumference of the earth, con- 
tains 60 geographical miles, or 69^ English miles ; »o 
that by multiplying the degrees between the two places 
by 60, will give the distance in geographical miles ; and 
multiplying by 69| will give the Enejlish miles, 

U\ for instance, the distance from Guinea to Brazil be 
required; extend the dividers, or a thread, from one to 
the other, and apply the distance to the equator, and it 
will be lonnH to contain 25°, w'. ich, being multiplied by 
60, the miles in a degree, give IS^^'O geographical miles; 
and being multiplied by 69|^, give i737| English mile*?*. 



The latitude of a place is an arc of the meridian con- 
tained between the equator and the place ; or the latU 
tude of a place is its distance from the equator, either 
north or south, reckoned in degrees on the n^gjidian. 

The longitude of a place is an arc of the eqiiatof^tiWi* 
tained between the principal meridian and a meridian 
passing through the place ; or the longitude of a place 
is its distance from the principal meridian, either east 
or west, reckoned m degrees on the equator. 

With regard to heat and cold^ the earth is divided into 
five unequal parts, called zo7ie's ; one torrid or burning 
zone^ two temfierate^ and two frigid ox frozen zones. 

The torrid zone is that part of the earth, which lie* 
between the trofiics. 

The sun is always verHcal^ or directly over some part 
©f this zone ; that is, on the 2ist of June the sun passes 
perpendicularly over the northern tropic ; from this time 
he is daily revolving farther and farther south, till on 
the 2 2d of December he reaches the southern trofiic ; 
thence he returns to the northward, passing over the 
whole torrid zone twice in a year. This zone being 
more directly under the sun, is (Mie cause of its being 
the hottest. 

The two temperate zones lie between the two trofiic9 
and the fiolar circles ; one being north, and the other 
south, of the torrid zone ; and having a moderate degree 
of heat and cold, are therefore called the northern and 
southern temfierate zones. 

The two frigid zones are included within the polar 
circles, each spreading 23° 28' in every direction from 
the pole. 

These zones are called frigid or frozen from the ex- 
cessive cold, that prevails in them. 

In the temfierate 2iX\d frigid zones the rays of the sun 
always fall obliquely upon the earth ; and the nearer we 
approach the poles, the greater will be the obliquity 
of the rays. Whence it appears, that those who liv6 
north of the torrid zone, always see the sun south of 
them at noon ; and those, wlae live south of the torrid 
zone, always see the sun north of them at noon, which 
to us would be a very singular appearancei 



PROBLEM I. To find the latitude of any place. 

Rule, Bring the place to the graduated side of the 
hiiWffTTI^dian, and the degree on the meridian, imme- 
diately over it, shows the latitude of the place, or th< 
number of degrees the place is either north or south o! 
%he equator. 

Examfile, Bring Boston to the graduated side of the 
meridian, and it will be found under about 42^° nortb 
of the equator, or 4J° 24' 

What is the lat of New Orleans?— of Savannah ?- 
€f Charleston ? — of Philadelphia ? — of New York ? — o 
London ? — of Paris ? — of Madrid \ — of Jerusalem ? — o 
Calcutta ? 

pROB. IL To find the longitude of any place. 

Rule, Bring the place to the meridian, and the de- 
gree on the equator under the meridian is the longitude, 
cither east or west from London. 

Ex, Bring Madrid to the meridiar, and the merid- 
ian will cross the equator a little more than 3° W. of 
the meridian of London ; Madrid is therefore 3° W. 

What is the long of Rome ?— ot Cairo ?— of Ben- 
gal ?— of Dublin ? — of Quebec ? — of Boston ? — of Ispa- 
han ?— of Petersburg ? — of Constantinople } 

Prob. IIL The longitude and latitude of a place being 
given^ to find that place. 

Rule. Look for the longitude on the equator, and 
bring it to the brass meridian, then under the given de- 
gree of latitude an the meridian will be the place re- 

Ex. The plate whose longitude is 30® KV east, 
and lat» 3i° il' north, is Alexandria; and the place 
which has nearly 6° west long. a«d \t^ south lat, is 
St. Hel'ena. 

What places are nearly in the following latitudes and 
longitudes } 


Lat. 34|° S Long. 18|^ E. 
Lat. So N i ong. 3 W. 
Lat 47 N.Long. 69| W. 

Lat. 60® N. Long. 5^° E. 
Lat. 5\ N.Long. 13JE. 
Lai. 18 N.Long, 7 6|W. 

Prob. IV. To find the difference of latitude between 
two places. 

Rule, If the places are on the Bame side of the equator, 
bring each to the meridian, and subtract the latitude of 
the less from that of the greater ; if on oppoaite sides add 
the latitude of one to that of the other. 


London SI"* 80' N. lat. 
Madras iiS 5 N. lat. 

Difference SS 25 

Boston 42° 24' 

Philadelphia 39 57 

Difference 2 £r 

Prob. V. Tojind the differen/^e in longitude between 
two places, 

JRule. Bring one of the places to the meridian, ancl 
mark its longitude on the equator ; then bring the other 
to the meridian, and the number ol degrees on the equa- 
tor between its longitude and the first mark is he dif- 

£x. The difference in longitude between London 
and Constantinople is 28° 55' ; between Constantino- 
ple and Madras is 5 1° 33'. 

What is the difference in longitude between tlie fol- 
lowing places ? 

Naples and Batavia ? 
Brest and Gape Horn ? 
Charleston and Cork ^ 

Rome and Gape Finisterret 
Canton and Orkney Isles ? 
Boston and Mexico J 

Prob. VI. Tojind the distance between two places o?i 
the globe, 

Bule* Lay the graduated edge of the quadrant of 
altitude ovfrr both places, to find the number of degrees 
between them $ or. which will answer the same purpose, 
extend a tjiread from one place to the other, and appty" 


it to the equator^ and the number of degrees between] 
them* mulliplied by c9|^, will give the disvance in Eng- 
lish miles. 

Ji-x. The distance between Lizard's Point and the 
Islands of Bermuda is 46^, or SUf miles; between 
London and Jamaica is 4691 mil&6. 

What is the distance between 
'Samarcand and Pekin \ j Lisbon and Ispahan ? 

Warsaw and Ascension Island? j Palermo and Cyprus? 
North Cape and Gibialtar ? | Portsmouth & N.York? 

PaoB. VII. The hour of any place being given^ to find 
what hour it is at any other place. 

Rule, Bring the place, where the hour is given, to 
the brass meridian, and set the index of the hour circle 
to that hour, then turn the globe till the proposed place 
comes under the meridian, and the index wdll point to 
the present hour at that place. 

Ex, When it is twelve o'clock at noon in London, 
it is about four in the afternoon at Mauritius, or the Isle 
of France % at Jamaica it is about seven in the morning. 

Or which perhaps is more intelligible ; find the dif- 
ference of longitude between the two places, and 
change it into time by allowing 07ie hour to every 15° 
and ybwr minutes to 1° ; remembering, that when the 
place required is east of the one given, the time requir- 
ed will be as much later in the day, as the decrees and 
minutes give hours and minutes ; and when west of the 
given place, it will be so much earlier. 

£x. Boston is f I® 3' W. long, and Washington is 
77^ 4S' W. long, the difference is 6° 40'; that is, 
Washington is about 6^^ west of Boston ; thence by 
allowing 4 minutes to a degree, the difference between 
the two places is 2<i minutes ; or, Washington being 
farthest west, when it is 12 o'clock at Boston, it is 54 
minutes after 1 1 at Washing! on. 

More problems for solution might be given, and in- 
deed generally ^re given, bm it is well known to those, 
ivho are acquainted with astronomy, that previous to a 

MAPS, 241 

knowledge of that science, little or no beneiit can be 
derived from them. 


A MAP is the representation or picture of the eartl/s 
surface, or some part of it, on a plane. 

Latitude and longitude are the same on rtiaps, as on 
the globe. 

The latitude of places is expressed by the figures, 
which run up and down the sides oi the map. 

If the figures increase ufiward^ the latitude is north ; 
if they increase downward^ the latitude is south. 

The longitude of places is expressed by the figures 
which run along the top and bottom of the map. 

If the figures increase from right to left^ the longitude 
is v)est ; if they increase from left to rights the longitude 
is east. 

The tofi of maps is norths the bottom is souths the 
right hand is east,, and the left hand is noeat. 

The lines drawn across the map from right to left 
are cM^^ parallels^ or lines of latitude ; and the figures 
on their extremities express the degrees they are dis- 
tant from the equator. 

The lines drawn from the top to the bottom of the 
map are called meridians^ or lines of longitude : and the 
figures on their extremities, the degrees they are dis- 
tant from the principal meridian^ which in geneial is that 
of London ; but on American maps it is sometimes 
that of Philadelphia. 

Towns are represented on maps by a small ° ; cities 
by a small figure somewhat resembling a house with a 
steeple ; rivers by black lines bending irregularly, and 
increasing in size towaid the ocean or sea; depth of 
water in harbours by figures expressing the fathoms or 
feet ; roads are represented by double lines ; nwuntains 
by continued dark shades ; forests by small shrubs; 
and sandy deserts ?iud sand banks by clusters of extreme- 
ly small dots» 

Distances are measured by a scale ofmile^s. crenel allv 



placed in one corner of the map, especially if it be a 
map of any small portion of the earth. 


Introductory Geometrical Problems* 

Bb.ob. I. To bisect or divide a given line AB 
into two equal parts. 

1. From the points A and 
B as centres with any distance * v^^'^ * 
in the compasses greater than 
half A B, describe arcs of cir- 
cles, cutting each other in m 
and n. ^ 

2. Through the points of ^ 17^ B 
intersection, m and w, di^w the 
line m C tz, and it will divide 
the given line A B into two 
equal parts, in the middle .-'il '-. 
point G. 

pRop. IL To erect a perfiendicular from a given 
point A in c given line BC, or which is the same 
things to draw a line at right angles to BQ at the 
point A. 

1. On each side of the point Aj 
take any two equal distances Km^ 

2. From the centres m and k, 
with any distance greater than Am 
or An. desciibe two arcs, inter- 
sec tkig in r. 

3. Through A and r, draw the 
line Ar. and it will be perpendicu- 
lar, or at right angles to BC. 





Prob. III. From a given fioint A, out of a given line 
BC, to let fall a fierfiendicuiar. 

1. From the given point A, 
at any distance, describe an arc, 
cutting BC in m and n. 

2. From the points m and «, 
and the same or any other dis- 
tance, describe the two arcSj cut- 
ting each other rn r. 

3. Draw ADr for tho per- 
pendicular required. 







— B 


Prob. IV. To draw a line fiarallel to a given 
line AB. 

From any two points m 

and n, in the line AB, with —. 

a radius equal to the dis-,-**C 
tance requiredj suppose C, 

describe the arcs r and o, A 

Draw CD so as to touch 

these arcs without cutting C , 

them, and it will be the 
parallel required. 

Prob. V, To divide a given line AB into a pro- 
posed number of equal parts. 

From A draw any line 
AC at random, and from B 
draw BD parallel to it. 
On each of these lines, be- 
ginning at A and B, set ofF 
as many equal parts of any 
length, as AB is to be divid- 
ed into. Join the opposite . . -, ^ 

points of division by the lines A 5, 1 4, 2 3, &c. and they 
wm divide AB as required. 

244 MAPS. 

- Pros. VI. To describe a circle through three given 
fiointa ABC, which are not in a right line, 

1. From the middle point 
B draw right or straight lines 
to the other points. 

2. Bisect these right lines 
perpendicularly by lines meet- 
ing in O, which will be the 

3. From the centre O at 
the distance 0A> or OB, or 
OC, describe the circle. 

N. B. In the same manner may the centre of an arc 
of a circle be found. 

When the pupil can perform these problems with 
accuracy and facility, he may proceed to the projection 
or the drawing of maps. 

Maps are constructed by drawing the lines, which, 
are on the globe, on a plane surface. 

To draw a mafi of the earthy accordiiig to the stereo- 
grafihical firojection. 

Upon a sheet of paper, considerably larger than the 
map is intended to be, draw a circle NQSE of any 
convenient size, representing one half of the earth's sur- 
face. See Plate I, page 248. 

Draw the diameters NS and EQ intersecting each 
other at right angles ; E Q will represent the equator, 
and NS the axis This divides the whole circle into 
quarters, which should be done with the nicest accuracy. 

Divide each quarter ipto 9 equal parts, which will 
contain 10° each. This is most easily done by dividing 
each quarter into 3 equal parts, and then each of these 
parts into three more; extending the dividea-s from Q to 
C, and setting off the distance from Q towards N, which 
will reach to 60, two thirds oi the quadrant, and the same 
distance set off from N towards Q will reach to 30, 
which will trisect the quadrant, or divide it into three 
C([ual parts : in the same manner divide each quadrant. 

MAPS. 245 

ThcR by trial set the dividers, so that three steps 
will reach from Q to 30, which will divide it into three 
equal parts, as in 10 and 20, and this extent applied to 
the other divisions will divide them each into three parts j 
or each quadrant into nine equal parts. 

To draw the circles of latitude. 

Draw a line from E to 20, and bisect the part a20 in 
3, and from the point of bisection i, raise a perpendicular, 
and produce it, till it cut NS, p^-oduced, in x ; the point 
X will be the centre, from winch the circle z a 20, is to 
be described, which is the true representation of the par- 
allel of 20° south. In the same manner draw z a 50 ; 
z a 70, and indeed all the parallels in both north and 
south latitude. 

Note. As one of the greatest difficulties in drawing 
maps is to find the centres, whpnce to describe the par* 
allels and meridians, the business would be greatly facil- 
itated by using a wooden square^ which might be obtain- 
ed of any joiner or cabinet maker for a few cents. The 
square should be made, one part about a foot, and the 
other about three feet long. 

Lay the shortest part of the square on the centre C, 
and let the corner or angular part fall exactly on 20, on 
r, or on any other division of the quadrant, and the long- 
er part will cross NS produced, in points, which will be 
eentres for the several parallels : Or, lay a rule so as to . 
touch the circle exactly in the point 20, making a tan* 
gent to that point ; which may very accurately be done 
by observing, that the next divisions, 10 and 30, 20 and 
40, 30 and 50, &c. on each bide of 20, be equally distant 
from the rule ; then the rule will cross NS produced^ 
in the centre of that parallel- In the same manner all 
the centres may be found. 

To draw the. circles of longitude^ 
With one end of the rule on S, and the other on 10, 
SO, 50, and 70, in the quadrant QN, divide the equator 
from Q to C in 80, 60, 40 and 20, which will be the 
eentres, from which the circles of longitude Si/N[ are to 
be drawn. 


246 MAPS. 

For Ihc remaining circles produce the diameter EQ, 
and lay one end of a rule on N, and the other on 10, 
30, 50, and 70° hi the quadrant NQ, and it will cross 
the diameter EQ produced, in points, which are centres 
of the remaining circles of longitude. 

In the same manner proceed to fill up the other side 
of the equator. 

By this construction the dimensions of the map will 
not be correctly drawn ; for every part, from the outline 
to the centre, is gradually contracted ; therefore tuose 
countries alone, which lie on the border of the map, are 
truly exhibited ; and of course equal spaces on the earth 
are represented by unequal spaces on the map. 

To correct this error, another projection of the meri- 
dians is made, called globular fir ojection^ which is used by 
most modern geographers, and especially by Mr. x\r- 
rowsmith. whose maps are the most celebrated for neat- 
ness and accuracy. 

To drarj a map, ef the earth according to $he globu* 
lar firejection. 

In this projection the process is the s^me, as in the 
stereographic, except as it respects the meridians, which 
are to be drawn in the following manner. 

Divide the radius or semidiameter EC into nine equal 
parts by Prob. 5th, or by trial, first dividing EC into 
three equal parts, then each of these parts into three 
more ; then by Prob. 6th, connect by an arc of a circle 
the three points Nz/ 10 S, Ni/ 20 S, &c. Proceed in 
this manner to draw the meridians from E to Q. and 
the projection will be completed. 

In this process the use of the wooden square will shop- 
ten the labour ; for connect by a straight line y with N. 
or with S, and after bisecting it, lay the shorter part ot 
the square on N, or S, and the corner, or angle of it ex- 
actly on the point of bisection, the longer part will cross 
EQ. or the same line produced, in the centre, whence 
to draw that particular meridian. In the same matlfl^i' 
all the centres may be found. 

£0 - • - - 25 

30 - - . 42 

MAPS. 24r 

Or, the centres may be found mechanically, and very 
readily, by the following table. Let the radius EC, (or 
-which perhaps would be equally as well, a line drawn on 
a separate piece of paper, exactly equal to EC, PL I. 
Fig. 2.) be divided into 100 equal parts by a scale, or 
otherwise ; then the radius of the circle of longitude, 
distant from E towards C 
10° will be equal to IS^j ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ j.^^^ 

C to 20, 40, Sec. towards Q, or 

^j. . on the sama line produced if 
40 • - • 62 > ij J f .u J* 

^ QQ ^necessary, added to the dis- 

,„« tance between C and the sev- 
^^ " ' ' 214 I ^^^^ V^}^^^ ^^' ^^5 ^^' ^^- ^^ 
80 " . " . " . 444J ^^^ '^^'""^ ^^' 

Thus the radius of the first circle of longit\ide 10^, 
from E, is equal to the distance between the point t/lO, 
corresponding to 10° from E, and a point in CQ set off 
from C, equal to 12 of the 100 parts, into which EC was 

Or, extend the dividers from 1 to 12 of the equal 
parts of EC, and set the distance off, from C towards Q, 
(which will be somewhere near 20 betweten CQ, Plate 
I. Fig. 1.) and this will be the point or centre, whence 
to describe, with the dividers extended from this point 
to N or S, the circle of longitude Nz/ 10 S, 

So likewise for the next circle of longitude, or the 
second meridian from E, take in the dividers 25 of the 
100 equal parts of EC, and set them off from C towards 
Q, and it will be the centre, whence to describe, at the 
distance N or S, the second circle of longitude, reckoned 
from E, viz. Nz/ 20 S. 

In the same manner set off from C towards Q, or. 
when necessary, on the same line extended, 42, 62, 90, 
Sec. of the 100 equal parts of EC, and it will give the 
centres of each circle of longitude to be drawn between 
E and C. Proceed in the same manner on the ot h^r 
side to diaw the meridians between C and Q. 

As it requires very great accuracy to continue the 

2,48 MAPS. 

meridians quite fr©m pole to pole, or from N to S, with- 
out blotting or blending them together, they may be 
drawn only from the parellel of latitude 80° near N, to 
the same parallel near S, leaving a blank of 10° round 
each pole. 

It may be observed with respect to the parallels of 
latitude, that a rule with one end on E, and the other on 
the divisions 10, 20, 30, 8cc. in the arc QS, or QN, will 
cross the line CS, or GN, exactly in the points, through 
which the parallels of ktitude are to be drawn. 

So that, after finding the centres xo:, if the dividers 
with one foot in any centre, and the other extended to 
the parallel of that centre, do not likewise extend to the 
point in SC, viz. a, corresponding to the latitude, it will 
show that the true centre is not found, and another trial 
must be made. Attention to this will prevent many 

It may likewise be observed, that when the centres 
are at a groat distance from the parallel, in order to des- 
cribe the circle, a straight rod, or an unyielding cord 
may be used. Fasten one end with a pin to the centre 
jc, and with the other guide the pen to describe the par- 
allels za 50. za 20. &c. 

In completing the map, all places representing land 
are filled up with such objects as the several countries 
contain; as mountains, forests, &c. but the seas are left 
blank or white. The shores adjoining the sea are to be 
shaded. Rivers are marked by strong lines, or bv dou- 
ble lines draAvn winding in the form of the rivers they 
represent, and smaller rivers are expressed by suiallei- 
lines. Di^erent countries zve best distinguished by dif- 
ferent colours. Forests are represented by bushes or 
trees, and mountains by continued shaues, somewhat 
resembling clouds Sand-9 are denoted by small points 
or specks, and rocks under water by a small cross. 

To draw a mafi of amj particular part of the earth. 

Suppose it be required to draw a map of a portion of 
the earth's surface, containing six decrees of l;ititude, 
viz. from the 39 to the 45° (Plate II. Fig. L) 


ecLylainbur tht wvd.: hj which the FarolIeU 
<n' LaiitixJe n^id LoHffiUid^ cu-e drawn 

MAPS. 249 

Braw the line EF, and in the middle raise the perr 
pendicular DC, which divide into six equal parts, or 
degrees of latitude, and through C draw a line parallel 
to EF. 

Divide a degree into 10, or if large enough, into 60 
equal parts, and in the annexed table (page 255) find the 
number of miles, which a degree of longitude contains, 
in the latitude of 39°, viz. 46^, and from any scale of 
equal partrs, set off one half of the same, viz. ^S^y^, on 
each side of D. 

Find in the table the number of miles contained in a 
degree of longitude in the latitude of 43®, viz. 42-^^^, 
and from the same scale set off one half of it, viz. 21^^^, 
on each side of C. Draw the straight lines from I to E, 
and from K to F ; divide them into the same number of 
parts, as the line CD contains ; and through the points 
draw parallel lines. Thus I KEF is a projection for one 
degree of longitude, including six degrees of latitude. 

Since the degrees must be so drawn that the two di- 
agonal lines in each must be equal to each other, they 
are to be projected in the following manner* 

First, Take the distance from E to K, or from F to I, 
and setting one foot of the compasses, first in E and then 
in F, describe the arcs L and M ; tiien set one foot, first 
in I and then in K, and with the same extent draw the 
arcs N and O. 

Secondly, Take the distance between E and F, and 
set it off in the arcs described from E to N, and from F 
to O ; then take the distance between I and K, and sejfe 
it off from I to L, and from K to M. 

Thirdly, Draw the lines between L and N, and M 
and O ; divide them into degrees, and draw parallels 
from those points to the corresponding ones in the me- 
ridians IE and KF. The same method must be pursued 
in drawing all the other meridians and parallels, whic^i 
the map is to contain. 

If the map be so large, that the compasses will not 
extend to the farthest degree, or from F to I ; draw one 
or more diagonals at once, and afterwards proceed wiflli 
the rest. 

250 MAPS^. 

Tlius when the squares, PGNE and HQFO are de- 
scribed, LIPG and KHMQ may be done. 

Number the degrees of latitude up both sides of the 
map, and the degrees of longitude at the top and bottom. 
Then make the proper divisions and subdivisions of the 
country ; and having the latitude and longitude of the 
principal places, it will be easy to set them down in the 
map ; for every town, city, Sec. must be placed where its 
latitude and longitude intersect. Thus, should the map 
contain that pan of Europe, which lies between 39° & 45® 
of N, latitude, and between 7^ and 16*^ of E, longitude, 
then Florence must be placed at A, (PI. IL Fig. l.)where 
43° 46' 30'' N. latitude, and 1 1° 3' 3t>'' E. longitude cross 
each other ; and Naples must be placed at B on the sea- 
shore, at 40° 50' 15'' N. lat. and 14° 1 7' 30'' E. long 

In like manner the mouth of a river, as of the Tiber 
for instance, must be set down ; but to describe the whole 
river, the latitude and longitude of every turning must 
"be marked down ; and the towns and bridges, by whick 
5t passes. 

In delineating any country, which is bounded by 
oceans, seas, gulfs, &c. the coast may be traced from an- 
other map by accurately observing where, and in what 
direction the coast crosses the parallels and meridians ; 
and any one, with a little practice, will be able to draw 
the outlines with ease and correctness. 

When the place is but small, of which a map is to be 
Blade, as of a country for instance, or of any portion af 
the earth of not more than one hundred miles in length 
and breadth, the meridians, as to appearance, are parallel 
to each other, and may be represented by straight lines. 
The whole indeed will differ so little from a plane, that 
it will be sufficient to measure the distances of places in 
miles, and so lay them down in a plane right lined map. 

In the projection of a quadrant of an hemisphere, ac- 
cording to this method, the parallels of latitude are all 
concentric circles, and the only difficulty is to find the 
common centre. 

In projecting the map of Asia, (PI. II. Fig. 2. ) the 

MAPS. 251 

centre of the parallel of 60° of latitude is found to be 30® 
beyond the north pole, or at the same distance north of 
the parallels of 60°, as the equator is south of it ; and the 
entre for this parallel is the centre for all the others ; 
and it is evident, that in this map the two diagonals of 
each little figure, are equal to one another, so that all the 
parts are of their proper magnitude. 

hi projecting the map of Europe, Mr. Arrowsmith 
has found, that the common centre of all the parallels of 
latitude is at 6 degrees and 7 tenths beyond the pole. 

N. B. For the purpose of drawing maps mathemat- 
ically exact, schools should be furnished with a £o%u 
Rule^ commonly called a Shijfitoright^s Dranoing Rule^ 
and also a Bearn Compass ; but a Gunter's Scale and a 
pair of dividers will answer a good purpose. In draw- 
ing circles of very large radii, it will be found convenient 
to wafer or pin the paper on a smooth floor, or a smooth 
wide board, prepared for the purpose. 

Suppose it is required to draw the mericfians and 
parallels for a map of Great Britain. This island lies 
between 50 and 60 degrees north latitude, and between 
two degrees east and six west longitude. Having there* 
fore chosen the length of the degrees of latitude, the de- 
grees of longitude must be proportioned to it. By the 
table, it appears, that in latitude 50^, the length of a de- 
gree of longitude is to one of latitude, as 38^"^^ is to 60 ; 
that is, the length of a degree of longitude is something 
more than half the length of a degree otlatitude. The 
exact proportion may be had by a diagonal line ; after 
which seven or eight of these degrees are to be marked 
out upon a right line for the width of the intended map. 
On the extremities of this line raise two perpendiculars., 
upon which mark out ten degrees of latitude for the 
height of it. Then having completed the parallelo- 
gram, consult the table for the length of a degree of lon- 
gitude, in latitude 60°, which is found to be very nearly 
one half the length of a degree of latitude. It will al- 
ways be necessary however to draw a vertical meridian 
exactly in the middle of the parallelogram, to which tho 

2J2 MAI*S. 

meridians on each side may converge ; and from this 
you are to set off the degrees of longitude on each side ; 
then having divided the lines bounding the map into as 
many parts, as can conveniently be done, to serve for a 
scale, the longitudes and latitudes may, by this means, be 
set off with much less trouble, than where curve lines 
are usecl. This method may be always followed, where 
a particular kingdom is to be delineated, and will repre- 
sent the true figure and situation of the places with tol- 
erable exactness. This is the only kind of maps, to 
which a scale of miles can be truly adapted. 

Or, a map of any particular part of the earth may 
very easily be drawn in the following manner. Suppose 
the portion of the earth be, as before, contained between 
39° and 45° of N. lat. and between 7° and 16° E. long. 
Draw the line DC, and set off the parallels of latitude 
from 39° to 45°, of any equal distance, suppose it to be 
half an inch for each degree. 

Find in the table the number of miles and parts, which 
a degree of longitude contains in the latitude of 39°, viz. 
^^Toir rnil^s, and likewise the number of miles in a de- 
gree on the parallel of 45°^ viz. 42y*^j5. miles. 

Subtract the less from the greater, and the difference 
is 4-^^ miles. Subtract likewise the two extreme lati- 
tudes, viz. 39° and 45°, and the difference is 6°, which 
change into geographical miles by multiplying by 60j 
which will give 360. 

Then by the Rule of Three, say — As the difference 
between the miles and parts in the extreme degrees of 
latitude, is to the distance between said parallels in de- 
grees, miles, or inches ; so are the miles and parts in 
either of the extreme degrees of lat. to the distance in de- 
grees, miles, or inches, of the centre of the concentric 
circle, from the parallel answering to the miles and parts 
taken in the third terra of the proportion ; thus, 

lala. & hund. 

Less 42.43 tound in the table against 45® 
Greater 46.63 39 

4.30 Difference 6 

MAPS. 253 


diff.inmls* geog. mis. mis. in 45° geoiT. mis. 

As 4.20 : e^'x^Oz^SeO :: 42.43 : ^o36. 

Now since 1 degree, or 60 miles in the example, is 
equal to a half inch, divide 3636 by 60, and it will give 
SO half inches and |^ of a half inch, which are equal to 
30-j^ inches. 

Now produce DC, and from C the 45th degree, set 
off 30^^^ inches, and it will reach the common centre of all 
the latitudes ; then from this centre at the distance C, 
30y3^ inches, describe the parallel 45° through RL &c. 
Extend the dividers, (or lengthen the rod, cord, or what- 
ever the circle may be described with,) half an inch, and 
describe 44 A ; and so on through all the parallels. 

After drawing the parallels, find by the table the 
number of miles and parts, which a degree of longitude 
in one extreme parallel, the 39th, contains, viz. 16.62 
and from a scale of equal parts, (on which scale the dis- 
tance between me parallels, viz. i° asunder, is 60 equal 
parts,) set off the distance, 46.62, with the dividers on 
each side of D, so as to divide the parallel into as many 
degrees of longitude, as the map is designed to contain ; 
then find the number of miles and parts which a degree 
of longitude in the other extreme parallel, the 45th, con- 
tains, viz. 42.43, and, in like manner, by the same scale 
set them off on each side of C. Connect the correspond- 
ing points of division at top and bottom by straight lines, 
and the projeciion will be completed. 

It should be remembered, that when the parallels of 
latitude are drawn at the distance of 1°, 2°, 3°, 4°, or 5°, 
the meridians should likewise be drawn at correspondent 
distances, viz. at once, twice, three, four, or five times 
the number of miles, found in a degree in the parallel, 
on which the distance is laid off, taken from the same 
scale, on whi^.h the distance between the parallels 1°, 2°, 
3°, 4% or 5°. asunder, contains 60, 1 20, 180, 240, 300, &c. 
equal parts. So when the distance between the parallels 
of latitude is expressed by any one scale, the same scale 
should be used for the distance between the meridians. 

If it be required to draw a map of Asia, which should 
extend from the equator to about f0° N. latitude, 

254 ^ MAPS. 

Draw the lines NS, of any convenient length, and iVotn 
S set oft' the 70** towards N. Let every degree, or eve- 
ry ten degrees be equal to some definite distance, or por- 
tion of a scale of equal parts ; for example, 10° to an inch ; 
then the distance from the equator, to the 70th degree 
will be 7 inches. The two extreme degrees are 0^, or 
the equator and 70° ; then the number of miles and parts, 
contained in a degree of long, on these extreme latitudes 
will be 60 miles on 0°, or on the equator, and 20^^^^ miles 
in the 70th degree of lat. as found in the table. Thus, 

20.52 found in the table against 70 degrees. 

39.4J Difference - • 70, which multiplied by 60 

gives 4200 geograpliical miles. Then state the question, 
mis. & pts. gcog* Tools* mh. & pts. geog. mli« 

As 39.48 : 4200 :: 20.52 : 2182.^7, of which 
600 are equal to an inch; therefore divide 2182.97 
by 600, and it gives 36-/o% inches for the distance of the 
centre of all the parallels, from the 70th degree of lati- 
tude. Then from this centre at the distance of 70°, 
which will be 36^^o- inches, describe the parallel 70°^ 
and at the distance of 1, 2, 3, &c. inches more, describe 
the other parallels down the equator. Then from NS 
on each side of it, set off'on the equator and on the 70th 
degree of latitude, the miles, &c. contained in 10 degrees 
of long, on the equator, and on the 70th degree of lat. 
viz 600 equal parts for every 10 degrees on the equator, 
and 2 >5.20 on the 70th degree of latitude, which is thus 
found ; look in the table (page 255) for 70 under de- 
grees of latitude at the top. and at the right hand of it 
stand 20.52, which multiplied by 10 gives 205.20, which 
must be taken from the same scale, from which the de- 
grees of latitude were set oif, viz 600 to an inch. This 
gives 342 thousandths, or a fraction more than ^ of an 
inch, for the extent of 10° of longitude on the 70th de- 
gree of latitude to be set off on each side of N so many 
times, as the map is to contain portions of ten degrees 
each wpy from N. Connect these points of division 
with those* corresponding with them at the bottom, and 
the projection will be completed. 



TABLE^ Bhoiving the number of miles contained in a 
Degree oj Longitude^ in each Parallel of Latitude^ 
from the Equator to the jioles^ a deg. on the equator 
being 60 miles. 



S . 






^ 0; 



■s 2 





7i . 







































































































































































































































00 < 




I 51 




90 ' 





To be answered by the Pufiil. 


How many degrees is the Equator from each pole ? 
Which is most southerly, Cape Horn or the Cape of 

Good Hope? 
How is the Mediterranean Sea situated ? 
How is Madagascar situated t How is the I. of Bourbon ? 
Where are Prince Edward's, Desert, and Amsterdam 

Islands ? 
Where is the Bay of Bengal ?— Where is St. Hel'ena ? 
Which way is Arabia from Thibet and Persia ? 
What lake and s^ are north of Persia ? 
Are the Sandwich Is. in the E. or W. hemisphere ? 
In what zone is Nova Zembla ? 
Which most westerly, N. Hebrides, Friendly or Society 

Islands ? 
Where is the Caspian Sea ?-— Where is the Red Sea ? 
What is the most easterly Cape of South America ? 
Is there more land in the northern or southern hemisr 

phere ? 
Which general division of the earth is the largest ? 
How is America separated from Europe and Africa ? 
Where are the Fox Islands ? 
What is the most easterly Cape of Africa ? 
How is Sumatra situated with regard to the equator ? 
In what direction is New Holland from Africa ? 
How is Terra del Fuego separated from S. America ? 
What two large bays are those in North America ? 
'where is Easter Island ? — Where is Byron's Island ? 
How are the Falkland Islands situated ? 
What is the most northerly Cape of Europe ? 
Where are the Bahama and Bermuda islands? 
How is the Bay of Biscay situated ?— How the Arabian 



Is Rio Janeiro or Rio de la Plata the most southerly ? 

Which iids most northerly, Cuba or St. Domingo ? 

Which way is Norfolk island from New Zealand ? 

Where is the island of Juan Fernandes ? 

How is Japan situated with respect to Asia ? 

Which most northerly, the Azores or C Verd Islands ? 

Where are the islauds of New Guinea and New 
Britain ? 

Through what large islands does the equator pass ? 

Is Q. Charlotte's island or N. Hebrides most northerly ? 

Is Jamaica or St. Domingo most westerly ? 

What is the situation of California ? 

Where are the Ladrone and Pelew islands ? 

What strait separates Asia from America ? 

How is the Caribbean sea situated ? 

Is the island Jamaica or Cuba the most northerly I 

Where is Davis's strait ?— Where Hudson's strait? 

Is Guinea or Congo the most southerly ? 

On which side of the equinoctial is Christmas island ? 

Which most easterly the Philippines or Ladrone Is. i 

What islands lie about 48° south latitude ? 

How is Nova Zembla situated ?— How Iceland ? 

Which is the principal of the Japan islands ? 

Where is New Albion ? — Where is Cape St. Roque ? 

Is Quebec or Nova Scotia the most westerly ? 

What is the southerly cape of California ? 

What two rivers between New Albion and New Or- 
leans ? 

Is Sumatra or Java the most easterly ? 

Is Hudson's or Baffin's bay the most northerly ? 

How are Boston, N. York, and Philadelphia situated in 
regard to each other I 

Which is the most northerly, Pekin or Nankin ? 

What ocean lies west of America ? 

What ocean lies east of Africa ? 

Which way is it from Egypt to Caffraria ? 

Which way is it from Abyssinia to Nigritia t 

Which way is it from mount Atlas to Barbary : 

Where is New South Wales ? 

Where is Hkidostan ?— Whete is New Ireland j 


What mountains on the west coast of S. America ? 
What sea is north of South America^ 
What gulf is south of North America ? 
Where are the United States ? — Where the Floridas ! 
What Islands between ihe Gult of Mexico and the Ca- 
ribbean Sea ? 
Where is Kamtschatka ? — Where the Chinese sea ? 
Where is the gulf of Corea? — Where the G. of Guinea? 
Which way is it from Nubia to Nigritia ? 
Where in N. Holland are Port Jackson and Botany bay ? 
Where the Sunda Isles ? — Where Sandwich Land ? 
Where are the Gallipago islands ? — Where Owhyhee ? 
Where are Syria and Arabia ? — Where the Persian G. ? 
Which way is it from China to Tartary ? 
What empire is in the north of Europe and Asia ? 
Which way is it from Canada to Labrador ? 
Which way is it from Guiana to Patagonia ? 
Which is the most westerly, Norway or Sweden ? 
Where are England, Scotland, and Ireland ? 
In what part of Europe are France and Spain ? 
Where are Italy, Turkey, and Germany ? 
Where is the island of Newfoundland ? 
Which way from the Bermudas to the Canary isles ? 
W hich lake is east of the Caspian sea ? 
Which way is it from the Caspian to the Black sea ? 
Where is the desert of Sahara ? 
Which way is it from the Persian Gulf to the Baltic 

sea ? 
What two rivers flow into the bay of Bengal ? 
Are the Philippine isles or Carolinas most easterly ? 
Which way is it from Spitzbergen to Nova Zembla ? 
What part of South America is Terra Firma ? 


Which is most westerly, Mexico or Vera Cruz ? 
Which way is it from Mexico to Acapulco ? 
What separates tne bays Honduras and Campeachy ? 
Into what gulf does the rifcr Mississippi flow ? 


Which \\ray is Florida from the United States ? 

What five lakes arG between the U. States and Canada ? 

What river connects these lakes with the Gulf of St, 
Lawrence ? 

What large island is east of the gulf of St. Lawrence ? 

Where are the Russian settlements in North America? 

Where is Nova Scotia?— -And what is the principal 
town ? 

Where is the Great Bank ? — For what is it celebrated? 

What bay separates N. Brunswick from Nova Scotia ? 

What the southerly capes of Greenland and ©f Cali- 
fornia ? 

What bay is the southern part of Hudson's bay ? 

Which way is Cook's Inlet from Prince Wm^s sound ? 

What high mountain south of Prince William's sound ? 

What Mts. separate Slave L. from Vancouver's Survey? 

Which is the most northerly, Winnipeg or Slave Lake ? 

What river separates Louisiana from the U States ? 

Where are Nootka and Queen Charlotte's sound ? 

Which way i- Cape Breton from St, Johns ? 

Which is the most northerly, Quebec or Montreal ? 

What river runs from Winnipeg to Hudson's bay ? 

What part of the U. States is called New England ? 

Which way is the Western Territory from N. Eng. ? 

Of what island is Havanna the capital ? 

Which way from the Uc States are the West Indies ? 

What is the capital of Jamaica ? 

What Gape is north of St. Domingo ? 

Which is most westerly, Porto Rico or Virgin Islands ? 

Which way are the Bahama Is. from the Bermudas? 

Into what sea does Ciipe Gracios a Dios project f 

Which is the most northerly. Slave lake or Arabasco ? 

What river separates New Mexico from New Navarre ? 

What river runs from Sbve lake into Frozen ocean ? 

Into what river does the Missouri flow ? 

Which way is Pensacola from St. Augustine ? 

Near the mouth of what river is New Orleans ? 

Which way is Esquimaux from Hudson's bay ? 



What are the N. S. E. and W. Capes of S. America ? 

In what part is Patagonia ? — In what is New Grenada? 

In what part is Brazil ?— iln what is Peru i 

Which way is Chili from Chaco and Paraguay ? 

On what riyers are Buenos Ayres and Assumption ? 

Which is most northerly, Monte Video or Sante Fe ? 

In what part of Brazil ai^ Rio Janeiro and St. Sal- 
vador ? 

What large river runs into the Atlantic on the equator { 

Is Cayenne, Surinam, or Demerara most westerly i 

Is the river Essequebo or Orinoco most northerly ? 

Which is the most northerly, Caraccas or Cumana ? 

What lake is in the northern part of Venezuela ? 

What isthmus and gulf northwest of New Grenada ? 

The line dividing N. and S. America is between Vera- 
gua and Panama ; In what direction does it run ? 

Is the Musquito shore in North or South America ? 

Which is the most northerly city in New Grenada, Santa 
Fe de Bogota, or St. Juan de los Llanos ? 

Which is the most northerly, Popayan or Panama ? 

Which is the most southerly, Lima or Quito P 

Which is nearest the equator, Guayaquil or Truxillo ? 

Is Terra del Fuego or the I. of Chiloe most northerly ? 

Which way is Cordova fr#m Santa Fe ? , 

What islands are E. and S. of the Strait of Magellan ? 

What mountains run the whole length of S. America ? 

In what part of Buenos Ayres is Potosi ? 

Which wny is St. Felix from Juan Fernandea ? 

Where is the island of Trinidad ? — And of Trinidada? 

Where are Carthagena and Porto Bello ? 

Where are the Gallipago islands ? 

In what part of S. America is ^^raazonia ? 

Is the lake Nicaragua in N. or S. America ? 

Where is Staten island ? — Where Fernando de Norona ? 

Is Peru or Chili most northerly ? 

Which is the most southerly, Tobago or Trinidad ? 



How is Europe bounded ? 

With which is Europe connected, Asia or Africa ? 

What part of Europe approaches nearest Africa ? 

What nine seas are found in and around Europe ? 

Which is the largest, G. Britain, Ireland, or Iceland ? 

On which is the burning Mount Hecla ? 

What four clusters of islands north and west of Scotland ? 

What island in the Irish sea ? 

What islands are northwest o* Norway ? 

What islands in the British channel, near France ? 

Which way are Ushant and Belle-isle from France ? 

What connects the North sea with the British channel? 

What channels are connected with the Irish Sea ? 

What passage runs from the North sea into the Baltic ?^ 

What two large gulfs are there in the Baltic sea ? 

Which Isl. most northerly, Gothland, Aland, or Gland I 

What two lakes north of Petersburg in Russia ? 

Where is the bay of Biscay ? — Where the G. of Lyons i 

What connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic ? 

What gulfs are in the Mediterranean sea? 

What part of the Mediterranean sea is called Levant ? 

Into what sea does the river Wolga flow ? 

What town near the mouth of the Wolga? 

Into what sea does the river Don flow ? 

With what sea is the sea of zVzof connected ? 

What peninsula in the northern part of the Black sea ? 

On what river are Kiow and Cherson in Russia ? 

On what river is Oczacow ? 

On what sea is Constantinople ? 

On what river are Belgrade, Nicopoli. and Silistra ? 

Which is the most westerly, Adrianople or Salonica ? 

Which way is Athens from Corinth ? 

What part of Turkey is called Morea ? 

What is the southern cape of the Morea ? 

What island is nearly south of the Archipelago ? 

Which island is most northerly, Scio or Samos ? 

Which island is most easterly, Rhodes or Cyprus ? 

Between what countries is the gulf of Venice? 

Where are the islands Corfu and Cefalonia ? 


Which is the most northerly, Rome or Naples ? 

What mountain near Naples? 

On what river is Rome ? 

Which is most noi therly^ Dalmatia or Trieste ? 

What river in the north of Italy flows into the Guli of 

Venice ? 
Which way is Switzerland from Italy ? 
What are the two lakes in Switzerland ? 
Which way is Leghorn from Genoa r 
What two islands west of Italy ?■ — What their capitals ? 
What small islands between Sicily and Naples ? 
What are the three towns in the island of Sicily ? 
What volcanic mountain in Sicily ? 
What small island south of Sicily ? 
What are the southern capes of Sicily and Italy ? 
What three islands near the coast of Spain ? 
What strait separates Spain from Africa r 
What two towns on the river Guadalquivcr ? 
On what river is S'jragosa ?«— On what is Valladolid ? 
In what part of Spain is Corunna ? 
Which is most northerly, Madrid or Toledo ? 
What town;? on the river Guadiana ? 
V/hat capes northwest of Spain ? 
Where is Cape St Vincent ? — Where Cape Palos P 
On what rivers are Lisbon and Oporto ? 
Where is Land's End ? — Where is Cape Clear ? 
What islands west of Lizard's Point ? 
What rivers in France flow into the bay of Biscay ? 
On what river are Bourdeaux and Toulouse ? 
What island off the coast of Rochelle in France ? 
On what river are Nantes and Orleans ? 
Which id nearest England, Boest or Cherbourg? 
On what river are Paris and Rouen ? 
What town in France is on the strait of Dover ? 
On what river are Lyons and Avignon ? 
Which way is Montpelier from Dijon ? 
Which way from Dijon to Marseilles and Toulon ? 
What lake in Switzerland is the source of the Rhine ? 
What river runs from lake Constance into the N. Sea i 
Which way is it from Berne to Basle or Basil ? 
On what river are Cologne and Strasbourg ? 


Of what is Amsterdam the capital ? 

Of what is Brussels the principal town ? 

On what river is Hanover ? 

Into what sea do the Rhine, Weser, and Elbe flow .^ 

On what river are Hambuig, Leipsic, Dresden, atii 

Into what does the river Oder flow ? 
In what part of Germany is Berlin P 
On what river are Ratisbon, Passau, and Vienna ! 
On what river are Presburg and Buda ? 
Into what do the rivers Drave and Save flow ? 
Into what does the Danube flow ? 
What four rivers flow into the Black Sea ? 
On what river arc Dantzic. Thorn, and Warsaw ? 
Which is the most northerly, Cracow or Warsaw ? 
What town between Duntzic and Koningsburg ? 
On what river is Wilna ? — On what is Riga i 
South of what gull is Courland ? 
Which way is Minsk fj om Moscow ? 
On what river and sea is Archangel ? 
On what gulf in Sweden is Tomea ? 
What island between Stockholm and Abo in Finland? 
Which way h Upsal from Stockholm P 
In what part of Sweden is Gottenburg t 
What lakes are there in Sweden ? 
Where aie Dronlheim. Be gen, and Christiana? 
What is the southern cape of Norway ? 
Which the most noriherly, Copenhagen or Wiborg ? 
Which way is Holstein fiom Hambui g { 
On what coast is the Texel ? 
On what river is London P 
What channel is south of Wales ? 
Which way is York from Oxford ? 
Which is most westerly. Edinburgh or Glasgow ? 
Which the most easterly, Abei dec n, oj Inverness P 
Which way from Londonderry to Cork ? 
Which way from Cork to Dublin P 
What river in the western part of Ireland P 
Opposite to what cape in Spain is Algiers in Africa? 
South of what islands is Tunis P 
On what sea are Tyre, Sidon, Tripdi. and Scandar©«n ? 


Which way is Tarso or Tarsus, from Myra r 

On what sea are Smyrna and Ephesus ? 

What seas are connected by the Strait Dardanelles f 

What countiies in Europe have no seacoast? 

Does any part of Europe lie in the torrid zone ? 

What are the principal rivers in Germany ? 

What are the principal rivers in France ? 

What are the principal rivers in Spain ? 

Which way is Ireland from Great Britain ? 

What mountains between France and Spain ? 

What mountains between Poland and Hungary ? 

What are the mountains in Switzerland? 

What mountains northeast of Russia ? 

Where is the Isle of Man ? — On what G. is Petersburg i 

Is Mantua, Milan, or Turin nearest Venice ? 


How is Asia bounded ? 

What sea separates Asia from Egypt ? 

What gulfs between Arabia and Persia ? 

What sea between Arabia and Hindostan ? 

What sea or bay southeast of Hindostan ? 

Between what seas are Burmah and Siam ? 

What countiy is nearly south of Siam ? 

What island east of the gulf of Tonquin ? 

What sea separates China from Corea ? 

What wall runs west from the Yellow sea ? 

South of what gulf are the Japan isles ? 

What channel north of the gulf of Corea ? 

What sea southwest of Kamtschatka ? 

What island south of the sea of Kamtschatka ? 

What strait is north of the sea of Kamtschatka ? 

What part of Asia was anciently called Siberia ? 

Into what do the rivers Lena. Enissey, and Obe run ? 

What river from the south flows into the Aral sea ? 

Which is most westerly, Tobolsk or Irkoutsk ? 

On what lake is the city Irkoutsk ? 

On what rivers are Kolhy vane, Tomsk, and Obdorskoya 

On what river is tho city of Tobolsk ? 

Tr what part of Asia are the Oural mountains ? 


Where is Novaya Zemlia, or Nova Zembla ? 
Beiween what seas are Circassia, Georgia, Ec Armenia ? 
Which way from Aral sea is Samarcand ? 
Into what sea does the river Oural flow ? 
Between what seas is Natolia or Asia Minor ? 
Which way is Cyprus from the sea of Marmora ? 
Which way is Smyrna from Aleppo ? 
Which way is it from Jerusalem to rripoli ? 
Which way is it from Damascus to Gaza ? 
Which way from Suez to C dro in Egypt ? 
Which is most northerly. Mecca, Medina, or Moiha ? 
On what rivers are Bagdad and Bassora ? 
What river is be' ween Hindostan and Persia ? 
What large island is sou h of Hindostan i 
What mountains in Hindostan ? 
Where are the islands Laccadivas and Maldivas ? 
In what sea or bay are Andaman 8c NicoDar islands 
Which way is it from Bombay to Goa ? 
On what river are Calcutta and Delhi ? 
On what river is Lassa, the capital of Thibet? 
Which way is it from Ava to Pegu I 
Which is most northerly, Pckin, Nankin, or Canion? 
Which are the two piincipal Philippine islands? 
On which of them is Manilla ? 
Where are Formosa and Leoo Keoo isles ? 
Which most notherly, the Carolinas or the Ladrone isl- 
ands ? 
Which way are the Pelew from the Philippine islands ? 
Through what island does the equator pass ? 
Which side of the equator i^ Gilolo ? 
Of what islands are Bencoolen 8c B ^trvia the capitals ? 
What strait separates Borneo from Celebes r 
What strait separates Malaya from Sumatra ? 
What islands does the strait of Sunda separate ? 
What wall separates China from Chinese Tartary ? 
Near what Cape and Strait is the island Socotra ? 
Near the mouth of what river is Astracin ? 
Which way is Ispahan from Gambron in Persia ? 
Which is most northerly, Madras, or Pondicherry ? 


Which way from Tanjore to Seringapatam f 

What part of Asia lies in the torrid zone ? 

What cities are nearly on the tropic of Cancer ? 

Near what sea is Pekin ? — Where is Cape Comorin i 

How is Sakalin island situated ? 

What are the principal lowns in Ceylon? 

Into what sea does the river Amour or Sakalin fall ? 

On what river is the town of Tatta ? 

On what tropic is the island of Formosa ? 

Where is the island of Hainan ? 

Where arc the islands Bourbon and Mauritius? 

Which the most northerly, Almirante or Mahe isles ? 


What are the northerly states of Africa ? 

How is the coast of Guinea divided ? 

Mow aie Loango. Congo, and Angola situated? 

In what part of Africa do the Hottentots live ? 

What town is near the Cape of Good Hope ? 

In what part of Africa are Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia ? 

Where are Adel, Ajan, and Zanguebar ? 

Where are Monomotapa, Sofala, and Natal? 

In what part of Africa is Ethiopia i 

Which is the most westerly, Benin, Dahomy, or Biafra ? 

What river is between Nigritia and Sahara ? 

What are the N. S. E and W. Capes of Africa ? 

What island is east of Cape Gardefan ? 

What large island east of Caffraria ? 

Which is most northerly, Zanzibar, or Comoro isles ? 

Where is Table bay ? — Where is lake Maravi ? 

Where is Sierra Leone ?- Where the Mts. of the Moon? 

Into what sea does the river Nile flow r 

What strait connects the R. Sea with the Indian Ocean ? 

Which arc the principal towns in Egypt ? 

Where are Fernando Po 8c Prince Islands ? 

Which is most northerly, St. Thomas' or Annabon ? 

What island southwest of the gulf of Guinea ? 

How is Africa separated from Asia ? 


What gulfs on the northern coast of Tripoli ? 

In what desert are Derna and Barca ? 

Which way is it frorii Tripoli to Tunis ? 

Which the most northerly, Algiers or Morocco ? 

Which way is it from Fez to Tafilet ? 

What mountains are south of Barbary ? 

What lake is there in Abyssinia ? 

Is Gondar or Sennaar the most northerly ? 

What rivers run into the Atlantic N. & S. of Cape Verd ? 

What rivers near the Cape of Good Hope ? 

How are the Canary islands situated ? 

Which are the principal Canary isbnds ? 

What islands north of the Canaries ? 

What are the principal Cape Verd islands ? 

What islands west of Spain and PorUigal ? 

How are Alexandria and Rosetta situated ? 

Which is most northerly, Damietta or Cairo ? 

What channel separates Madagascar from Africa ? 

Through what part of Africa does the equator pass ? 

What separates Egypt from Arabia I 

What isthmus is between the Red & Mediterranean seas r 

What island between the Gulf of Ca'bes and Italy ? 

What separates Greece from Natolia? 

What is the capital of Turkey ? 


What channel and strait are between England 8c France i 

What town in France is opposite to Dover ? 

Which is nearest Scilly Is. Land's End or Lizard Pt. ? 

What point is southwest of Torbay ? 

What island lies northeast of St. Alban's Head ? 

What island, bay> and point, south oi Bristol channel ? 

Which ivay is Milford Haven from St. David's Head ? 

What part of England h Wales ? 

What bay west of Montgomery in Wales ? 

Which is most northerly, the Isle of Man or Anglesea ? 

Where is Holy Head ?— Where is Holy island ? 

Near what frith are Dumfries and Carlisle ? 


In what frith are the islands Bute and Arran ? 

Which way is il from Glasgow to Stirling ? 

On what frith is Greenock? — On what is Edinburgh? 

Which is most northerly, St. Andrews or Aberdeen ? 

On what frith oY canal is Inverness ? 

What are some of the Western islands? 

Which is most northerly, Lewis, Sky, or Rum island? 

What islands north of Penlhnd Frith ? 

Which way is it from Kinnaird's Hd. to St. Abb's Hd ? 

On what river is Berwick r — On what is New Castle ? 

Where is the Wash ?— Where is Yarmouth? 

What rivers unite in the Humber? 

On what rivers are Leeds and Wakefield ? 

On what river is York ? — On what is Nottingham ? 

Where is Cape Clear ? — Where is Dublin ? 

On what river is Cork I — On what is Limerick ? 

Wiiich is most northerly, Wateiford or Wicklow I 

Which way is it from Wextovd to Gcilway ? 

Through what lakes does the river Shannon rvu I 

Near what lake are Belfast and Antrim? 

Into what four provinces is Ireland divided ? 

In which province is Londonderry ? 

W^hich way is Armagh from Elphln ? 

On what river are London and Oxford ? 

Which is most northerly, Newcastle or Sunderland? 

In what part of England is Cambridge ? 

What river between England and Scotland ? 

Vyhat river flows into Bristol channel ? 

Are there many lakes in Scotland and Ireland ? 

Which is most northerly, the river Dee or the Mersey '■ 

On what river is Liverpool ? 

Whi> h is most northerly, Manchester or Birmingham? 

On vtrhat island is Beaumaris ? 

What river runs through the lakes Rea and Derg ? 

North of what bay is the mouth of the river Shannon ? 

Into what ocean does the river Shannon flow ? 

What three principal towns are on the Severn ? 

On what river is Stockton ? — Where is Swansey I 



What river separates Maine from New Brunswick ? 
W iiat is the capital of Nova Scotia ?- Where is C. Sable ? 
Where the Bay of Fundy r— Where St. George's Bank? 
What capes are north and south of Massachusetts bay ? 
What does St. Mary's river separate from Geoi gia ? 
What rivers are between St. Mary's and Savannah ? 
Which way is Cape Malabar froni Cape Cod ? 
Which way fron» Boston is Nantucket island ? 
What island between Rhode l. and Montauk Point ? 
What large island is south of Connecticut ? 
What river takes its rise near the White Hills, and 

runs between New Hampshire and Veimont, and 

through Massachnsetts and Connecticut into Long 

Island Sound r 
What are the two principal rivers in New Hampshire ? 
What Island is east of Charleston in South Carolina ? 
What are the rivers between the Savannah and the 

Great and Little Pedee ? 
What three Capes east of North Carolina ? 
What two rivers run into Alhermarle sound I 
What two rivers run into Pamlico sound ? 
In what part of North Carolina is Cape Fear river ? 
On the boundary of what states is the Dismal swamp ? 
Between what Capes does Chesapeak Bay open into the 

ocean ? 
On what river are Washington and Alexandria ? 
What river between the Blue Ridge and Jackson's 

mountain, runs into the Potomac ? 
Between what rivers are the Laurel mountains ? 
What part of the great chain of mountains, that pervades 

the United States, is called the Apalachian i 
Where are they called Allegany ? 
What are the mountains in Tennessee ? 
What mountains in Vermont ? 
What hills in New Hampshire ? 
What rivers in Virginia run into Chesapeak Bay ? 
What rivers meet at Pittsbarg and form the Ohio ? 


Into what does Ohio river flow ? 

Into what do the Cumberland, Green, and Tennessee 

rivers run I 
Into what does the river Wabash run ? 
What river lises near the source of the Wabash, and 

runs into Lake Erie ? 
What river rises near lake Michigan, and runs into the 

Mississippi ? 
What river from Louisiana runs into the Mississippi 

just below the mouth of the Illinois ? 
On what river is Vincennes, the capital of the Indiana 

Territory ? 
Of what territory is Detroit the capital ? 
On what river is Chilicothe, the capital of Ohio ? 
On what river is Marietta ?— On what Galiopolis ? 
What town and foit in Upper Canada between lake St. 

Clair and lake Erie, nearly opposite Detroit ? 
What towns on the Canada side, and on the United States 

side of Niagara river, are between lake Erie and 

lake Ontario ? 
Between what lakes is the Strait Michilimakinak ? 
Which of the great lakes is most northerly ? 
From which of the lakes issues the St. Lawrence ? 
Which is the rrost e?e*^erlv town in Upper Canada, 

Kingston, York, or London ? 
Which is most northerly, Quebec or Montreal ? 
What river carries the waters of lake George and lake 

Champlain into the river St Lawrence ? 
On which side of lake Charnplain are Plattsburg and 

Ticonderoga ? 
At what part of lake Ontario is Sack el's harbour i 
On what river are Greenbush and Alban\ ? 
On what rver are Utica «nd Schenectady ? 
Which is the most northerly, Hudson or Kingston ? 
Which way is Poughkeephie from Albany ? 
What separates N. Yok from Newark in New Jersey ? 
What four towns are southward of Newark ? 
What river unites with the Delaware at Philadelphia ? 
How are Philadelphia, Lancaster, Carlisle, and Pitts- 
burg situated with respect to each other ? 


On what bay are Baltimore and Annapolis ? 

What are the towns in Delaware ? 

What bay opens into the Atlantic ocean, between Cape 
May ant! Cape Henlopen ? 

What are the principal towns in Kentucky ? 

On what river is Knoxville ? 

On what river are Nashville and Clarkesviile ? 

On what river is Natches, the capital of Mississippi ? 

On what river is New Orleans, the capital oi Louisiana ? 

Which is in East Florida, St. Augustine or Pensacola ? 

What rivers run south through the Floridas ? 

Near the mouth of what river is Bruriswick ? 

On what river is Darien ? — On what is Sunbury ? 

On what river are Louisville and Elberton r 

What two principal towns on the Savannah river ? 

Which is the most northerly, Beaufort or Charleston ? 

Near what harbour is Georgetown ? 

On what river is Columbia in South Carolina ; 

Which WRy is Camden from Charleston ? 

lu what part of N, Carolina is Raleigh? . 

On what river are Fayetteville and Wilmington ? 

On what river is Newbern ? 

On what sound is Edenton ? 

What two rivers form the Roanoke ? 

Near the mouth of what river is Norfolk ? 

On which side of Appomattox river is Petersburg ? 

On what river are Fredericksburg and Leeds I 

On what river is Richmond ? 

On what river is York or Yorktown ? 

Into what do Gennes^ee and 0^;v/ego rivers flow ? 

What are the three principal towns in Connecticut ? 

Which town in Delaware is most northerly, Wilming- 
ton or Newcastle ? 

Which town in New Jersey is most northerly, Bruns- 
wick, Trenton, or Burlington ? 

Which is the most northerly, Providence or Newport ? 

What towns are in the western part ' f Massachu>.etts ? 

Wh?t towns in the eastern part of MassJichusctts I 

At the mouth of what river is Newburyport ? 


On what river is Windsor in Vermont i 
Which side of the preen mountains is Rutland ? 
On what lake is Burlington ? 
In what part of Vermont is Bennington ? 
In what part of New Hampshire are Hanorer, Charles- 
town. Walpole, and Keene r 
Which is most northerly, Concord or Exeter ? 
At the mouth of what river is Portsmouth ? 
On what bay is Portland ? 
Which side of Saco river is Wells? 
On what river is Brunswick ? — On what is Hallowell ? 
Wliich side of Penobscot river is Machias I 
Which the most northerly, Belfast or Waldoborough ? 
Which way is Wiscasset from Hallowell ? 

What is geography ? — What is the earth ? 

How many miles through it ? — Mow many round it ? 

How is the earth known to be round ? 

How far is it from the sun ? 

What does it receive from the sun ? 

How often docs it revolve round the sun ? 

How often does it turn on its axis? 

What is the first natural division of the earth? - 

What is said of its surface ? — By what is it inhabited ? 

What part of the earlh*s surface is water ? 

How is the land divided ? — How is the water divided ? 

What is a continent? — What is an island ? 
What is a peninsula ? — What is an isthmus ? 
What is a promontory ? — What is a cape i 
What is a mountain ? — What is a shore ? 

What is an ocean ? — What is a sea ? 
What is a lake ? — What is a gulf? 
What is a strait r — What is a channel? 
What is a creek ? — What is a haven ? 
What is a road ? — What is an estuary ? 
What is a sound ?— What is a river ? 

How many grand divisions of the earth are there? 


What is said of Europe ?~of Asia ?— of Africa ? 
For what is America remarkable ? 
By whom is a great part of it inhabited i 
What is it frequently called ? 
What is said of the American Continent ? 
Give its extent and boundaries. 
When and by whom was it discovered ? 
What ceuntries were first discovered ? 
What induced the Spaniards to conquer the country ? 
What is its length and breadth r—How is it divided i 
What are some of the mountains in N. America ? 
What are the lakes ? 
What does N America include ? 
What part of America is called Danish i 
What is said of the country? 

WlKit is Russian America '?-Where is the N. W. coast ? 
Wnat are*the rivers ?— What are the islands? 
What is known of this country ? 
For what principally has it been visited ? 
Where are the Indian nations ? 
What is the stature of American Indians? 
What is their complexion ? — Give an account of them. 
What success in attempts to civilize them ? 
Into what is British America divided ? 
What does N. Britain comprise ? 
What are the principal forts, or trading houses ? 
What river do you find on the map? 
What is the climate of N. Britain ? 
What is the name of the Indians of this country ? 
How may the United States be considered? 
What college in the District of Maine ? 
What college in New Hampshire ? 
Where is the principal academy ? 
What two colleges in Vermont? 
What university and college in Massachusetts ? 
What institution a' Andover ? 
W hat college in Rhode Island ? 
What college in Connecticu ? 
What colleges in New York ? 


What celebrated springs in New York i 

What is said of the land in Pennsylvania ? 

What abounds in the western part of Pennsylvania i 

How is the Michigan territory situated i 

What were Indiana and Illinois territories formerly? 

What springs in Kentucky ? — VVhat cariosity I 

What curiosity in Tennessee ? 

W^here is the District of Columbia ? — How large is it ? 

To which states did it formerly belong ? 

What is the situation of Washington ? 

For what is Yorktown celebrated i 

Where is Mount Vernon J—For what is it celebrated ? 

What are some of the curiosities in Virginia? 

For what is Cape Hatteras remarkable? 

Where is mount Ararat, and what is said of it? 

What is the Misscltoe^ and where is it found ? 

What is observed of the country, through which the 

Mississippi flows? 
Who are the inhabitants of New Or'leans ? 
What are the principal mountains in the U. States ? 
W hat is the extent of the whole chain ? 
How do they run along the coast? — Describe them. 
W hat is said of the lakes in the United States ? 
What remarkable cateracts in the U.S. ? Where is each ? 
Describe the falls of Niagara. 
"What is the Gulf stream ? 
What are the principal bays in the U. States ? 
What are the sounds ? 
What principal islands on the coast ? 
What re some of the principal capes ? 
What is the fare of the country in the United States ? 
How are the U. S. watered, and what do they produce ? 
What is the climate of the United States ? 
How do the northern and southern states differ ? 
What are the minercd productions of the U. States ? 
What are the vegetable ? — What are the animals ? 
How is the mammoth known to have existed i 
How large is it supposed to have been ? 
What is said ot the forests and rivers of the U. States f 


What is the disposition of the American animals ? 

Who first explored the shores of the U. States ? 
WhenSc where was the first permanent settlement miade ? 
When and where did our ancestors first land ? 
W^hat was their number ? 
What occasioned their sufferings ? 
How many of them died within the first six months ? 
Who established the first settlements in the U. States ? 
Under whose jurisdiction were they ? 
What where the States then called ? 
What was the increase of the colonies ? 
\Vhy did they become dissatisfied with England f 
What increased the dissatisfaction ? 
What did the dissatisfaction at length produce ? 
When did hostilities commence ? 
When did the colonies declare their independence I 
What title did they assume ? 

When did Great Britain allow their independence ? 
What is the separation of the colonies from England 

called ? 
What government was formed in '788 ? 
What are the articles of this confederation called? 
Of what does the government consist ? 
How are its ofiicers elected ? 
When assembled, what do they compose? 
Who was the first President ? 

Name the number, succession, &c. of the Presidents. 
What is said of the happiness and prosperity of the 

United States? 
When did their commerce become obstructed ? 
When was the war declared ? 

What is the religion of the United States? 
How is religion supported in New England ? 
How is religion supported in the other states? 
What was the population of the United States in 1810? 
What is the state of learning in the United States ? 
W^hat are the principal colleges ? 
What number of students does each contain ? 
Wiiat is the character of the people of the U, States? 


What are the Spanish domiiuons in N» America ? 

What is the face of the country in the Floridas ? 

What is the climate?-- What are tue prodactions? 
What is said of Mexico or New Spain ? 

What does Guatimala comprist;? 

What is the population of Mexico? 

When was the city of Mexico founded ? 

What great monarch resided there ? 

When and why did Cortez attack his capital? 

How did he induce Montezuma to visit his camp ? 

What other arts did he use to succeed in his attempt ? 

What became of Montezuma ? 

Who succeeded to the throne ? 

What are the mountains of Mexico ? 

Arc any of them volcanic ? 

What remarkable incident happened in 1759 ? 

Wliat is the face of the country, climate, See. ? 

What are the soil and productions? 

'What knowledge have we of the Spanish dominions? 
Of what do the West Indies consist ? 

How are they di^-ided ? 

Which are the lars^est and most important of the W. I.? 

To what are the West Indies subject? 

What is said of the climate, soil, and productions ? 

Why are they called West Indies ? 

To whom does South America belong ? 
How is South America dividec' ? 
What is the general name of the mountains in 8. A. ? 
How hiajh are the rnountains above the sea i 

What is snid of the seasons in Peru ? 
Where is Amazonia situated ? 
From what does the country receive its name ? 
By whom is it inhabited ? 
What is said of the rivet Amazon ? 
What animals infest the shoies of this river ? 
What are the climate, soil, and productions of Brazil? 
How far is Rio de la Plata navigable ? 
What are the fields of grass in this country called ? 
How far do they extend, and for what are they useful? 


In what manner do the hunters kill their game ? 
What are the climate, soil, 8cc. of this country ? 

What is observed of the mountains in Chili ? 
What are the climate and soil of Chili ? 

By whom is Patagonia inhabited ? 
What is the character of the inhabitants ? 
Is it much known? — What are the mountains ? 
How far do they extend ? 
Where are their chief summits ? 
Which is the highest ? 
What forms the base of these mountains ? 
How far is the plain of Quito elevated above the sea ? 
What are the other principal peaks or elevations ? 
For what is South America best known ? 

How is Lapland divided ? 
What is the government of the Laplanders ? 
Describe their habitations, and the manner in which thcy 

assemble round their food. 
What is the climate of Lapland ? 
How long is the sun absent in winter ? 
How long does it continue in summer ? 
What are the mountains, metals, & animals of Lapland f 
What use do the Laplanders make of the rein deer ? 
What is said of the vortex on the coast of Norway ? 
What is the climate and face of the country ? 
How do the inhabitants subsist ? 
What are the chief sources of wealth in Norway P 

Of what does Denmark Proper consist ? 
What countries belong to Denmark ? 
What is said of Iceland ? — What is mount Hecla ? 

For what is Greenland celebrated ? 
To whom do Greenland and the Faro Islands belong ? 
What is the climate of Denmark ? 
What was the character of the ancient Danes ? 
Do they still retain that character ? 
What kingdom is Denmark, and how governed? 
What are the islands, gulfs, and straits in Sweden ? 
What is the capital ? — How is it built ? 
For what is Upsal noted ? 
What is the climate of Sweden ? 


What is the character of the Swedes ? 
What does Russia include ? 

What forms the boundary between Europe and Asia ? 

What variety is there in the soil and climate of Russia? 

What is the government of Russia ? 

For what is Russia noted ? 

What is said of the inland navigation of Russia ? 

What are the towns, mountains, and rivers of Poland ? 

What is said of the Carpathian mountains ? 

Describe the salt mines ? 

Is Prussia a large or a small kingdom ? 

What do the British dominions include ? 

How large is the island of Great Britain ? 

How is it divided ?— What the number of its inhabitants ? 

For what are Leeds and Wakefield celebrated I 

For what are Birmingham and Sheffield ? 

For what goods is Manchester distinguished ? 
What is the second city in England ? 

What is said of Oxford and Eton ? 

For what is Cambridge celebrated ? 

What is the metropolis of the British Empire ? 

Where is it situated ? — How large is it? 

How many inhabitants does it contain ? 

How may it be considered ? 

What are the large dockyards ? 

What are the soil and climate of England ? 

What is the character of the English ? 

What is the government f 

What have rendered the English great and powerful ? 

From whom are the Welsh descended ? 
How is Scotland separated from England ? 
For what are Edinburgh, Glasgow, & Aberdeen noted i 
What is the character of the Scotch ? 
How long have England and Scotland been united ? 

How is Ireland divided ? 
For what is Lough Neagh remarkable ? 
What is the capital of Ireland ? — How it is situated ? 
How many inhabitants does it contain ? 
Wh:it is the character of the Irish ? 
Which way are the United Provinces from England r 


What 13 remarkable in the streets of Holland ? 

What number of inhabitants does Amsterdam contain ? 

In what manner are the houses built ? 

What is the climate of Holland ? — What is the soil ? 

What is the face of the country ? 

For what purpose are the canals used ? 

^V hat is the character of the Dutch ? 

Of what art do they claim the invention ? 

What are the principal curiosities? 

What were the Dutch before the late revolution ? 

What is said of Antwerp ? 

How did the Dutch ruin its commerce ? 

How is Germany divided ? 

Where does the Danube take its rise ? 

What course does it run ? — Into what does it run ? 

W^here has the Rhine its source ? 

Through what lake does it pass ? 

What two countries does it divide ? 

What is the character of the Germans ? 

What countries compose the Austrian dominions ? 

What are the mountains and rivers of Austria ? 

What is the character of the Hungarians ? 

How is France situated ?-For what is it distinguished? 
What is the capital ? — How is it situated ? 
How many inhabitants are there in Paris ? 
What part of France is nearest to England ? 
What are the climate, soil, and productions of Franc© ? 
How many inhabitants does France contain ? 
What is the character of the French ? 
Wiiat is said of their language ? 
What was formerly the government of France? 
Wiien did the massacre take place in Paris 2 
Who was the reigning king ? 

When was the constitution of France declared repub- 
lican ? 
What sentence did the convention pass upon the king ? 
When was it executed ? 

To whom does Gibraltar belong ? 
How is It considered ? 
What are the air and soil of Spain ? 


What are the persons and character of the Spaniards? 

What is the religion of Spain?— What is the government? 

Wnen was Lisbon destroyed by an earthquake? 

1 low is Switzerland divided ? 

^V hat are the mountains, lakes, and rivers? 

How is Switzerland situated ?— What is the capital? 

What is the largest town in Switzerland ? 

W lat art is said to have been invented here ? 

What are the climate and soil of Switzerland ? 

What is the character of the Swiss ? 

What was the goveinment till conquered by France ? 

How is Italy at present divided ? 
What are the mountains of Italy ? 
is it in as flourishing a state, as it formerly was ? 
What is the capital of the kingdom of Italy ? 
What is said of the Venetian States ? 
How is Venice built ? 
Wiiat are the islands belonging to Italy ? 
What is the capital of Sardinia ? — What of Corsica ? 
For what are Corsica and Elba famous ? 
For what is Malta memorable ? 
What are the air and soil of Italy ? 
In what do the Italians excel ? 
W^at are the curiosities of this country ? 
W lat countries does Turkey in Europe include? 
W at forms the Turkish empire ? 
Wiiat is the capital of the grand Seignior's dominions? 
Wiiy is Adriano'ple now in a miserable state ? 
Wiiat were the southern provinces anciently called ? 
Wi^at is Athens in its present state ? 
Where are the Dardanelles? 
W'lat are the air and soil of Turkey? 
Wiiat is the religion ?— What are the curiosities ? 
What is the commerce of Turkey ? 
What is the government ? 

From whom were the ancient inhabitants of Europe 
supposed to have descended ? 
For what were Greece and Rome distinguished ? 
What has Europe been in modern times? 
What has recently been the state of Europe ? 


To whom did the nations of Europe tall a prey ? 
Who have checked the French in their progress towards 
universal dominion? 

Where is Georgia situated ? 
Is Circassia a part of this country i 
What is said of the Georgians I 
By whom is the country peopled i 
Between what rivers does Diarbeck lie ? 
Of what was Jerusalem the capital^ 
When was it destroyed, and by whom I 
What are the curiosities in Turkey ? 
Where is Palmyra situated ? 
What was it called by the ancients ? 
Who is thought to have built Balbeck and Palmyra ? 
From what does Mecca derive its support ? 
For what is Medina celebrated ? 
What is said of the mosque at Medina? 
What is said of Arabia Felix ? 
Where are Mocha and Aden ? 
Where are the mountains of Horeb and Sinai ? 
For what are these mountains memorable ? 
By whom are these mountains inhabited ? 
What are the climate and soil of Arabia ? 
W^hat are the most useful animals ? 
What are the person and manners of the inhabitants r 
What is the religion of Arabia ? 
What is said of learninu: among the Arabians? 
From whom are the Arabs descended 1 
With whom did their conquests and religion begin? 
When did Mahomet die ? 

What are the air and soil of Persia r 
What are the productions f— -What the curiosities f 
For what is Persia remarkable ? 
What does India within the Ganges include ? 
How many inhabitants does it contain i 
How many inhabitants are there in the British possessions/ 
What countries does the Birman empire contain ? 
How are the Birmans separated from the Hindoos ? 
Are the Birmans and Hindoos similar ? 


For ^vhat s Malacca noted ? 
How is the kingdom of Siam situated ? 
What is remarkable of the trees on the river Meinam? 
For what is Cambodia celebrated? 
What are the air and soil of China? 
How is the tea plant cultivated and prepared for use 2 
What do the Barbary states in Africa include? 
^Vhat are the productions of the Barbary slates 2 
For what are the inhabitants remarkable ? 

How is Egypt situated ? 
What does lower Egypt comprehend ? 
What are the chief towns or cities of Egypt ? 
What has been one of the largest cities in the world i 
By whom was Alexandria built ? 
Are any remains of it now to be seen ? 
What are the soil and climate of Egypt ? 
What animals are natives of this country ? 
For what was Egypt distinguished in early ages? 
For what were the ancient Egyptians remarkable ?. 
What was their religion? 
What is now the state of Egypt ? 
What is the principal article of trade in Ethiopia? 
What are the productions of Guinea ? 
How has the misery of the human race been aggravate 
£d in Africa ? 


N. B. The best method of examination with respect to aiV 
cient and modern names is to allow the pupil a modern map, and 
to require him at the same time that he sees the modern name, 
to give the ancient, corresponding to it ; and when the pupils 
are old enough, a good method of learning this correspondence 
would be to draught maps, and fill them up with both the an- 
cient and modern names of the principal countries, towns, and 
natural objects : as riTCPs, oceans, seas, islands, Sic. 

Homanum Imjierium^ or Map, of the Roman Emfiire^ 

What ocean was west ot Eurofia or Europe?* 

•When the ancient and modern names are iiella*ly similar tRey 
are in these questions used promiscuoiwly. 


What mare or sea east of the Pontus Euxinus 

What part of Europe was called Sarmatia? 

Which way was Gallia from Hispania ? 

Wnat peninsula in the northern part of the Pontus Eux* 

inus ? 
With what sea did the Maeotis Palus communicate? 
Between what seas was the Propontis ? 
What separated Scandia or Scandinavia from Sarmatia ? 
What ocean was between the Cimbri and Caledonia? 
What sea separated Hi hernia from Britannia? 
Which was most northerly, Eboracum or Londinum ? 
What Freetum or strait separated Britain from Gaul ? 
What were the four principal divisions of Gaul ? 
What were the three principal divisions of Hispania Z 
W^jich of these divisions is now called Portugal ? 
What part of Gallia was called Belgae ? 
What river separated Belgas from Frisii and Franci?. 
Between what rivers was Lugdunensis ? 
Which division was between the Ligoris & Garumna? 
What river runs south through Narbonensis? 
On what river was Lutetia Parisiorum ? 
On what river was Lugdunum ? 

What small Ina or islands were a little south of Massilia^ 
W;iat small island between Tuscia and Corsica ? 
Wnich way was Rome from Capua ? 
Which way was Ravenna from Brundusium? 
What sea between Sicilia and Greece ? 
Wiial separated Italy from Illyricum ? 
Wiiat three countries were immediately north of Italy 

and Illyricum I 
In what part of Germany were the Alemanni and Qiiadi? 
In what part were the Frisii, Franci, and Catti ? 
What river separated the Chauci and Saxones ? 
What large river was between Dacia and Moesia ? 
What mountain separated Mcesia from Thrace and 

Macedonia ? 
Which was the most northerly, Thetisaionica or Bersea 1 
What part of Greece was Peloponnesus ? 
Which was the most northerly, the island of Eubsea Or 

the Cyclades ? 
Which way was Thebes from Sparta ? 


Which way from Athenas to Corinthus ? *iB9»ft^iP^ 

Which way was Delphi from Olympia? 

What separated Greece from Asia Minor ? 

Which was the most easterly, Scythia or Sarmatr 

What countries between the Caspian and Eux'ine seas? 

What mountains between the Alani and Colchis ? 

Which was the most westerly, Armenia or Media? 

Between what rivers was Mesopotamia ? 

What were the four southern divisions of Asia Minor ? 

What were the two northern divisions? 

What the three western ? 

Which was most easterly, Cappadocia or Phrygia ? 

Which was most northerly, Phcenicia or Palaestina? 

On what river was Babylon ? // 

On what was Ninus or Nineveh ? $f 

What was the situation of Arabia Petrasa? "# 

What separated Mount Sinai from Madian or Midian^lf 

Which way was Idumaea from Damascus? 

What lake near Hierosolyma or Jerusalem ? 

On what coast were ^jaza, Joppa, Csesarca, Tyrus, and 
Sidon ? 

Which way was it from Egypt to Mauritania ? 

Which way was Numidia from Libya? 

What mountains were in the western part of Africa? 

Wi.ich way was Sicilia from Carthago ? 

Ne u' the mouth of what river was Utica ? 

Wnich was farthest up the river Nile, Thebfe or Alex- 
andria ? 


Around what gulf or ^inus was Liguria situated? 
What part of Italia was Gallia Cisalpina, and Venetia? 
In what part of Italia were Lucania and Brutii ? 
Wiiich was the most northerly, Tuscia or Etruria? 
Wnich was the most easterly, Picenum or Umbria ? 
Which was the most northerly, Latium or Samnium ? 
What part of Italy were Apulia and Calabri? ^ 
Which was most northerly, Tarentum or Regiunr? 
On what rivers were Cannse, and Capua ? 


In what part of Italy was the river Rubicon ? 

Which way was Ravenna from Ariminum? 

Which was most northerly, Mutina or Mantua? 

Which the most northerly, the Alpes or Apenninus ? 

Which was most westerly, Rhaetia or Noricum ? 

Which way v/as Brundusium from Hydruntum ? 

What mountain a little southeasterly of Neapolis ? 

In what part of Sicilia were Leontium and Syracuse ? 

Which was the most northerly, Panormus or Agrigentum^ 

AVhich way was Messana from Mount jEtna ? 

In what part of Sicilia was Catana ? 

Which way was Carthago or Carthage from Sicilia ? 

Which way was Utica from Carthage ? 

W^hat are the small islands north and south of Sicilia? 

What separated Italia from Dalmatia ? 

Which way was Epidaurus from Brundusium? 

What large river passes through Gallia Cisalpina? 


What part of Peloponnesus was Achaia and EHs?. 

What part was Messenia and Laconia ? 

Which was most westerly, Arcadia or Argolis T 

Which was the most southerly, Attica or Boeotia? 

What large island east of Phocis and Bceotia? 

Which was the most easterly, Thessalia or Epirus ? 

What large island west of Epirus ? 

Which was the most northerly, Ithaca or Cephallenia? 

Which most northerly, Zacynthus or the Strophades? 

How was the island Cythera situated ? 

What gulf or sinus between Achaia and Phocis? 

What gulf between Argolis and Attica ? 

Which island was nearest Athens, Salamis or ^gina ? 

AVhich way was Marathon from Athens ? 

Which way from Athens to Eleusis? 

On which side of the Isthmus of Corinth was Megara ? 

W hich way was Sicyon from Corinth ? 

Which was most northerly, Mycenae or Argos ? 

On what river was Sparta or Lacedsemon ? 


On which side of mount Tayc^etus was Gythium i 
Which was most northerly, Mitho'ne or Pylus? 
\^'hich was most southerly, Messe'ne or Itho'me ? 
On what river v/ere Olympia and Megalopolis? 
Which was the most northerly, Elis or Cylle'ne ? '|^_ 

AVhich way is Tegea from Mantinea ? *^ 

Near what sinus or gulf were^^gira and ^^ium ? 
On which side of the Corinthian gulf was Naupactus ? 
What mountain north of Delphi r 

Which way were Cheronaea and Lebadaea from Thebse ? 
Which way from mount Helicon were Thespiae and 


Which was most northerly, Thermopylas or Opus? 
Which is most northerly, mount Pindus or CEta ? 
Which way was Melib(Ea from Melitaea ? 
Which was most northerly, mount Pelion or Ossa ? 
What river between mount Ossa and Olympus ? 
Which way was Pharsalus from Pherae ? 
On what river were Gomphi, Larissa and Tem'pe ? 
In what part of Epirus was Buthrotum ? 
Which was most northerly, Aulon or ApoUonia ? 
On what river were Edessa and Pclla ? 
Near what river was Be rasa ? 
Which most northerly, ThessalonTca or Potidaea ? 
Which most easteily, Stagira, Chalcis, or Olynthus ? 
Between what bays or gulfs was mount Athos ? 
On what river was Amphipolis ? 
Which way from Philip pi were the Castra^ or camps, of 

Brutu* and Cassius? 
What island was near the mouth of the river Nestus ? 
Which most northerly, Samothrace or Lemnos? 
Which was nearest Troja, Tenedos or Lemnos? 
Which was nearest Eubaa, Lesbos or Chios ? 
In what part of the island Euboea was Eretria ? 
What were the principal islands between Chios and 

Creta ? 
On what island were Gortyna, Gnossi^s, and Cydonia? 


Which way was Thracia from Macedonia ? 
Near the mouth of what river was Enos ? 


What separated Bithynia from Thracia ? 

On what river were Mnos and Adrianopolis ? 

Which was nearest the Bosphorus, Byzantium or Perin- 

What strait separated the Chersonesus from Troas? 
Which way was mount Ida from Ilium or Troy ? 
Into what did the river Granicas flow ? 
In what division of Asia Minor were Adramyttium and 

In what division were Thyatira and Philadelphia ? 
On what river was Sardes ? 
In what division were Colossae and Laodicea ? 
In what were Smyrna, Ephesus, and Miletus ? 
In what division were Halicarnassus and Cnidus ? 
What large island was south of Caria ? 
What river separated Caria from Lydia ? 
In what part of Lycia were Patara and Myra ? 
What mountain was between Lycia and Pamphylia ? 
On what river were Atali'a, Perga, and Antiochia? 
What mountain between Pisidia and Phrygia ? 
Which most northerly, Lycaonia or Isauria ? 
Which way from Iconium to Lystra, and thence to Der* 

Which way was Taurus from Seleucia ? 
Which way was Cyprus from Cilicia ? 
In what parts of Cyprus were Salamis and Paphos ? 
Which way from Cappadocia to Bithynia ? 
Which way from Prusa to Niceea, f memorable /of the 

first ecclesiastical council held there?) 
On what river was Gordium, (whither Alexander went 

to cut the Gordian knot PJ 
What mountain separates Bithynia from Mysia ? 
Which way was Galatia from Paphlagonia? 
In what part of Paphlagonia was Sinope ? 


What river between Paphlagonia and Pontus 2 jj 

Which the most noitherly, Trapezus or Cerasus? 
On which side of the river Euphrates was Armenia Mi- 
What river between Syria and Mesopotamia ? 
On what river were Apainea and Antiochia ? 
On what sinus or gulf was Alexandria ? 


What were the opinions of the ancients concerning the 

figure of the earth ? 
In what year of the world was the deluge ? 
Who survived the destruction of the old world ? 
Where did Noah settle after leaving the ark ? 
How was tr.e world shared among the sons of Noah ? 
What knowledge of the earth had the ancients? 
What was called the world by heathen writers ? 
What are the ancient names of the principal mountains 

in Europe ? 
Into what ^ve parts was Greece anciently divided ? 
In what part of Greece was Peloponnesus? 
In what part were Macedonia and Thessalia ? 
Which way is Epirus from Athens, the chief city in 

Graecia Propria '^ 
How did the "Romans divide Greece ? 
What is said of Peloponnesus with respect to mountains? 
For what was Arcadia celebrated ? 
What wei e the principal i ivers of Peloponnesus ? 
What was the Corinthian gulf anciently called ? 
For what was the Island of Crete celebrated ? 
Into what kingdoms was Peloponnesus subdivided? 
What city was first established in Greece ? 
What was the situation of Sicyon? 
What was the situation* of Corinth ? 
What is related* of this ancient city? 
For what was Olympia memorable ? 

• Let these two questions be asked concernirg* each of the 
cities hereafter mentioned. 


How many solemn games among the Greeks ? 
Which were the principal ? — How often celebrated ? 
In what did they consist ? — What was the tendency of 

them ? 
How were the victors rewarded ? 
What were exhibited at these games ? — Who attended 

them ? 
What is the situation of Mantinea ? — Of Messene ? 
What was the capital of Laconia ? — What its situation ? 

Where was mount Parnassus ? 
Where was the strait or pass of ThermopylaB ? 
What memorable event took place there ? 
What large island east of Phocis and Bceotia ? 
What were the subdivisions of Giaecia Propria ? 
What was the capital of Atiica ? — Where situated ? 
What particulars are related of Athens ? 
What was the capital ofBoeotia? — By whom built? 
Who introduced letters into Greece ? 
What celebrated persons were natives of Thebes ? 
For what was Delphi celebrated ? — Where situated ? 
What is related of the Delphic temple and oracle ? 

What were the mountains in Epirus ? 
What were some of the riveis and islands ? 
What is said ot Ithaca? — What of Leucadia ? 
For what was Corcyra celebrated ? 
What were the subdivisions of Epirus ? 
For what was Actium famous ? 

What were the mountains in Thessalia ? 
Where was the vale of Tempe ? 
For v/kat were the plains of Pharsalia celebrated ? 
What is observed of the country of Thessaiy ? 
Where was mount Athos ? — Descrioe it. 
Which was most southerly, the river Strvm.on, or Ha- 

liacmon I ■ 

What part of Macedonia was Illyricum ? 
Where was Au?^ustus Caesar educated? 
For what was Epidaurus celebrated ? 
What was the capital of Macedonia ? 
Which way was Pella from Thessalonica? 
For what was Thessalonica remarkable ? 


What is said of Stagira ? — ^What of Methone ? 

Between what riveis is Phiiippi situated ? 

What important event distinguished this city ? 

Which of the Grecian states last rose to power t" 

When and by whom was Macedonia founded ? 

Who raised Macedonia from obscurity ? 

What did Philip do on ascending the throne ? 

What was the character of this great king? 

What designs did he form after subduing Greece V 

What prevented the execution of his design ? 

What did Alexander do on tlie death of his father ? 

Give an account of his success and death. 

When did mount Vesuvius first become a volcano ? 

What circumstances attended the first eruption ? 

What is said of Pliny, the naturalist ? 

Who were the first inhabitants of Sicily ? 

Who were the Cyclops ? 

How represented by the poets ? 

Wh?.t is said of mount jEtna ? 

What were the principal towns in Sicily ? 

What were Scylla and Charybdis ? 

What is said of Corsica and its inhabitants? 

What is said of the islands Sirenusae ? 

What were the ancient names of Italy ? 

Of what did Italy at first consist ? 

How was Italy afterwards divided ? 

What part of Italy was Gallia Cisalpina ? 

Aro und wh&t gult" was Liguria ? 

"W hich way from Rome was Etruria ? 

WJiich way was Rome from Tuscia ? — From Umbria?- 

From Picenum ? 
What part of Greece was called Magna Grsecia? 
V' hat is said of Italy ? 
What colonies early settled in Italy? 
"N-N hat was the situation of Rome ? 
What is said of its magnificence and population? 
On what river was Tibur situated ? 
Where was Ostia ? — What was it ? 
Where was Capua? — What is said of it? 


What is said of Herculaneum and Pompeii I 

For what was Cannss remarkable ? 

What was the birth-place of Virgil ? 

AVhen was Rome founded — And by whom ? 

How were its inhabitants collected ? 

What was their character ? 

On how many hills was Rome built ? 

What was its extent and population ? 

What was the government of Rome ? 

What is said of the reign of Augustus ? 

What is said of his successors ? 

What became of the Roman empire ? 

What is called the dark ages of the world ? 

By what names was Spain anciently known '? 

Into what provinces was it divided ? 

Betv/een what mountains was the Fretum Herculeum? 

What were these mountains called ? 

Wiiat celebrated men were natives of Spain? 
What did ancient Gaul comprise ? 

By what three nations was Gaul inhabited ? 

Who conquered Gaul? 

Into how many, and what parts, was Gaul divided ? 

What did each of the divisions comprise ? 

Who were the Helvetii ? 

Into what classes were the Gauls divided ? 

What were the occupations of each ? 

How were the common people regarded ? 

What was the ancient name of G. Britain ? 

What was Scotland called ? — By whom inhabited ? 

What was the ancient name of Ireland ? 

Till what time was Britain little known ? 

What were the office and authority of the kings of Brit- 
ain ? 

What were the duties and power of the Druids? 

What is said of the ancient Britons ? 

What was the extent of ancient Germany ? 

What were the natural features of Germany ? 

What is said of the northern parts of ancient Eurone " 
What was the situation of Thrace ? 


What was the character of the Thracians? 

^V hat is said of Asia ? 
What were the principal mountains? 
AVhat were the piincipal rivers in Asia Minor ? 
What towns on the island of Cyprus ? 
What is said of the island oi Rhodes? 
For what was it celebrated? — Describe it. 
Where was Troy situated? — For -what celebrated? 
For what was Ephesus f:imous ? 
What is said of xMiletus ? 
What is said of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe ? 
What is said of Ttirsus ? — of Nice ? 
What is said of Asia Minor ? 

What was Palestine called ? 
What were some of the mountains? 
What were some of the lakes? 
What is said of the Dead Sea ? 
What is said ofPalestine ?— Mow was it situated^ 
Describe the country — its climate — fertility, &c. 
What is said of the ancient inhabitants ? 

What mountains near the north part of the Red Sea? 
What is said of Babylon ? — its extent ? 
"Wliat is said of the countries east of Persia ? 

What mountains in Africa ? 
What the largest river ? — Describe it. 
In what part of Egypt was Goshen ? 
What Is said of ancient Figypt ? 

How was the country watered? 
What is said of the pyramids? 
What monumcrts of art and labour still remain? 
What is said of Carthage ?_What of Tunis'^ 



What is an empire?— What is a kingdom? 

What is a dutchy? — What is a state? 

What is the constitution of a state ? 

What is the sovereignty of a state ? 

What does a regular government consist oi ? 

What is the legislative power composed of? 

What are they in the United States ? 

When assembled, what are they called ? 

What does the legislature consist of in the individual 
stales ?— When convened what are they called ? 
Of what is the legislature composed in England? 

AVhat is the judiciary ?— What is the executive power ? 

What is a form of government ? 

How many kinds of government are there ? 

What is a monarchy ?— .What is a limited monarchy ? 

What is an arbitrary monarchy ? 

W^hat is an absolute government ? 

What is an elective monarchy ? 

What is an hereditary monarchy ? 

What is an aristocracy ?— What is a democracy ^ 

What is a republic ? 

What is the government of the United States'? 

What is a mixed government ? 
What is religion ? 

How many kinds of religion are there ? 

What is Paganism ?— What is Judaism ? 

What is Christianity ?— What is IMahometanism ? 

Who was the author of this system ? 

What are the followers of Mahomet called? 

What book contains their religion? 

How is the Christian religion divided ? 

What is the Roman Catholic religion ? 

What is understood by the infallibility of the Pope ? 

What is meant by his supremacy ? 

What was the consequence of the corruptions and abus- 
es of popery ? 

Who are the protestants? 


What are those Christians called, who reject the Catho- 
lic religion ? 

What is tlic separation of tho Protestants from the Ro- 
man Catholics called ? 

How are the Protestants divided? 

Who are the Calvinists ? — Who are the Lutherans ? 

How does Episcopacy differ from Calvinism ? 

What is the church form of government called? 

Who arc the Presbyterians ? 

When a religion is sanctioned by law, what is it called ? 

What are those called who differ from the established 
church ? 

Who are the Baptists ? — Who are the Independents? 

AVho are Deists ? — Who are Atheists ? 

General Questions^ which, with little variation^ may be 
asked concerning every country orstate^ and which 
should be firomfitly answered by the pupil. 

How is the country bounded ? 
W^hat are the principal mountains^ 
What are the principal lakes \ 
W^here do they take their rise ? 
In what direction do they run ? 

Into what do the rivers f^ow ? 
What are the principal towns and cities ? 
On what rivers, bays, Sec. are they situated ? 
W hat is the state of learning ? 
What are the colleges ? — And where are they ? 
What bays, straits, or gulfs belong to it? 
Mention the islands, capes, and peninsulas. 
What are the soil and climate? 
What are the mineral productions ? 
What are the vegetable productions ? 
What are the animals? 
What is the character of the inhabitants ? 
What is the government ? — What is the religion ? 
What antiquities are there ? — What curiosities ? 





The ancient names are distinguished by Italics, and have 
their rorresponding" modern names annexed to them. The 
pronunciation of difficult words is conveyed by a different 
spelling inclosed in parentheses. With respect to the pro- 
nunciation of ancient names it may be observed, that the 
diphthongs oe and ae, ending a syllable with the accent on it, 
are pronounced exactly like the long English e, as Cos'sar^ 

(E'ta^ are pronounced as if written Cee'aar, E'ta ; and like 
the short e when followed by a Consonant in the same sylla- 
ble, as Bad'alus^ (Ed'ipus, are pronounced as if written 

Ded'dahiSy Ed'dipus. 
When a word ends in double /, the first i has the long sound of 

e, and the other the long sound of I, as Fabii is pronounced 

as if written Fa'be-I. 

Jlbass'ne, Abyssin'ia or Ethio- 

piii, a part of Africa 
Jibde'ra^ a maritime town of 

Ab'ergavenny (Ab'ergai'ny), a 

town of England. 

Ach'eron, a river of Epirus, and 

one of the Brut^tii in Italy. 
Acqs (Ax), a small city of 

Acqui ( Ac-ke), a town of Italy. 

A'bex (A'besh), a country of AcHftas, Ca'po GaKlo, a cape 


A'busy Humber, a river of En- 

Abj/dos, Naga'ra, a city in Asia 
opposite Ses'tos in Europe. 

Abi/lay Ceri'ta, a mountain in 

Abyssin'ia^ a part of Upper 

on the south of Peloponne'- 

Acro-Cerannii montesy moun- 
tains in Epi'rus. 

Acro'nhis or Constantien'sis^ 
Unter-see, the Jower part of 
lake Constance. 

Ac'tinm, Az'io, a town of 

Acanthvsy a town of Macedo'. Ad'diui, Ad'da, a river of Cis- 

nia, of Egypt, and of other aVpine Gaul. 

Peaces. A dige[A.dizh'],ariver of Italy. 

Acarna/nia, Ca/nia, a division Adramit'tium, Adramit'ti, a 

of Epi''rus. maritime town of Mysia. 

Acha'ia^ the northern part of Adrianap'olis, Adriano'ple, a 

Peloponne'sus. town in thrace. 

Achelo'us, As'pro-Pot'amo, a Adriat'icns sf'n?.'*, the gulf of 

river between JEto'lia and Venice. 



^^g<z^um ma' re, the Archipel'- 

ago sea. 
K^gi^na, Eii'gia, an island in 

the Sa pontic gulf. 
K^'gium, Vostit'za, a town of 

Acha'ia Proper. 
^fEgy^tm, Egypt, a celebrated 

country of Africa. 
JEo'lia^ a country of Asia Mi- 
JEo'lice insulay the Lip'ari isles. 
•^stua'ri um, a common name 

signifying frith or arm of the 

^Sthio^pia, a large division of 

t^t^7ia, Gibel, a Tolcanic 

mountain in Sicily. 
^fEto'lia^ a part of GreeceProper 
Africa^ the third great divi- 
sion of the earth 
Agvigen' turn, Grigen'ti, Vec'- 

chio, a town of Sicily. 

a town of Germany. 
M'ba Lon'ga, Palaz'zo, a town 

of La'tium. 
Alba'7iia, SerVan or Shir'van, 

a country of Asia west of the 

Caspian Sea. 
Albuquerque (Al-bu-kirk,) a 

town in Spain. 
Jil'binn, the ancient name of 

M'bis, the Elbe, a large river 

of Germany. 
Mbu'nea^ a fountain and wood 

near Tibur in La'tium. 
Alexan' dria, or Alexa7idri' a, 
Alexandret'ta orScandaroon, 
a city of Syria, Egypt, and 
other places. 
Algiers )Al-ge^ers), one of the 

Barbary states. 
Allob'rogesy Centra' nes, Dau'- 

phine, and Savoy'. 
. 71'f^eSf the Alps, the hig-hest 

mountains of Europe. 
Alphe'us, Al^feo, a river of E'lis 

in Peloponne'sus. 
Ama!7iu8y Mon'te Ne'gro, a 

branch of Tau'rus 
Amase'a, or Ama'sia, Amasi'eh, 

a city of Pontus. 
Ambra' cia,2i city of Tliespro'tia. 
Ambro'ne!^, Berne, Friburg, Lu- 

cern', Basil or Basle. 
Am'iens, a city of France. 
Ami'suSf Ems, a river of Ger- 
Ami'suSf Samsoun, a city of 

Pontus in Asia Minor. 
Amphif/olis, Jambo'li, a city of 

Amphi/sa, Salo'na, the capital 

of Lo'cri. 
Anacto' Hnrn, Voni'za, a town 

of Ep/rus. 
A'nas, Guadia'na, a river of 

An! con or Anco'nay a town of 

Pice'num m Italy. 
Ancy'ra, Angou'ra, a city of 

An'des, a village near Man'tua, 

the birth-place of Virgil. 
Andomati/nunii or Andomadi/' 

nwn, Lan'gres, a town of 

Champagne in France. 
An'droSi An'dro, one of the 

^7/20, Tevero'ne, a river of Ital} . 
Aii'themusy a city of Macedonia. 
Antic'yra, As'pro Spi'tia, a 

town of Pho'cis. 
Antigo'nia, an inland town of 

Antio'chia or Antiochi'a, Anti- 

och, the capital of SjTia. 
Antio'chia, Ak-Shehr, a town 

Antitau'i^Sy a branch of mount 

Tau'rus in Asia. 
Apala'chlan, a branch of the 



Allegany mountains. 
^Hpame'a, Mouda'nia, a city of 

Apenni'nusy the Appennlnes, a 

chaiii of mountains in Italy. 
A'phas, a river of Greece. 
Apid'anus, SalanVpria, a river 

of Thes'saly. 
ApoUo'nia, Poli'na, a town of 

dp-pii^Fo'ru m, Bor'go-Lon'g'o, 

a town of the Vol'sci. 
.Ipau'lia, a part of the king- 
dom of Naples, 
A qu^ solisi Bath in England. 
Aqnile'ta, a to\vn of Vene'ti. 
Klqnlta^ni ov^quita^nhy Gas'co- 

ny and Guienne (Gue-enn'.) 
Ara'hia Deser^ta, a division of 

Ara'bia Fe'lix, Arabia the Hap- 
py, the southern part of 

Ara'hia Petrce'a, Arabia the 

Stony, the northern part of 

Arabia, through which the 

Israelites travelled from 

Egypt to the Holy Land. 
AraViciis si'nus, the Arabian 

gulf or Tied Sea. 
A'rar, Soane CSone,J a river 

of France. 
Aran' si 0, Or'ange, a town of 

GaVlia Narbonen'sis. 
Araxiim, Pa'pa, a promontory 

west of Acha'ia. 
Arbe'la, Er'bil, a town of As- 

. ?rca' r/m,part of Peloponne'sus . 
.Ir'dea, a town of Latium. 
Arela'ium^ Aries (Arls,) acKy 

of Gaul. 
Ar'ethoii, a river of Epi^'rus. 
Arethu'sa^ a famous fountain of 

Ar'golis, a division of Pelopon- 


Argol'icus si7iuSf^\i[£ of Napo'li, 


Ar'g'yr^f the island of Sum a' tr a. 

Aritnfinum, Rim'ini, a town of 

A'/magh (Ar'mar), a town of 


Arme'nia JMinor, Aladu'lia, J 
countries of Asia Minor. 

Ar^nus, Ar'no, a river of Tus- 

Ar'pi^ a tov/n of Apulia. 

Arpi'num, Arpino, a town of 
the Volsci in Latium. 

Arsinoe or Cleop'atris, Su'ez, 
a city of Egypt and Arabia. 

Ar'tabrum or J\^cr'iumy cape 
Finisterre ( Fin'is-terJ, 

Artax'ata, Ar'desh, the capi- 
tal of Arme'nia, 

Artemis' himy a town of Eubae'a. 

As'cidum, As'coli, a town of 
Pice'num and Apu'lia. 

Aso'piiSy a river of Boeotia, and 
other places. 

Aspen'dtin, a town of Pam* 

AsphaVtitesy the Dead Sea, a 
lake of Jude'a. 

Assyr^ia^, Curdis'tan, a country 
of Asia. 

Astra'uSf Vistri'za, a river of 

Asiu'rica Augusta, Astorga, a 
tov»n of Spain. 

Athe'noey Ath'ens or Se'tines, a 
celebrated city of At'tica. 

Athfesis, Adige, a river of Cis- 
al'pine Gaul or Italy. 

A'thos, :Mon'te Say to or Ag^ios 
OVos, a mountain of Mace- 

Atlan'ticiis OceUmus, the At- 
lantic oceaH. 

At'traxy a city of Thessaly, 
and a river of ^to'lia* 



Atta^lia or Miali^a, Ita'lah, a 

city of Lydia. 
At'tica, a division of Greece. 
Attreba'tesy Berkshire in Eng* 

Attt'rudy A dour, a river of 

A'o^ri'cum, Bour'g'es, a tovv-n 

of France. 
Au'Jidus^ Ofan'to, a river of 

Apu'lio in lt?.ly. 
Augs'burg (Os'burg), a city of 

Augusfta Taurino^nnny Tui'in, 

the capital of Piedmont. 
Jiug^is'ta Treviro'rn'}n, Treves 

(^TreevesJ, or Triers, a city 

of Germany. 
AuUis, Met^'alo-Yathi, a town 

of Boeo'tia 
Aux'ume, Ax'um, a city of 

Ave^7iio, Avignon [Avhion], a 

town of France. 
Avergne [Au-vern'], a pro- 
vince of France. 
Avignon [Avinon], a city of 

Avranches [Av-ransh'], a town 

of France 
Ax'ius, Varda'ri, a river of 

Azo'rusj a town of Thessaly. 
Babylo'nia^ or Chalda'a, Prak, 

a country of Asia. 
Bactria'na, Balk, a country of 

Bx^ticQi a province of Spain. 
Bce'tisy Guadalquiver, a river 

of Spain 
Bagdad [Bag'dat], a city of 

Bag^raday Meger'da, a river of 

Africa Proper. 
Balea'res or } Major'ca and 
Balear'ide^f S Minor'ca. 

Bamby'ce or Hierap'olis^ Men- 
bigz, a city of Syria. 

Bar'ccy Bar'ca, a town of Cy- 
rena'ica in Africa. 

Barci'noy Barcelona, the capi- 
tal of Catalo'nia in Spain. 

Ba'riwn, Ba'ri, town of Apulia. 

Ba'sil or Basle [Ball], a canton 
of Switzerland. 

BatiL'viy Utrecht, [U'trate], a 
city and province of Holland. 

Bat^nce, Ada'neh, a city of 

Bel' gee, the Netlieriands. 

Bel'g<£y an ancient division ot 
Ei^.gland, including Hamp- 
sliire, Somersetshire, and 

BcUeisle [Bell-iie'], an island 
of France. 

Bena'cuSy Gar'da, a lake in the 
north of Italy. 

Beneven'tiim, Beneven^to, a 
town of tJic Sam'nites in Italy. 

Barce'ciy Ha'leb, a district and 
city of Syr'ia. 

Bera^a, Es^'ki-Za'dra, a city 
of Thrace. 

Ber^'a, (^ara-Veria, a city of 

Bereni'ce, a city of Arabia Pe- 
trre'a, the Ezion-Geber of the 
Old Testament, also a port 
of Egy^pt on the Red Sea. 

Berg'en, the capital of Norway. 

Bher'ings [Ber'ings], the strait 
between North America and 

Bithyn'iay a country of Asia 

Bla^niiy Dub'lin and Kilda're 
in Ireland. 

Blejn'myes, the ancient inhab- 
itants of Ethio'pia. 

Bodot'riay Frith of Forth in 



7i(eo'tia, a country of Greece 

Boiohds'mium, Boie'mum^ or 

Boioh(e'mumi Bohe'mia, 
Bole'rium^ Lands End,the south 
west extremity of England. 
Bologna [Bolo'na], a large 

town of Italy 
Bono'ma^ Bologna [Bolo'na], a 

town of Italy, 
Borys'thenes^ the Nieper [Nee'- 
per], a large river of Europe. 
Bos'phoruS'Czjnjne'rius, Strait 
of CafFa, which unites the 
Black Sea with the sea of 
Bourdeaux [Boor-do'], a mar- 
itime city of France. 
Bretagne' [Brit-tany], an an- 

cient province of France. 
Briancon [Bre-an-son'], a town 

of France. 
Brig'an'teSf Yorkshire, Lanca- 
shire, &c in England. 
Briganti'nus lacusy lake of Con- 
Brighthelmston [Brigh'ton], a 

sea-port town of Sussex. 
BrUan'nia, Britain, England, 

Scotland, and Wales. 
JSrix'ia, Bres'cia, a town of tlie 
Cenoman'ni in Cisalpine Gaul. 
Bruc'teri, a division or people 

of Germany. 
Brundv! slum, Brun'disi, a cel- 
ebrated port of Calabria. 
Brut' til or Bm'tii, a division 
and people of Ancient Italy. 
Burdig'alciy Bourdeaux, [Boor- 
do'], a town of France. 
But liro' turn, Butrin'to, a sea- 
port oi Epirus. 
Buxenfium, Policas'tro, a town 

of LucaHiia. 
Byzan'tiuirif Constantino'ple, 
capital of the Ottoman em- 

Ccesare'a, Jersey, an island in 

the English channel. 
Casare^a, a city of Samaria, 

and of other places. 
Cassia Sylva^ a forest in Ger- 
CaHle^ Oporto, a city and port 

of Portugal. 
Cala'brim, Cala'bria Cit'ra, a 

country of Italy. 
Caledo'niay Scotland. 
CagViay capital of Sardin'ia. 
CaCpe^ the rock f »f GibralHar. 
Callip'olist Gallip'oli, a towa 

of Thrace. 
Cambunii mon^tes, mountains 

of Macedonia 
Campa'nia, a part of what is 
now the kingdom of Naples. 
Ca'naan, Judea, Palestine, or 

the Holy Land. 
Can'na, a village of ApuHia, 
celebrated for the defeat of 
the Romans by Hannibal. 
Cano^ptis, a town of Egypt on 

the mouth of the Nile. 
Can'tium, Kent in England. 
Canu' 8121712, Cano'sa, a town of 

Caper'maum, a city of Galilee. 
Cappado'ciay a country of Asia 

Cap'ua, the chief town of Cam- 
Car aw! his, Kerem'pi, a city of 

Cu'ria, Aidinel'li, a country of 

Asia Mmor. 
Carlstadl [Carl-stat], capital 

of Croatia. 
Cartha'go, Car'thage, the cap- 
ital of Africa Propria. 
Casili'num, Casili'no, a town 

of Campania. 
Caa'piam ma!'^€, the Caspian 

Cassar/driaj Cassan'der, a town 



of Macedonia. 

Cassiter'ides, the Scilly islands, 
Lands End, and Lizard point. 

Cat!anay Catania, a town of 

Castile [Cas-teel], a province 
of Spnin. 

Cau'casns, a high range of 
mountains extending from 
the Eux'ine to the Caspian 
sea, and into the north of 

Cau'dium, a town of Sam mum 
in Italy. 

Cel'ta, Normandy and Brit- 

CeVttca or Lugdunen sis, a di- 
vision of Gaul. 

Cenoman'ni or Caioma'nU a 
people of Cisal'pine Caul. 

Ce'os, Zi'a, one of the Cyc'kdes. 

CepLalle'nia, Cefalo'nia, an isl- 
and in the Ionian sea. 

CepMs'sus, a river of Boeo'tia. 

Cersaso'rumy a town of E^ypt. 

Ce-e'dus, Luga'no, a lake of 

Italy. ^ , . 

Chcsrone'a, a town of Boeo tia. 
Chalcid'ice, a part of Macedo - 

Charcis, Egripo, a town of Eu- 

ChaUce'a, Kel'der or Irak, Ba- 

bylo'nia or AssyVia. 
Champagne [Shampain], a 

province of France. 
Champlain [Sham-plain], a 

lake between Vermont and 

New York. 
Chao^nia, a division of Epirus. 
Charidemvm, Gata, a cape of 

Charijb'dis, a famous whirlpool 

in the strait of Sicily. 
Cherburg [Shur-burg], a sea- 
port town of France. 
Ch^roni'tes or Cheloni^tes^ Cabo 

Torneso, a cape wt^t of Elis» 

Cficrsone'svs, [Kersonea'sus], 
a common name signifying a 
Chersone'siis Cim'brica, Jutland 

or Denmark Proper. 
Chili [Che'le], a country of 

South America. 
Chilicothe [Chilly -coth'e], cap. 

ital of Ohio. 
Chimborazo [Kimbora'zo], the 
highest point of the Andes. 
Chi'os, Sci'o, an island in the 

Ege'an Sea. 
Cilic'ia, Carama'nia, a country 

of Asia Minor. 
Cim'brica, Jutland or Denmark 

Cimme' riits i Strait of CafFa. 
Cir^ta, Constan'tia, the capital 

of Numidia. 
Cisalpi'na Gal'iia, the northern 

part of Italy. 
Cla'nisf Chia'na, a river of 

Clazotn'ena, Vour'la, a town 

of lo'nia. 
C7u^dns, [NiMusj, a town of 

Cocy'tus, a river of Epirus. 
Coda'nus sinus, the Baltic sea. 
Cue'le Syr'ia, a country of Asia. 
Col'chis, a country of Asia east 

of the Eux'ine sea. 
Cologne [Co-lone'], a town of 

Colos'sje, Cho'nos, a town of 


Coliin/7i<e Ilei-^ciilis, the pillars 

of Hercules, the mountains 

on each side of the Strait of 


Commage'ne, a part of SyrMa. 

CompiegHc- [Compain] a town 

of France. 
Co7idi'me'rv7n, Nantz, a city 

of France. 
Consen'tia, Cosen^za, capital of 
the Driilii. 



Ct/zaVs JLaVw5,Livadia Limine, 
a lake of Boeo^ia. 

Cop>tos, Ky pt, a town of Egypt. 

€orcy\a^ Cor^fu, an island in 
the luniiii sea 

Cor^duba, Ccrd'jVa, a city cf 
Ksc^ i.:a in i^pain 

Corjiti'ium^ San Ferri^no, the 
capital of ihe Peligi.i [Peii- 
ni.] a brave people m Italy. 

Coh^oli, a town of the Voi^sci 
in Italy. 

Coriri'thus, CorHnth, the capi- 
tal of AchaMa l^rop^r. 

Corion'^diy Kings and Queens 
counties, in IrelancL 

Coritani^ Lincolnshire, Not- 
tinghamshire, Derbyphire,&c. 

Connthtacu8 si^tiue^ the Corin- 
thian guif. 

Cor^f;ica or Cyr^Hos^ Cor ica, a 
large islaTid in the Mv^diter- 
ranean sea. 

CoutrMices [CoO'tance^], a sea- 
port town of France 

Cra'ter^ Bas\sin, the gulf of 

Cremo^nuy a town north of the 
P<», near MinHua. 

Cre^t.a^ Crete or CanVlia, a 
large island in the south part 
of the Eg^^an sea, 

Crisnet'usy sinus, gulf of Sa'oNia, 

CrcVo n,-Croto\ia, a city of the 

Cus'ijihon, [Trs'lfihov.'] El- 
M^va^iri, aciiy ot Assyria. 

Cu^ma, Cyme, a town of Cahi- 

and port of E^Iea, 
Cylititrmia ai'nus^ the gulf of 

Cyjmti^'^sa, Arca'dic, a towa 

of MesstV'a. 
Cifparis\^us si^nm, gulf of Ar- 
ea' dia. 
Ci/Jiru-^ a large island in the 

'Mechterrni^t i n sea. 
CyrenfiHca, 6c LyhHa Sufie'rior^ 

BirV-'i in Aitjc^i, 
Cyre'ne^ the cjpicai of Cyre- 

Cyiht\a^ Ceri^go, an island 

s<;uth .;f '.he More^a 
CyV^r'ron^ nrmirjtaln of Boeotia j 
Cytiri^^umy a city of Duiis ia 

Cz/zVcw.v, a city of My si a on 

the Piopnntis. 
Da'cvj, Tr; nsylva^nia, Molda^- 

via, ^'nd Walla^chia. 
Dalma'iia, a ce? mtry of Europe, 
Damati' cu.-iy Dein^esk, a citjr 

of '-viia, 
Dunu' bills or I/tci\ the river 

Dardanelles [D ir-f^a-nels^], 

two Cristies <.f l u»key, one oa 

each sid^ di. tlit strait of the 

san;e n^nie, ancicnuy called 

HtiHti-tiom ; one is called 

S.s^'os, iht other AbyMos. 
Dt^loh-, < re of the C^ cMades in 

the EgtrVn sea. 
D<r}i}vy CcisHti, a town of 

Dtr^bc, Alah-dag, a town of 

Lvc^oV ia. 

Cybh^tra, BusHereh, a town of D^empn's Land [Dinian's], y&- 

Asia Minor, 
Cyc^ lades, a circular cluster of 

islands in the Egt^an sea. 
Cydo^nia, a city of Crete. 
Cylle^ne, a high mountain of 

Cyile^ne^ Chiareji^za, st town 

land M nth of Kcw -Holland. 

Di' ppt [Deep], a seaport 
tc wn (i France. 

Dioine^lia^ 1 ren Mti, three is- 
lands IP the gulfof Venice. 

Di'-urn^ Stan- D la, a city of 



Divodu'rum, Metz, a city of 
Lormin^ in Gaul. 

Dnie^per rNVper], a large 
river of Europe. 

Dniester, [Nees^ter], a river 
of Europe. 

Dodo'na^ a town of Molos^sis 
in Epirus. 

Dordrecht [Dort], a town of 

Uo^rzsy a part of Greece Proper. 

Drefia^num^ Trapa^ni, a mari- 
time town of Sicily. 

DumnQ^nily Cornwall and Dev^- 

IluqueMa, [DukeMa], a province 
of Morocco. 

Dv>riii8, DouVo, a river of 

JBur^nium or Durnova'ria, 
Dorchester in England. 

Durot\lg€8y Dorsetshire, a di- 
vision of England. 

JDurover^num, CanHerbury, a 
town of England. 

J])yrrha'chmm^ Du-raz^zo^ a 
town of IllyrMcum or Mace- 

Mbor^acuniy York in England. 

JSbu^des in^sulcB, Heb\"ides, the 
Western Isles of Scotland. 

Rchat^ana^ Ham^adan, capital 
of Media. 

Mchtnos or Jtchi^nades, Curzc- 
laVi, small islands (if Greece 
at the mouth of the i^iver 

Edcs'sa or j^'gcB, Mogle'na, a 
city of Maccdo'nia. 

Rdfs'sa or Edea'sCy sl town of 

Edinburgh [Ed'inborcugh], 

capital cf Scotland. 
^don'ui or Edon'ica, a district 

of Macedonia. 
£ia:'a, I-a-^e'a, a town of iEo'- 
Es, m Asia Miaor. 

Ela'tia, or Eiate^a^ Tur'ct- 
Cho'rio, a town hi Phocis. 

FJtu'sist L»ssi'na, a village of 

E'lis or Ele^ay a division of 

E'lis, Bclvede're, a town of 

Elusabei^'ris, Aux, a town of 

F.lyma'is, a town of Persia. 

Emcrita jiugustay MeriMa, a 
city in Spain. 

Eiii'ma-uHy a city of Jude'a. 

Emjio'ria, Ampu'rias, a town 
of Spain. 

Enip'eufi,^ river of Macedonia. 

E-o'um ma're^ the Chinese sea. 

Eor'di or Eordct'U ^he inhabi- 
tants of Eovdae'a ,a district of 

Eph'e^us, Aios'oluc, the capi- 
tal of Ionia. 

E}iidau'ru8, PidavVa, or Mal- 
va'sia Vec'chia, a town of 

E}iidauriLs, Regu'si-Vec'chie, 
a town of Illyricum. 

EfiVrusy Alba'nia, and Cani'- 
na or Chime'ra.'tria^ Gravali'nais, a city 
of Enboe'a. 

Eryjna'n/thus, a woody moun- 
tain of Arcadia. X 

Eryth'rcsum ma're^ tke Ara'- 
bian sea, 

Esquimaux, [Es'-ke-mo], a 
country and people of North 

Ethio'pm, a large country of 

Etru'ria^ Tuscany, a country 
of Italy. 

Eubce'a, Negropont, an island 

east of Boeo'tia. 
F.uganei, a people of Italy. ^ 
Eu/iato'ria^ Tchenikeli [Che - 



nikeh], a city of Pontus. 

£ufihra'tes, Euphra'tes, or 
Frat, a large river oi' /Vsia. 

Euri' fills, a narrow strait be- 
tween Boso'tia and Euboe'-^. 

jE7/ro'ra.9,Vasiiipot'anio, or Ba- 
siiipnt'amo?, a river of Pelo- 

Mv^^r.iiSy Fidari, a river of 

Evreux [Ev-roo], a to^vn of 
Nornnandv in France. 

Euxi/nu>i Pon'tus [], 
the Black sea. 

Ferma^nagh [Ferma'na], a 
county of Ulster in Ireland. 

Finisterre [Fin-is- ter], tlie 
western cape of Spain. 

Finnin'gia, Fin'iand, a part of 

Floren'tia Florence, the capi- 
tal of Tu /cany. 

Fontevrault [Fon'-te-vro'], a 
town of France. 

Fo'riim Jii'lii, Friu'li, a town 
of the Ven'eti in Italy. 

Fre'tum, a common name sig- 
nifying a strait. 

Fre'tum GaVlicum^ Strait of 

Fre'tum Hercu'leum, ") Strait of 

ovFretuviGadita'num. ^ Gibraltar 

Fris'iU Holland and Friesland. 

Frontigniac [Fron-tin-yac], a 
tov/n in France. 

Ga'bii, a town of La'tium, now 
ex met. 

&a'dcs, Ca'diz, an island and 
town of Spain. 

Gadi'd'mifi si'nusy'^^y of Cadiz 

^(E*u'liay the countiy of the 
GaetuMi, the first irihabitaits 
of Africa. 

Qala'tia^ a country of Asia 

Galc'susy Gale'so, river of Italy. 

^alike'e, Gvii'fl^e, a drstritt of 

GallcEcia^ Galli'cia, Astu'ria, 

and Biscay. 
Gallia, France. 
Gal' Ha Cvmlpi'nayth^ northern 

part of Iiaiy. 
Gai'licii^ stnusy gulf of Lyons. 
Gangi'ficiis sinus. Bay of Beti- 

Garga^uum, Garga'no, a cape 

or^promontory (>f It'aly. "^ 
Gar^jiinc [Ciar-own'], a river 

ot France. 
Garumna, Garonne, a river 

of Gaul. 
Ge'lrif city of Sicily near vvMiere 

Ter ra no'va, new stands 
Geria'bwn or Geiiabum, Or- 
leans, a t^;wn of Fraiice. 
Gen'uciy Gen'oa, city of Li^uria, 

fcrmcrly a repubiic of Italy. 
Gcrma'nia^ Germa jiy . 
Germa'na San7ij}fc€, Poland. 
Ghent [Gong], a town cf Flan- 
Gil'Ooay a mountain and town 

Gio^ta, the river and frith of 

Clyde, in Set iland. 
Giio^'sufi or Gno'siiSf one of 

the principal towns of Crete. 
Gon'nus or Goruii, a tov/n of 

Gor'diumy GorVliu-co'me, a 

tov/n of Phiyg'ia. 
Gortyn'ia or Gorty'na, one of 

the principal cities of Crete. 
Grf^'cia^ Greece. 
Grce'cia Fro'firiay Greece Pro- 
Gram'pii mor/tcsy the Granft- 

pian hills between England 

and Scotland. 
Graji'icus or Grani^cus, Ousvo- 

la, a river of Mvsia in Asia 

Gryninrny a town of iEo'lia m 



Asia Minor. 

Guadaloape [Go-de-lupe'], one 
cf the Caribbee islands. 

Guadalquiver ' [Gau-dal-ke- 
veer'], a river ot Spain, 

GuayaquiK [Gua-a-keel], a 
town (f Peru. 

Guernsey [Gurn-sey], an is- 
land of G-eat Britain on the 
coast of France, 

Guienne [Gwe- en'], a province 
of France. 

Gu'ca and HUkviQ'nis^ Goth- 
land, or ratvier the people of 

Qyth'ium, Co'lo Kyth'ia, the 
port of Sp irta, 

Hadrkii'icu}, Su'fierus or Ad- 
inatHcus aiiiusy the Gulf of 

Hadrumf^tum^ a city of Nu- 
m:di<^, or Africa Proper. 

M{e^musi EmiNiChdag, a moun- 
tain of Thrace. 

Mediae' mon^ Platamo'na, a ri- 
ver between Thessaly and 

Nalonnc'tiUi, Dro*mo» an island 
of M.xedo'nia. 

Malicarna^'sua, Bodroun, the 
chief town of Ca'ria. 

Ma'lys, Ki'zil-Er'mark, a riv- 
er of Asi.i Minor. 

Harwich [Har'rij], a seaport 
of Essex in England. 

Havre-de-Grace [Hav'er de 
Grat/1, a seaport of France. 

He'brusy Mari'sa or Mariza, a 
river of Thrace. 

Hebu'des or Ebu'dca^ the He- 
brides or Western Isles of 

Hel'ena, St. a small island in 
the Atlantic ocean. 

Helicon^ Z-ig'aro Vou'ni, a 
mountain on the confines of 
Boso'tia and Phocls. 

M^liimo'ta, a people of Mace- 

H'liofi'olis, Balbec[Borbec], 'k 

city of Svr'ia. 
HrlltsfionUus, Dar-da-nelW 

(«• Hel'lespont. 
Helve' tia^ Swit'zerland. 
H^racle'a, Zei'ton, a town of 

Thessaly, and of other places. 
Hcrac'lrum, HeracMea, a town 

of Macedu'nia. 
Hercula' ntum^ a city of Cam- 

pa'nia . 
HfTQu'leum Fre'tuniy strait of 

Her' cuiisPromo?ito'rTumy'Sp2LV' 

tiven'to, a rape of Italy% 
Hcrcyn'ia Syl'va^ the Hercy- 

niati forest in Germany, 
HeffieWiay Spain, 
Hiher'nia, or Itr'ne^ Ire-land. 
Hi her'jiicum or Vergin'iiim 

Ma're, the Irish sea or St. 

George's channel. 
Hif^rafiUiB or Bamby'ciS^\.t\:l' 

bigz, a city of Syria. 
Hierosol'yma^ Jerusalem, the 

capital of Jadea. 
Hifi-po-re'giusy a maritime 

town of Numidia. 
Hirri and j^s'tii or Osti'ones. 

Livo'nia and Estho'nia or 

His/ia'lis, Seville, the chief 

city of Andalusia in Spain. 
Hisfia'nia or Hes/ie'riUy Spain. 
His'tria or Istria, formerly a 

part of Illyricum. 
Hogue [Hogey fir onounci?2g i he 

g /iard'\ a town and cape of 

Ho'reb, the western summit of 

mount Si'nai. 
Hydas'/ies, Shan-trou, a river 

of India. 
Hydranftum, Otran'to, a mar- 
itime town of Calabria. 
Hymet'tus a moimtain near 




^e'ria^ Spain. 

Jie'ria, Imeri'ta, a country of 

Asia, north of Arme'nia. 
Ibe'rus, Ebro, a river in Spain. 
Ica'ria^ Ica'ros, an island near 

the coast of Ionia. 
Ice'nU Norfolk, Suffolk, &c. in 

Ichnu'sUy Sardinia. 
Ico'nium, Koni'eh, the capital 

of Lycao'nia. 
Iculis'wa^ An.ejouleme [An'- 

gooleem'], a town of France.- 
Tda^ a high mountain of Crete, 

and also of Tro'as. 
Idomene^ a town of Macedonia. 
Idumos'a or K'dom^ a part of 

Ara^bia Petrx'a, and also ©f 

Icr'ne^ one of the ancient names 

of Irerand. 
Her' da, Leri'da, a town of Cata- 

lo'nia in Spain. 
Il'iuni or Tro'ja^ Troy, capital 

of Tro'as, 
Ilifi'susy a river of x\t'tica. 
Illyr'tcum^ iL'lyru, and Illyria, 

Crotia, a country of Europe 

bordering on the Adriat'ic 

Il'va^ El'ba, a stnall island near 

luily, the late residence of 

Im'ausy Ime'ia, a vast ridge of 

mountains in Asia. 
Im'bros, Em'bio, an island of 

the Ege'an sea. 
In'dicuit oct'anusy the Indian 

In'dus, Sir/dusy or Sm^thus,th% 

Siud, Sinde, or Indus, a cele- 
brated river of Asia. 
In'subres^ a people cf Cisarpine 

Iri'siday a common name signi- 
fying an island. 
In'&ulcB Fortuna^tesy the Fortu- 
nate Isles, no\y the Cana'ries. 

In'sftloe Hesfier'idesy supposed 

to be the Cape Verd Islands. 

a cluster of islands in the 

Atlantic ocean belonging t« 

hiteram'na, Ter ni, a town of 

Umbria in Italy. 
lo'nia, a part of Asia Minor. 
lo'nium ma're^ the southera 

part of the gidf of Venice. 
Isau'ria or Isau'rica re'gw^ a 

country of Asia Minor. 
Is'ca Dumnonio'rum^ Exetef 

in England. 
Is'TYixrus^ a mountain and tow» 

of Thrace. 
Is'sus, Ais'se, a town of Cilicia, 
Ih'ttr, or Dannbiust the river 

Ital'ia, Italy. 
7ifa/7ca, Se villa la Vieja, atow» 

of Bze'tica in Spain. 
/^A'acfl,Thea^ki,a small rocky 

island in the Ionian sea, the 

country of Ulysses. 
Itu'na Mtua'rium, Solv/ay 

Frith, between Cumberland 

and Kirkcudbrightsiiire. 
Ju'dera^ Zira, a city of Illyri- 

Janeiro i^/o[Ja-ne'ro],a river 6c 

province of S uth America. 
Japyg'ium or lafiyg'ia. Cape 

de'Leuco, a soutliern cape of 

Jaxar'tesy Sir cr Sihcn, a river 

of Asia running into the Cas^ 

pian sea. 
Jorda'nesj Jor'dan, a celebrated 

river of Jude'a. 
Judcza^ a part ot Syria, the Ho- 
ly Land. 
Juver'jia, one of the ancient 

names ot Ireland. 
Labrador, a country of N«rth 




Lacedof'mon or Sfiar'ta, Pa'leo- 

Cho'ri, til- capitalot' Lnco'iua. 
Laco'nia or Lacmilca^ a divis- 
ion of Peloponne'sus. 
iMcon'iciLs si7iU8f gulf of Colo- 

La'cuti, a caramon name signi- 
fying a lake. 
Lado'ga, a lake and town of 

Lalmia, a city of Thes'saly. 
haodice'a^ La'dik, a town of 

iMvia sa CrejnasUe^ a town of 

Lari'us lacus, Co'mo, the larg- 
est lake of Italy. 
J.a'tium^ now a part of Pope- 

donfi ; a division of Italy, the 

country of Latins. 
l.a'us nniiSy Policastro, a gulf 

of Italy. 
La'tui, Latino, [La-e'-no], a 

river of Italy, 
Leghorn [Le-gorn'], a town of 

fitru'ria in Italy. 
Lema'nus or Lausa'7iius lacus, 

the lake of Geneva. 
Lem'nofiy Stalimen, an island in 

the Egean sea near Thrace. 
Leominster [Lem'-in-ster], n 

town in Mi^.bsachusetts and in 

Leomi'ni or Leontinumy Lenti'- 

ni, a town of Sicily. 
LcfitiSy Lebida, a town of the 

Re'gio Syr'tka in \frica. 
Ltr^na^ a c^rlebrated lake near 

Argos in Pelnpf)nni*'sus. 
Les'bo3y Metelin, an island on 

the coast of Mys'ia. 
Leu'casy St. MauVa, a town on 

the peninsula of Lpuca'dia. 
LcUca^ta, a promontory of Leu- 

c^/dia in Acaina'nia. 
Leuco/i'etra^ Piat'taro, a south- 

©rn cape of Italy, which is 

the termination of the Appen- 

Leuc'tra, Livados'tro, a town of 

Lib'cnus, Leb'anoQ, a mcuntaiR 

of Syria. 
Lib'ya Inft'rior, and Gatu'lia^ 

Biledul^erid, an inland coun- 
try of Africa. 
Libya' sa, Gebi'se, a city of Bi- 

thynia, where Hannibal was 

Li'ger or Z/'^<rr/5, Loire [Lon-], 

a river of France. 
Legu'ria, a country of Italy in 

Gariia, Cispada'na. 
Lylybit'um promonto[riumy 

Bt-e'o or Boco, a cape of Sicily . 
Lily'bctum, Marsal'ia, a town of 

Limerick [Lim'rik], a county 

and town of Ireland. 

gnndy and Franchecompte' 

[Franch-com-ta], divisions, 

or a people of Gaul. 
Li;:/ari, ^n island north of Sicily 
Li'rUiy Gari^lia'no, a rirer of 

Lii'sus, Ales'so, a town of Illyr- 

icum on the frontier of Mace- 
Locris,2i part of Greece Proper* 
Lundi^num or Xontfm'mTTi, Lon- 
Luca'niay Basilica'ta, a country 

of Italy. 
Lugdu'nujn^ Lyons, a town of 

Luiita'nia, Portugal. 
Luf e'tiaPa ris'tiov Parisio rum^ 

Lycao'niay a country of Asia 

Lyc'ia, a country of Asia Minor, 
X2/d7«,!iCOQ«itry %iAm, Mi«or. 



Limy' ra or Lymi're, a town of 

Lynces'tiZy an inland people of 

Lyonois [Le-o-na'], a province 
of France. 

Lys^tra^ a town of Lycao'nia. 

Maccdo'nia, a country on the 
southeast of Europe extend- 
ing from the Ege'an to the 
Adriatic sea. 

^\/aVra,Ma'gra, a river of Italy 

Macieir'as[Ma-de»/-as], islands 
in the Atlantic ocean belong- 
ing to Portugal. 

Mad'rid, the capital of Spain. 

Mean'der, Me-inMea,a river of 
Phi7g'ia in Asia Minor. 

Maelstrom [Marstrom], a cel- 
ebrated whirlpool on the 
coast of Norway. 

Man'alusy a high mountain of 

il/<e'o//«/2«7w5,theseaoi A'soph. 

Maestricht [Mees-tret],a town 
of the Netherlands. 

Magel'lan, a strait which sepa- 
rates ler'ra del Fu'cgo from 
South America. 

MagnemUy Mana'chia or Gui- 
cl-Hizar, a town of Lydia. 

Magne^sia, a district and town 
ot Thessaly. 

Magonti'acum, Mentz[Ments] 
a town of Germany. 

Mahrattas, [Ma-rat'tas], two 
powerful states of India* 

Malabar', the western coast of 

Mal'acuy Mal'aga, a port town 
of Grana'da in Spain. 

Male'a, Mi^le'a, a promontory 
of Laco'nia. 

MaiHuba^ Mareb, a city of 
Ara'bia Fe'lix. 

Mali'acus si^nus,Si bay between 
Thessaly and Lo'crrs. 

Mantine'a^ Trupoliz'za,a town 
of Arcy.Mia. 

ilia^i'ma, capital of the duchy 
of the same name in Italy. 

Mara'^acn[Ma-ra'-non], a riv- 
er and province of S.America. 

Mar'athoriy a village of At'tica, 

Mare^ a common name, whick 
signifies a sec* 

Maridu'numy Caermar'then in 
W ales. 

Mari'no[Ma-re'no], a town and 
smfill republic of Italy. 

Alarmar'ica^ a country of Afri- 
ca west of Egypt. 

Mar 'mora, a small sea between 
the Archiperago and Black 

Marseilles [Mar-sails], a town 
of France. 

Mar'sU a people of Italy. 

Afarru'viuin or Marru'bium, 
San Benedetto, a town c^ 
Pice'num in Italy. 

Massce^syli, a division, and peo- 
ple of Numid'ia. 

Massil'ia, Marseilles [Mar- 
sails], a city of France. 

Massy li, a division and people 
of Numidia. 

iV/aMri/a'n/a,Moroccoand F^z. 

Mauriia'nia Caaariai'sis^ Al- 

Me'diay a country of Asia 
south of the Caspian sea. 

Mediola'ymm, Milan, the capi- 
tal of the In'subres. 

Mediterra'ntum ma're^ the 
Mediterranean sea. 

Mfgalo/i'olis» Leonar'di, a town 
of Arca'dia. 

Mfg'aris^ Meg'ara, a town of 
Greece Proper. 

Me'laa or Mel'unes «j'n?^s,Saros 
a gulf of Thrace. 

Mclibce'a, a town of Magne'sja, 
r» Thesftivly, 



Mel'itay Mal'ta [Molta], an isl- 
and in the Mediterranean sea, 

south of Sicily. 
Mditc'ncy Maia'ria, a city of 

Milosj Milo, one of the Cyc- 

Mem'jihis^ an ancient town of 

Mcna'iiiiy Tun'grii^ Dutch and 

Austrian Brab:\nt. 
yicsofiota'tnia, Diarbeck, the 

country between the Tigris 

and Euphra'tes. 
Messa'na^ Messi'na, one of the 

principal towns of Sicily. 
Mcsse'rif, Alavra-Matia, or 

M>iuraMatra, capital of Mes- 

^esse'ma, a division of Pelo- 

Messcm'acus sinus, gulf of Co- 

Mctapon'tum,^ town of Lucania 
Meta'ris, the Wash, an arm of 

the sea between Lir.colnshire 

and Norfolk in England, 
Mf'tau'ruf, Me'tro, a river of 

Um'bria in Italy. 
Mttho'ne, Modon, a town of 

Messe'nia ; also a town of 

Mii'-n, a city and duchy of 

Milc^tusy a city of lo'nia. 
Min'cius, ?«lincio, a branch c^ 

the river Po. 
Min'ius, Minho or Mingo, a 

river of (ialli'cia in Spain. 
Mityk'ne, capital of the island 

of Lesbos. 
Mobile [Mo-beer], a river of 

West Florida. 
J^fa'nus, Maine [Main], a river 

of Germany. 
Mds'ris,^ lake of ancient Egypt. 
McB'mt, a country south of the 

Molos'sisy a district of Epirus. 
Mo'na in'sulay the island of An? 

glesey, belonging to Wales. 
Mona'bia or Monce'da, the Isle 

of Man. 
Mono mo-tapa, a kingdom of 

Mon'te Video [Ve'deo], a town 

of South America. 
A/o'5a,Maese [Meese] »orMeuse 

[Mens], a river of Gal'lia 

Mosambique [Mc-zam-beck], 

a kingdom of Africa. 
Munich [Mu'nick], capital of 

Mu'tina, Mode\ia, a city ©f 

Gallia Cispada'na. 
Myca'le,^ promontory of Ionia. 
Mi/ce'ncB, a city of Ar'golis in 

Mygdo'nia, a district of Mace* 

My'ruy a town of Lyc'ia. 
Uys'ius a country of Asia Minor. 
.A/hr, NeVa, a river of Umbra. 
JVa r'ho Ma r'tius , Narbcnne' 

[Nar-bon'], a city of Langue- 

doc' HI France. 
MLrbone7i^sis.-a. division of Gaul. 
Aar';2?.fl,Nar'ni, a town of Um^- 

bria in Italy. 
Naryc'ia, a town of Greece. 
hlau'cratiM, a town of Lower 

A^aupac'tusy LepanHo, a town 

of ^^tr/lia. 
JVdufior'tus or ATiuflor^tiimyO' 

ber or Lay^'Oacli, a town of 

P»nnonia or Nor'icum. 
MtJ^'-ost Nax'ia, one of the 

JVeafi'clis, Naples, the capital 

city of Campa'nia. 
A^es'&us or J^eii^tus, Mesto, at 

riveF of Thrace, 



Neufehatel [Noo-shat-teli^], a 
town of Switzerland, and of 

Niagara [Ne-ar'-ga-ra], a riv- 
er, and celebrated falls in 
North America. 

A7ccp'a, Nice or Is- Nik, the 
capital of Bithyn'ia in Asia 

NicefNece], a country and city 
of Italy, a seaport of France, 
and a city of Asia Minor, cel- 
ebrated for the first general 
theolegical council which was 
held there, a.d. 325. 

Nicobar', an island in the bay 
of Bengal'. 

McopfoUs, Ke'nisat-a'soud, a 
city of Cilic'ia. 

JVicop! olisy a town ©f Thrace 
and of other places. 

Nieper[Ne'per],a river of Rus- 

Niester [Nees'ter], a river of 
Austrian Poland. 

Niger[Ni'jt?r],a river of Africa. 

JYiflusy Nile, a large river of 

J^Hnus or A1i>2'zVe,Nino,the cap- 
ital of the Assyr'ian empire. 

JVis'ibis^K city of Mesopota^mia. 

A^or'icumy Austria, a division of 

JSfo'vaCartha^go^ Carthage'na, 
a city of Mer'cia in Spain. 

MimaTi'na, a warlike city of 

JVumid'ia, Tu'nis, a country of 

(E^a[E^ta] Bani'na, a chain of 
mountains extending from 
Thermopylae to mount Pin- 

Oce'anust a common name sig- 
nifying ocean. 

Oce'anus Aquitan'icuSi the bay 
of Biscay. 

Oce'anm Britan^nicus^ihtWit'- 
ish Channel. 

Oce'anus German' icus, ♦he 
North sea. 

Oce^anus Occrdenta^'Iis, the 
Western or Atlantic ocean. 

Ocri'num, Land's End or Liz- 
ard P«)int. 

CE a, Trip^oli, a city of Africa. 

(E*-tay Bam'na, a mountain on 
the confines of Thessaly. 

Olisi/i\ Lisbon, the capital of 

Oiy»'/iiay Rofe'o, a town of 
E'Us in PeloponnfTsus. 

Olym'/iU8ymo\mt La'cha,on the 
confines of Thessaly. 

Olyn'ihus^ near Agioma^ma, a 
town ot Macedo'nia. 

Onoch^onui.a. river cf Thessaly, 

OfiMu^say FormenteVa, an isl- 
and south of Iv'ica in the 
Mediterranean sea. 

O/xon'tius si'?iU8^ a Bay of 
Greece Proper. 

Or' cades, the Orkney islands. 

Or'caSy Dungsby orDuncansby 
Head, the northerly point of 

Ordovi'ccs, Flintshire, Mont- 
gomery, &c. Also the pee* 
pie of North Wales. 

Ore'us^ Ori^o, atown of Eubcea. 

Or'icum^ a town of Epi'rus. 

Oron'tesy A'si, a river of Syr'ia. 

Ortyg'ia^ an island near Syra- 

0«'*a, a mountain of Thessaly. 

Os'tiay the ancient pert of Rome 
at the mouth of ihe Tiber. 

Ot'ahei'te, one of the Society 

OVAri/5, a mountain of Thes'- 

0/ /a ofe'w/, Northumberland and 
Durham . 

0-why-hee, one of the Sand- 
wich islands. 



Ojc'us, Glhon, a large river of 

Pachy'nus, Pas'saro, one of the 

capes of Sicily. 
PactoUus, a river of Lyd'ia, in 

Asia Aliiior. 
Pa'dus, Po, a large river in the 

norlh of Italy. 
PiCsia'Tius 5/?7Z^5.gulfof Slier no 
Pa^' rum or Posido^?iia,?GSti, a 

town of Liica 'nia. 
Pautnynay Palestine, or the 

Holy Lfinfl. 
Palinuruvfi, Palinu'ro, a cape 

of Lucania in Italy. 
Palmy'ra,T^{ymoY\?i city in the 

deserts of Syr'ia. 
Pabnyre'ne, ^Theu'demor or 

Tacrmor, a country east of 

Pa'aiSf a common name signi- 

M\w^ a pool, marsh, or stand- 

ijig water. 
Pamfs'us. a river of Thessa;y. 
PamfihyVia^ a country of Asia 

Panama [Pan-ar'-mah], capital 

of rerraFirma in S. America. 
Pa;2^^'2^.?, Casta '^nas[Cas-ta'- 

nas], a mountain of Thrace, 

Carnio'la, &c. an ancient di- 
vision of Europe. 
Pa,ior'mus^-d\^Vm^y the pres- 
ent capital of Sicily. 
Pahhlago'nia^ Pendera'chia, a 

country of Asia Minor. 
Pa'fihosy Ba'fo or Ba'fa, a city 

of Cyprus. 
Par ma y a city of Gallia Cispa- 

da^na in Italy. 
Parnas'susy Parnas'so, a cele- 
brated mountain of Pho'cis 

near Del'phi. 
Par'na or Pame'thusy Cash 'a, 

a motintain of At'tica abotmd- 

ik^ in verns« 

Pa'rosy one of the Cyclades in 

the Ege'an sea. 
Parrha'siusy a mountain of Ar- 

Par'thia, Irak- A' gem, a coun- 
try of Asia. 
Pas'saro, a town of Molos'sis in 

Pat'arciy Pat'era, the capital of 

Pdta^viwn, Pad^ua, a town of 

Venice in Italy. 
Pat'mos, Path'mos,an island in 

the Ege'an sea. 
Pausil'yfius^ Pausilip'po, a 

mouiitain near Naples. 
Pelas'gicus si'mis^ gulf of Vulo 

in Tliessaly. 
Pe^iion^TK. mountain of Thcssaly. 
Pd7a.Palati'«a, one of the prin- 
cipal towns of Macedo' nia. 
Pelolionne'susy More'a, the 

southeiTi p»rt of Greece. 
Peh'ris or Pch'rus, Pelo'ro or 

Terra del Faro, one of the 

capes of S'cily. 
Pelu'sium, Ti'nehorDamiet'ta 

a t«wn of E:^ypt. 
Pe'neus or /^c'?2e'a5, Belvidere, 

river and town of Elis in PcIq- 

PensacoMa, capital of West 

Pcntel'icusy a mountain of At'- 

PcfiareUhusy an island in the 

Egean sea. 
Perdi\lc[Per-de'-do],a river of 

West Florida. 
/>^r'^a,Ka'ra-hi'sar, a town of 

Pamphyria.'o/z>,Es'takar or Tehel- 

minar, the capital of Persia. 
Per^sicus sinus y Persian Gulf. 
pcsd'nusy Posse^ne, a town of 

Ptfj^snt and SmiWna, Persia, a 



(jountiy of Asia, 
Petet'ia, or PttiUia^ Strongoli, 

a town of Brutii. 
Pe'tra or ArcCy Krace, a town 

of Arabia Ptti se'a. 
Fha'ra or Pa'ran^ a city of 

Ara^bia Petrse'a. 
Pha'rob, a small island in the 

bay cf Alexandiia near the 

nnoiith of the Nile. 
Pharsa'iiaS^^ country or plains 

around Fnarsains. 
Pharsa'his, Far^sa, a city cf 

Pha'sisy FaV^z, a river and city 

of Col'chis. 
Phe'neus or Fhc'neoSy Pho'^nia, 

a city of Arcadia. 
/ViifVo'jPhe'rf s,a town ofThes- 

PhiladeVphia, A'lah-sher, or 

the beautiful city, in Lydia. 
Philili'pi.. a town ot Macedo'nia. 
Philipfitfi' ulisy Philippop'oli, a 

town of Thrace. 
PhiliitcE'a or Philia'tiay a dis- 
trict cf Syria. 
Pillions, Staph'lica, a town of 

Achc>^ia Proper. 
Phcc(e'a,Y(jQh\2iy a city of Ionia. 
Pho'cisy a division ot Greece 

Phceni'ciuj a part of Syria and 

Pho'lo-fy-A mountain of Arcadia. 
Phryg'ia, a country of Asia 

P/it/uo^tis [ThioHis], a part] of 

Pice'iium, a part of Pcpedcm 

in Italy. 
Pic'ti, Dumbarton, also a peo- 

pie of Scotland. 
Piedmcnt [Peed-e-mont'], a 

country of Italy. 
Pi^riay a district of Macedc'- 

Pii'mie^,2i Mack dwarfish peo- 

ple of Africa. 
Pini'pLi, a mountain of Boeotia. 
Pin dus^ a chain of mour.taiws 

between Macedonia 6c Thei- 

Pi'sa'[Pe'sa], a city cf Italy. 
Pi'sds, Pisa, a city of Tuscany 

in l^.aly. 
Pisa ti rum y Pes'aro, a tov;n ef 

Piscat .qua [Pis-cat'-a-v/ay], a 

river of JSew Hampshire. 
Pisid'ia, a country ' of Asia 

Pityu'fice, Ivica, an Island of 

Spam m the Mediterra^nean 

Placevtiay P'acen'za, a city of 

Piatcc'a, Cocla, a city of Boeo^- 

tic^, memorable for the defeat 

of the Persians undt r Mar- 

Poitcu [Poi-too^], a province of 


ta,a town cf Campania, which 

was overwhelmed by an 

earthquake a.d. 79, 
Pom'ficlon or Pam'fido^ Pam- 

pclu'na, capital of Navarre 

[Navar'J, in Spain. 
Pon'tus^ a common name sig- 
nify irig a sea, 
Pontus^ a country cf Asia Mi- 
Por'tus Her^cuHny or Libur'ni, 

Leghorn [Legon/], a city of 

Potidaa, afterwards'" 

dria^ Cassan'der, a town of 

Prunes' te^ Palestri'na, a city of 

Proccnne^i^usy Mar'mrra,an is- 
land in the Propor/tis. 
PrGmonto^rium ^acrnniy cape 

St. Vincent. 



ProfLon'tU^ Sea of Mar'mora. 
Pru'sa, Bur^sa, capital of Bi- 

tb], n'ia. 
Ftolema'is, [Tolema'is]»A'crT, 

a citv of Gai'ilec, and uf Up- 
per E!<\ pt. 
Pute'olU ruzzo'la, a city of 

C .mp;i'j>i:i. 
PycC'na^ or Cit'ron^ Kitro. a 

town tf ^''e'rfai i Macedonia, 
Py'luss Nav-.^in, a town of 

Messe'nia m P^ ^^pc>nne'sus. 
Pyre'ne Pyr&n^'ua ponsy the 

PvreiJtcs or Pyrt-ne'itn 

Mountains beiweenbpain and 

Qti sfmw [Ke-noy], a town of 

the F eixh Netlierlands. 
Qui'to [Ke'-to], a city arid au- 
dience or province of South 

Raleigh [RawHey], capital of 

N<»rth Carolina. 
Raven'?7a, a town of the Lin 

gones in Cisalpine Gaul. 
Rt'gio Sijr^tictL or Tripolita'nay 

an ancient country of Africa. 
JReg'niy ai\ ancient division of 

England containingSurry and 

Bhay Wolga, the largest river 

of Europe. 
Rham^nus a village of At'tica. 
Rh^^ria^ Bava'ria, a division of 

/Mf'^m^/Reg^gioor RegH a 

town of CalaT)riaon the strait 

of Messi'na. 
RhL-ims [Reems], a town tf 

Rhe'rMs, Rhine, a large river 

of Germany and Gaul. 
liho'day RoVs, a port town of 

Rhod'anus, Rhone, a large riv- 
er ^'f Ftance. 
R/y/dO'/ie, a range of moun- 
tains ia Thrace. 

Rho'dus, Rhodes fRoads], a 
large island in the Mediter- 
ranean sea. 
Ridu'na, Al'demey, an island 

in the English Channel. 
Rio-Jcinei'ro, [Re'oJane'ro], a 
river and rich province of 

Rochelle [Roshell'], a town of 

Rochf( rt [Rosh'fort], a town of 
France, and of the Nether- 

Roma, Rome, the capital of 
La'num, in Italy. 

Romn^'-na [Ro-ma^na], a prov- 
ince of Italy. 

i?w'df con, Rugo^ne or Fiumisi^no 
[Fmm'ise'nn],a river between 
Gal'haCisalpada'na andltaly. 

Rusica^de^ Sigiga'da, a town of 

Sab' a /'/ia,Sana'a, a city of Ara'- 
bi . Fe^iix. 

Sjbi'^'ana, the Bristol channel. 

Sabrina, Sev'ern, a large river 
of England. 

Saco [Saw'co], a town and riv- 
er in the district of Maine. 

iSflf^'t^nVzzm,MorviVdre or Mor- 
ve'dro, a town of Spain. 

Sa'iSy a town of Lower Eg^pt. 

Sal' amis y Colou'ri, an island of 

Saiomi^, Famagus'ta or Con- 
stan'za, a town of Cyprus. 

iS'a/(37^z2Sarpe,atown of Apu'- 
lia in Icaly. 

Salvador' [St] a town of Cong© 
in Africa. 

Sama'ra, Somme [Somm], a 
river of France. 

Samar'cand, a town of Usbec 

Sama\iaQV Stbaste, a district 
of Syria. 

Sam'niitm, a part of the King- 
dom ff N'^ples. 

Samoie'da£Sa-me-e^-da3 a large 



country of Russia, 

Sa'mos, an island in the Ege'an 
sea, opposite to Eph'esus. 

Samosa'ta, Se'misat, a city of 
Commage'ne in Sy'ria. 

Sa/des, Sart, the capital of 

Sar'diii'ia or.Var'rffl,Sardin'ia,an 
island in the Mediterranean, 

Sarma^tia, a part of Europe 
and Asia. 

Sar^'miay Guernsey, an island 
in the English channel. 

Samothra'cia or Samothra'cey 
Samolhra'ki, an island in the 
Ege'rn sea. 

Saron'icus simis, the gulf of 

Sax'onesy Saxony,a division and 
people of Germany. 

Scal'dis, Scheldt [Sk:eld],a riv- 
er of Bel'.s^ica. 

Sca7i'dia or Scandina'viay Nor- 
way and Sweden. 

Scau'di'la or Scandi'ley an island 
of Thes'saly. 

SchafF-hau'-sen, a town & can- 
ton of Switzerland. 

Scheldt, [Skeld^, a river of the 

Sci'athus, Skia'tho, an island 
in the Ege'an sea, 

Sco'ti^ Ross in Scotland; the 

Scritojin'ni, Lap'land and West 

Scylace'um or 6'c2/^aa2/wi,Squil'- 
lace, a town of Bru^tii. 

Scyla'cius si'iius, the gulf of 
Squil'lace, in the south of 

5c2//^<»'«w»,Skil'leo,a promonto- 
ry of Ar'golis. 

Scy'roSy SkyVo or Sy'ra, an isl- 
and in the Ege'an sea. 

Scyth^iOy northern parts of Eu- 
rope and Asia. 


SegesftOy a town of Sicily, and 

of Panno'nia. 
Segov'tium, Caarnarvon in 

North Wales. 
Sego^via, a city of Old Castile 

in Spain. 
Seleu'cia^ Eu'shar, a city of Pi- 

sid'ia, and of other places. 
Seleu^sisy Syr'ia Proper. 
Senegal [Senegal^], a kingdom 

of Negroland m Africa. 
Se'nia or Seg'ma, a town of 

Libur'nia in Illyr'icum. 
Senna'ar or Sen'nar, a king- 
dom of Nubia in Africa. 
SenuSy Shannon, the largest ri- 
ver of Ireland. 
Seq'iixmay Seine [Seen], ^, large 

river of France. 
Seriphus or Seri'phos, Ser'php, 

one of the Cyc'lade^. 
Ses'tosy Zenvenic, a town of 

Thrace on the Hellespont, 

opposite Aby'dos. 
Sib'aris or Syb'aris^ a city of 

Sicn'nia ov SicWia, Sicily. 
Sic^yoTiy Basyl'ico, an ancient 

city of Acha'ia Proper. 
Sicyo^ nitty a division of Pe]o- 

Si'do7iy Seide or Zaide, a city 

of Phceni'cia. 
Silures, a part of south Wales, 
Sier'ra [Se-er'-ra] Leo'ne, a 

river and fort of Africa. 
Slme'ni or Ice'niy Norfolk, Suf- 
Si^n^y Chinese Tartary. 
Si'naiy a mountain of Arabia 

near the northern part of the 

Red sea. 
Sin'diiSy Sin'thusy or Iti'dus^ 

Sind or Sinde, a celebrated 

river of Asia, 
Sino'pe, SiVkub^ a city of Paph- 




SifiUB, a common name signi. 
fy in jj;- bay or strait. 

Sirenii'sje in'suloe, islands of the 
S/rens on the coast of Italy. 

Sir^tniurn, capital of Panno'nia. 

Smyrna^ Ismir, a city of Ionia. 

Solitudi'iies, Za'ara or the 
Great Desert in Africa. 

Sparta, Pa'leo-Cho'ri, a city 
of Laceds'mon. 

Sper'chius or Sperche'us, a riv- 
er of Thes'saly. 

Spoletiumi Spole'to, a town of 

Stack' ades, Hieres, five small 
islands on the coast of Mar- 

Sta^i'ra, Stau'ro?, a town of 
Chalcid'ic^ in Macedonia. 

St. Croix [Croy], a river be- 
tween the District of Maine 
and New Brunswick. 

Sira'tiis, a city of iEto'lia. 

Strom'boli, one of the Lip'ari 
islands near Sicily. 

Strophfadesy Strofa'dia or Stri- 
vali, two small islands in the 
lo'nian sea. 

Strymon, Jem'boli or Jam'boli, 
a river of Macedo'nia. 

Strymon'icus sfnusy the gulf 
of Contes'sa. 

Stymphaflus, a town,river,lake, 
and fountain of ArcaMia. 

Sue'viy a people of Germany. 

Sue'vicum mare or Coda'nus 
si'nus, the Baltic sea. 

Suio'nes, Sweden Proper. 

SuVmoy Sulmo'na, a town of 
Um'bria in Italy- 

5rM'sa,S lister or Tus'ter,capital 
of Susia\ia. 

Susia'na, Susis'tan or Persia, a 
country of Asia. 

Sy-e'ne, As'suan, a city of Up- 
per Egypt of the Nile. 

Syracu'eeei Syracuse, *^he an* 
cient capital of Sicily. 

Syr'ia, PaKestlne or Jude'a. 
Tab'raca^ a town of Numid^ia 

in Africa. 
Tan^arusy Mat'apan, the south- 
ern cape of Greece. 
Ta!gm, Tajo, a river of Port- 
Tajno'sisy Thames [Tames], 

the largest river of Britain. 
Taiiag-er or Tan'agrusy Negro, 

a river of Luca'nia. 
Tanagray Scami'no, a town of 

Tan'a-is, Don, a river of Scyth'. 

ia between Europe and Asia. 
Tiire?i'tum, Taren'to, a city of 

Tarenti'nus siniis, gulf of Ta- 
Tarraco7i€n'sisy Navarre (Na- 

var') and Catalo'nia. 
Tavraco, Tarrago'na, a towa 

of Spain. 
Tar'siis, Tar-sous or Teras'so, 

capital of Cili'cia. 
Taiiri'iiiy people ofGalliaTrans- 

pada'na at the foot oftheAlps. 
Taurino'riim Augus'ta, Turin, 

a city of Italy. 
Tau'nis, an extensive range of 

mountains in Asia. 
Ta'vimn or Ta^via, Tchoro'um 
[Choro'um],a city of Galatia. 
Tayg*etiis{T2i''i^Q,\.u.s~\y2L moun- 

tain of Laco'nia. 
TeWmnn, Civita'te, an inland 

town of Apulia. 
Te-a^mim, Tia'no, an inland 

town ot Campania. 
Tegce'ay Mok'lia, a town of Ar- 

Tem'p^y a pleasant vale of Thes- 

Ten'edos, Sin island in the Ege'« 
an sea on the coast of Tro'as. 
Tergeste, Trieste [Tre-est'J> 

the chief town ofls'tria. 



Tevgesti'nus si'nus^ gulf of Tri- 
TeritKe^tis si^nm, gulf of St.Eu- 

Thaf/sacus, El-der or Por^to, 

Cate'na, a city on the con- 
fines of Syr'ia and Arabia, 

on the Euphra'tes. 
ThapsiiSy% city of AfricaProper. 
Tha^soSi Thap^so, an island in 

the Ege'an sea, 
The'bcs or The'be, Thebes 

[Th^^ebs] or Thiva, ca])ital of 

BcBotia;also a city of Egypt, 
Ther\na, afterwards Thessalo- 

ni'ca, Salon'ichi, a city of 

Therma'icus si^nuSi the gulf of 

Salon'ichi or ThessaloniVa. 
Thermop- yl<s y a celebrated />a5S 

between Greece Proper and 

Ther'rmiSf a town of iEtoHia. 
Thespru^tia^ a districtof Epirus. 
Thessa'Ua, Janna, Thessaly, a 

country of Greece. 
Thibet[Ti^-bet], a country of 

Thra'csat Romahiai, RumeHia, 

or Thrace, a large country 

in the east of Europe. 
Thrasyme'nus, Peru^gia, a lake 

in Etruria. 
Thv>»le, the Shetland and Ork- 

ney islands. 
Thyati^ra, Akhi^sar, a city of 

Tibe'riasy a lake and town of 

Ti'bcris, Teve're or Tiber, a 

celebrated river of Italy. 
Tib\ry Tivoli, a town of Lati- 

urn on the river of An'io. 
Tici'num^ Pa'via, a town of 

GalMia Cisalpi^na in Italy. 
Tidf nus, Tt^md, a river of Italy. 
Tigranocer'ta, Se'red, a city 

of Armenia Major. 

Ti^gris, Basilin^sa or Bere^ma# 
a large river of Asia. 

&c.or a people of theHelve'tii. 

TiWgtSi Tangier, a port town 
of Moroc^co. 

Tole'tuniy Tole*do, the capital 
of New Castile in Spain. 

Tolo'sa, TouHouse[Too-louse^], 
a town of France. 

Toin'ariis, Tomerir, a moun- 
tain of Thespro'tia in Epirus. 

Torona'icus sinus, the gulf of 

TooM'nfdri, Antwerp, or a peo« 
pie of Gallia Belg'ica. 

Trapezius, Treb'izond, a city 
of Pontus in Asia Minor. 

Trebi^a, TreVi, a town of Um- 
bria in Italy. 

Tres [Trees] Taber'na, the 3 
Taverns, a place on the via 
Ap^pia, or Ap'pian Way. 

Tridca Trica'la, a town of 

Triden'tumy Trent, a city of 
the Rse'ti in Italy, famous 
for the ecclesiastical council, 
which sat tliere 18 years to 
regulate the afl'airs of the 
Church, A. D. 1545. 

Trieste [Tre-est'], a town in 
Carnio'Iaon the gulf of Ven« 
ice [Yen'is]. 

Trincoma'le, a seaport town of 
the island of Ceylon. 

Trijioban'teSf Middlesex and 
Essex in England. 

Tvip'oHa, Trip'oli, a city of 
l^senicia, & of other places. 

Tripolita'nay Trip'oli, a divis- 
ion of Africa. 

Tro'asy Troy, a celebrated 
country of Asia Minor. 

Trcszen or Trceze^ne, Damaila 
a city of Ar'golis. 

Troglod'ytesy an ancient sav- 
age people of Ethio'pia. 



Troja or Ilhrn, Troy, capital of 

Truen'tiiSy Tron^to, a river of 

Picenum in Italy. 
7uJ>lium,ToM\^^ town of France. 
Tu'neSj Tu)iis, a place about 

fifteen miles from old Garth - 

ag^e, in Africa. 
Tus'culnm, Fresca'ti, a city of 

Tus'cu?n, Try-rhe'7mm, or lu" 

feriwi ma're, the Mediterra. 

nean sea west of Italy, 
T/ruSf Neister [Nees'ter], a 

river of Europe, which runs 

into the Euxine sea. 
Ty'rusy Tyre, called also in the 

east, Sur or Sour, a city of 

Ulia'rus, Ol'eron, an island on 

the coast of France. 
Um'briay a division of Italy, 

now a part of Popedom. 
XJrbi'mimy Urbino, a town of 

U'rius sums, gulf of Manfre- 

do'nia in Italy. 
U^tlcUySsit' cor, a city of Africa 

Utrecht [U-trate], a city of the 

Uxan'tis, Ushant^, a small isl- 
and on the coast of France. 
Valenciennes [V^al-]en-seen], a 

town of France. 
Valen'tia, A'alen'cia, a to^vn of 

France, of Spain,and of Italy. 
Vec'tis, the Isle of Wight. 
Vectiirio'nesy Edinburgh ; or a 

people of Scotland. 
Veil' mis, Ver/no, a river of It- 
aly, which runs Irito the Nur. 
Venfetiy a people of Brittany 

in France. 
Ven^etus la'cus, Boden-sea or 

Lake of Constance. 
Ven'ta Bel^a'rum, Winchester 

in England. 
Venu'sia, Veno'sa, a town of A* 

pu'iia in Italy, the birth place 

of Horace. 
Verba'nus lacus, Magg-iore or 

Locai-'no, a lake of Italy. 
Vergi'nUum or Verginum mcifre^ 

the Irish sea or St. George's 

Vero'na, a town of the Ceno- 

man'ni in Cisalpine Gaul. 
Vesu'vius, Mon'te Vesu'vio, a 

volcanic mountain in Italy. 
Via'der or Via'drus, the river 

O'der, in Germany. 
Vien'na, Vienne' [Ve-er.n'], a 

City of Dau'phiiie in France. 
Vinda'na, Venues, a seaport 

town of Brittany in Gaul. 
Vincennes [V'm-sens'j, capital 

of Indiana Territory. 
Vindelidiay Su; bia [Swa'bia], a 

country of Europe, 
^^?^<i'^7^s,' Belle Isle, an island 

between Gaul and Britain. 
Visuv\^i8, the Weser, a river 

of Germany. 
Vultw^iiusy Vultur'no, a river 

ofCompania in Italy. 
Xaii'thus or Seaman' der, a river 

of Troas. 
Xan'tlni-s Ekseni'de, the chief 

city of Lycia in Asia Minor. 
Zacy7i'thusy Zant, an island of 

Greece in the Ionian sea. 
Za'via^ a town of Numidia,near 

which Hannibal was Tan* 

quished by Scipio. 



Since the publication of the first edition ot this work 
sevei j.i changes of considerable importance have taken 
place in the political division of the world. These 
changes have not been noticed from time to time on ac- 
count of the inconvenience which the alteration would 
occasio'i to students in classes and to instructers. It has 
however been thought expedient to notice in this place 
some of the principal changes. 


At page tenth is a table of the states included under 
the government of the United States. Several new 
states have, within a few years, been admitted to the 

The following is a list of the present states and terri- 

Eastern states, C New Hampshire, Vermont, 

or < Maine,* > Connecticut, 

New England. (^ Massachusetts, 5 Rhode Island. 

Middle states. 

5 New York, Pennsylvania, 

I New Jersey, Delaware. 

r Maryland, South Carolina, 

South'n states. < Virginia, Georgid 

(^ North Carolina, Colombia, District. 
rOhio, Tennessee, 

West'n states. \ V};}'^"}^^ Mississippi, 

1 Ilhnois, Alabama, 

(.Kentucky, Louisiana. 

* Maine has. with the consent of Massachusetts, formed a 
constitution of government, but is not yet admitted into the 
Union by Congress as an independent state. 


Territories. ^ ^J'^^^^^^' Arkansas. 

I Missouri,* 
The number of states which now form the Union, 
exclusive of Maine and Missouri, is 22. 


The Netherlands, The countries described pages 75 
to 77 under the heads ot Holland and Austiian and 
French Netherlands, constitute the kinirdom of the 
Netherlands. The late Prince of Orange is at its head 
wiih the title of king The residence of the court and 
governraent is alternately at the Hague aiid at Brussels. 
The government is a limited monarchy, and the legisla- 
tive power is vested in an assembly of States General, 
consisting of an hereditaiy and an elective branch. The 
population of the kingdom is 5,226,000. 

Germany, The political constitution of Germany 
has been entirely new modelled. This part of Europe 
is divided between thirty eight distinct governments, all 
of which are independent of one another for the pur- 
poses of internal police, but are bound together by an 
act of ronfederation by virtue of which a perpetual Diet 
is holden at Frankfort on the Mayne, consisting of am- 
bassadors from the several States. At this Diet the 
emperor of Austria and the kings of Prussia, Great 
Britain, Denmark, and the Netherlands, are represented 
for that portion of their respective dominions which 
formed a part of the late empire of Germany, and the 
ambassadors of the most powerful of these sovereigns 
have a leading influence at the Diet. The present pop- 
ulation of Germany is about 30 millions. 

France^ consisting of the provinces which belonged to 
the kingdom before the revolution, is divided into 86 de- 
partments. Its government is a hereditary monarchy 
under a constitution which was given to the kingdom on 

• Missouri has the population necessary to entitle it to be- 
come a state, and the question of its admission has been for 
sometime pending in Congress. 


the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty, in 1814. It has 
a legislative body, consibting of a house of peers, the 
members of which are hereditary ; and a house of dele- 
gates, the members of which are elected at the end of 
every live years by the departments. The present pop- 
ulaiion is about 29 millions. 

Switzerland at present consists of 22 cantons, which 
have distinct governments, but are uniied together by a 
general co £ deration, and Save a general Diet. They 
have entered into a treaty v/ith the leading powers of 
Europe, by which their independence is acknowledged, 
and their neutrality, in case of future wars, is guarantied. 
The population ot the 22 cantons, in which is included 
ail the country which has ever formed a part of Swit- 
zerland, is 1,720,000. 

Italy is at present divided between eight independent 
states, besides Lombardy and Venice, which belmg to 
the empire of Austria, but are under a distinct adminis- 
tration. Piedmont, Savoy, the ancient Republic of Gen- 
oa, and the island of Sardinia, constitute the kingdom 
of Sardinia. The ancient Duchy of Tuscany, which for 
some years formed the kh)gdom of Eiiuria, constitutes 
the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Beside these states, 
there are now in Italy the Duchy of Modena, the Duchy 
of Parma and Placentia, the Duchy of Lucca, the States 
of the Church, the kingdom of the two Sicilies, including 
Naples and the island of Sicily, and the little republic 
of San Marino. These different states have, of course, 
different forms of government. The population is about 
1 1 millions. 'i 



published by 


at the 


First Lessons in Geography and Astronomy, with seven maps 
and a view c.f the Solar System, for the use of Young Children. 
By J. A. Cumming's. 

Cimimintrs' Questions on the historical part of tlie New Tes- 
tiiment, with four maps, for Sabbath exercises in schools and 
families. Third edition. 

Cum:nings' Ancient and Mode n Geo.^raphy, with eig-ht Mod- 
ern and four Ancient maps. (Ij^This Geography is now ?i;5e'' ia 
the exaniination of Scholars for admission into Harvard College 
in Ca'nbr dj^e, and as a Class Book at Bowdoin, and several 
other Colleges in the U. States. Seventh edition. 

"Nf^w Testament, with an introduction, giving an Account of 
Jewish and other sects ; — with Notes, four maps, and the Proper 
Names correctly accented accordim^ to Walker. By J. A. C. 

Bishop Watson's Address to Young Persons. Second edition. 

Anciei t and Modern Atlas, containing 8 Modern and 13 An- 
cient M;ips, pubh hed by Cummings & Hilliard. 

Biibington's Prac^cal View of Christian Education, in its 
Earliest Stages, Secimd American edition 

Repentance explained ^nd enf <rced ; being a Serious Appeal 
to every man's conscience, on its Nature, Necessity, and Eviden- 
ces By J, Thornton. 

A New Pronouncing Spelling Book, in which the sound of 
every syllable is simply and accurttttly ronveyed, accortiing to 
Walker's pronunciation, and adapted to every capacity. By J, 
A. Cunimlngs. 

Collectanea Graeca Majora, in 2 vols 3d Cambridge edit. 

C dlectanea Gi.ieca Minora. 4th Cambridge edit. 

Valpy's Cr tk Grammar, with Notes and an Explanation of 
Gr mmH'iical Terms. • OC?i-P<jr^ exMmin;tion in this Grammar 
scholars are admitted into Harvard University, Cambridge. 

V.dpy's Greek Delectus for tJie use of beg-inners, with Notes 
and a Lex con, designed to render the Intr.'duction to the Greek 
Languages as easy a«- possJbif. 

(X^'Cumminys Sc Miruard ure engigod in '^xtensive publica- 
tions of classical i.nd <c':ooi b'.oks -jf Uie most approved char- 
acter. Orde.s from publx tec-chers of colleges, ac;idemies and 
scho' Is, in all parts of ihe United States, will be promptly 
executed on lh»^ mo^^t reasonable terms ; and hooks and station, 
ary shipped to any part of the country wiicrever ordered.